HOW TO AVOID CONTRACTING A DISEASE FROM A BLOODBORNE PATHOGEN
BLOODBORNE PATHOGENS EXPOSURE CONTROL PROCEDURES)
pathogens are microscopic organisms, which cause disease and are
found in and transmitted through human blood. The most known
Bloodborne pathogens are Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Human
Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).
HBV is a
virus that causes the disease, Hepatitis B. Hepatitis B is a
serious public health problem that affects people of all ages in
the United States and around the world. Each year, more than
300,000 persons get Hepatitis B in the United States. The
disease can lead to severe illness, liver damage, and in some
HCV is a
virus that causes the disease, Hepatitis C. This virus is being
identified more frequently and there is no vaccination at this
HIV is a
virus that eventually develops into a disease called Acquired
Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDs). HIV is a relatively recent
public health problem that has become increasingly more
prominent among people in the United States and around the
world. Approximately 750,000 Americans have AIDs.
the immune system making those infected with the virus extremely
susceptible to other diseases. Because there is no cure for
AIDs, the virus continues to attack the immune system until
another disease or condition causes death.
HIV and HBV
are considered the most threatening of the Bloodborne pathogens
because they are the most common, and they are easily
transmitted through small amounts of blood or other body
The City of
Spokane recognizes that many employees are at risk of infection
by the more common Bloodborne pathogens, especially HBV and
HIV. These Bloodborne pathogens can live in and be transmitted
through blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and unfixed human
tissue. Transmission usually occurs when the materials
mentioned above come in contact with a person’s bloodstream
through a needle stick, a cut, or a break in the skin. Some
city employees perform duties that require them to come in
contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials.
Because these employees can reasonably anticipate such contact,
they are considered “occupationally exposed.” And, under
WISHA’s Bloodborne Pathogen Standard, these designated
employees must go through special training and follow certain
procedures to prevent infection from Bloodborne pathogens.
Bloodborne Pathogens Exposure Control Plan endorses such
procedures and provides specialized training as required by the
Bloodborne Pathogen Standard, WAC 296-823, found in the
Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act (WISHA).
Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Control Plan is designed to
prevent exposure to Bloodborne pathogens by establishing
preventive practices that should be used when working around
blood or other potentially infectious materials. Remember that
HBV, Hepatitis B, is the only Bloodborne pathogen with a vaccine
at this time. Components of this program are appropriate for
all employees to prevent exposure.
The plan has
been put in place to reduce your risk of exposure to Bloodborne
pathogens by with the following activities:
list of employees with occupational exposure to blood or other
potentially infectious materials
Hepatitis B vaccine available to all employees with occupational
employees on methods for preventing exposure to Bloodborne
necessary personal protective equipment and training in proper
records on employee vaccinations and training as it relates to
medical treatment when employees become exposed to blood or
other potentially infectious materials.
Investigating blood and body fluid exposure incidents.
following chapter clarifies the responsibilities of both
supervisors and employees in implementing the City’s
Bloodborne Pathogens Exposure Control Plan and complying
with WISHA’s Bloodborne Pathogen Standard.
Note: Copies of the City’s Written Bloodborne Pathogen
Exposure Control Plan are available at
www.spokanerisk.org and are on file in the
Risk Management office. WISHA’s Bloodborne Pathogen
Standard (WAC 296-823) is available at
Who participates in the City’s Bloodborne Pathogens Exposure
The City’s Bloodborne Pathogens Exposure Control Plan is
designed to protect employees who can reasonably anticipate
being exposed to blood and other potentially infectious
materials during work. Therefore, all employees with
occupational exposure must be enrolled in the City’s plan.
Employees with occupational exposure include, but are not
limited to, custodians, firefighters, police, police property
clerks, code enforcement workers, refuse collectors, paramedics,
hazardous waste technicians, and parks and recreation workers.
Communication, engineering controls and personal protection
tools are available to all employees whether in the program or
not, to minimize accidental exposure
Note: A complete list of employee classifications which are
required to enroll in the City’s “Bloodborne Pathogens
Exposure Control Plan” can be found in this manual’s
some of the methods used to prevent infection from Bloodborne
several methods for preventing infections from Bloodborne
pathogens. The City encourages every employee (even those
employees who are not enrolled in the Bloodborne Pathogen
Exposure Control Plan) to use these methods when
encountering blood or other potentially infectious materials.
Methods for preventing infections from Bloodborne pathogens
precautions” are methods that control exposure to Bloodborne
pathogens by treating all human blood, body fluids, detached
tissue and other potentially infectious materials as if they
were infected with HIV, HBV, or another Bloodborne disease.
The use of
universal precautions is the most important measure one can take
to control the transmission of HBV, HIV, and other Bloodborne
diseases. Because of this, the City’s Bloodborne Pathogens
Exposure Control Plan requires employees to treat all blood
and other potentially infectious materials as if they were
Universal precautions must be observed to prevent contact with
infected blood or other potentially infectious materials.
Because it is difficult to tell the difference between blood and
other potentially infectious materials, all body fluids should
be considered potentially infectious.
engineering controls and how do they control Bloodborne
The use of
engineering controls is another important measure one can take
to control the transmission of HBV, HIV, and other Bloodborne
diseases. Engineering controls use special technologies to
isolate or remove hazards from the worker. Examples of
engineering controls include puncture resistant containers for
needles and broken glass (sharps), splashguards, and
of engineering controls does the City require, and how should
employees use them?
The use of
color-coded containers is one of the major controls the City
requires to prevent employee exposure to Bloodborne pathogens.
The City uses these color-coded containers in a number of
departments to collect, handle, and store contaminated clothing,
equipment, and waste.
containers used for holding potentially infectious sharps (used
needles, contaminated pieces of glass, etc.) must be puncture
resistant, leak proof, and appropriately labeled and color-coded
as a “biohazard.”
used for holding other potentially infectious materials (human
tissue, contaminated laundry, used condoms, etc.) do not need to
be puncture resistant. However, they still must be labeled and
color-coded as a “biohazard.”
handle potentially infectious materials, you must place those
materials in the appropriate color-coded container immediately
after use. If the outside of a container becomes contaminated,
the container must be placed within a second protective
Note: All department first aid kits should be equipped with
“spill clean up kits”. Biohazard bags both small and large
can also be ordered through a first aid supplier.
What kind of
sharps container should I provide?
selecting an appropriate sharps container can be found at
If you are unsure or unable to access this website, contact your
work practice controls?
practice controls are alterations in the way tasks are performed
to reduce your potential for exposure to blood or other
potentially infectious materials. A good example of a work
practice control that reduces your chances of becoming exposed
is correctly removing your gloves and washing your hands
immediately after coming in contact with body fluids.
of work practice controls does the City require, and how should
employees use them?
Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Control Plan requires City
employees to use several work practice controls to minimize
exposure to Bloodborne pathogens.
is an important practice. Most City departments have
hand-washing facilities that are readily accessible to
employees. Employees working in departments with hand washing
facilities should wash their hands and other exposed skin with
non-abrasive soap and water as soon as they come in contact with
any blood or other potentially infectious materials.
Mucous membrane (eyes, nose, mouth) may also become exposed to
potentially infectious materials. When eyes are affected, eye
wash facilities or clean water should be used to rinse the
eyes. If eye wash facilities are not available, use
hand-washing facilities. When rinsing mucous membrane, do not
use soap. Simply flush the area with clean, cool water.
When it is
not feasible to have a hand and/or eye washing facility at a
work site, supervisors shall provide employees with a waterless
antiseptic hand cleanser containing 60 to 95 % alcohol, and
portable eyewash solution. Those employees who use antiseptic
hand cleansers must also use soap and water as soon as they are
is another important work practice that minimizes exposure to
Bloodborne pathogens. Equipment and work areas contaminated
with blood or other potentially infectious materials must be
decontaminated unless decontamination is not feasible. When
contaminated equipment and/or work areas have not been
decontaminated, the supervisor shall notify all affected
employees so appropriate precautions can be taken.
employees from being unknowingly exposed to potentially
infectious materials, all departments with equipment or work
areas that can reasonably anticipate becoming contaminated with
blood or other potentially infectious materials must develop and
implement a written schedule for cleaning and decontaminating
those work areas and equipment. Cleaning and decontamination
methods must be reasonable based on the location and condition
of the work area or equipment, types of surfaces to be cleaned,
and tasks and procedures being performed.
or potentially infectious materials are introduced to a work
area, all equipment and working surfaces in that area must be
cleaned and decontaminated immediately. Pieces of broken
glass or sharp objects should be cleaned up with a brush and
dustpan. Never use your bare hands. Decontamination can be
achieved using a freshly prepared solution of household bleach
diluted 1:10 parts with water. Gloves should be worn during the
decontamination process to protect hands from contamination and
waste shall be disposed of in the color-coded containers labeled
“biohazard.” Non-disposable items such as linen, mop heads, and
other equipment must be placed in a 10% chlorine bleach solution
for 20 minutes.
Note: Employees must always wear protective rubber gloves
when handling and washing contaminated items. Double
gloving is recommended.
can also hold Bloodborne pathogens. Therefore, contaminated
laundry must be handled as little as possible. If you must
handle contaminated laundry, there are special procedures you
important, always wear gloves when handling contaminated
laundry. Secondly, when work clothes, towels, or any other
laundry items become contaminated, they must be placed in bags
or containers at the location where they became contaminated.
All bags or containers holding contaminated laundry must be
labeled or color-coded “biohazard.” Furthermore, laundry cannot
be sorted or rinsed at the location of use. If laundry is
soaked and looks like it may leak, it must be placed in leak
proof bags or containers labeled or color-coded “biohazard.”
contained, someone wearing protective gloves can transport
contaminated laundry. Remember, always label or color-code
contaminated laundry with the biohazard label before shipping it
off-site to a second facility.
some other work practices that minimize employee exposure to
and other personal items
can become infectious when they come in contact with a
Bloodborne pathogen. Consequently, you should never eat, drink,
apply cosmetics or lip balm, smoke, or handle contact lenses in
work areas where blood or other potentially infectious materials
are present. Similarly, you should never keep food or drink in
or on refrigerators, freezers, shelves, cabinets, countertops,
or anything else in these work areas. When outside these work
areas, all employees should wash their hands with soap and hot
water or an antiseptic hand cleanser before eating, smoking, or
handling contact lenses.
blood and other potentially infectious body fluids
presents the highest risk for infection by Bloodborne
pathogens. Public safety workers like firefighters, emergency
response staff, and police can come in contact with blood or
other potentially infectious materials as part of their everyday
work duties. If you must work with blood or any other
potentially infectious material, you can reduce your chances of
becoming exposed to a Bloodborne pathogen by using procedures
which minimize splashing, spraying, spattering, and the
generation of droplets.
present a high risk for infection by Bloodborne pathogens.
Needles can transmit infected blood to otherwise healthy
employees through accidental needle sticks. Some employees are
included in the City’s Bloodborne Pathogens Exposure Control
Plan simply because their jobs require them to perform
duties which put them at risk for an accidental needle sticks.
Firefighters and emergency response staff work with needles on a
regular basis to provide citizens with emergency medical
treatment. Refuse collectors and janitors transport and handle
needles within the waste stream (usually unknowingly). Other
employees may run into needles in the public places where they
there is such a high risk of infection from accidental needle
sticks, all employees who can reasonably anticipate coming in
contact with or using needles while performing their duties must
take special precautions. For example, do not bend, break, cut,
recap or remove a contaminated needle from its syringe.
Qualified emergency response staff may bend, recap, or remove a
needle when no alternative is feasible or a specific medical
procedure requires it. However, such recapping or needle
removal must be done using a mechanical device or a one-handed
cautious of needles when handling waste. All garbage bags and
other containers should be transported on a cart, if heavy, or
with your arms extended out and away from your body, if light.
Needles can easily penetrate bags and stick you.
discover a used needle, do not pick the needle or its syringe up
with your hands. Instead use gloves, a broom, and a dustpan to
sweep the needle up. Then, drop the needle into a container
that is puncture-resistant, leak-proof, and labeled as a
biohazard. Finally, throw the container away.
waste that contains bloodborne pathogens may be disposed of in
the solid waste stream after being appropriately bagged
or put into puncture and leak proof plastic containers with the
bio-waste hazard markings. (A sharps container.) This includes
first-aid waste, general public waste, and waste generated as
the result of an industrial accident.
such as clinics or paramedics who generate medical sharps such
as hypodermic needles or lancets should collect sharps in a
sharps container. Sharps containers may be disposed of through
a service or safely transported with the sharps container in a
leak-proof bag to the North Side Land Fill. The Disposal fee is
personal protective equipment minimize my exposure to Bloodborne
protective equipment minimizes your exposure to Bloodborne
pathogens by separating you from potentially infectious blood or
other materials. Personal protective equipment includes, but is
not limited to, gloves, gowns, lab coats, fluid-resistant
aprons, head and foot coverings, face shields or masks, eye
protection, mouthpieces, and ventilation devices.
responsible for the proper use, maintenance, and storage of
personal protection equipment?
supervisors are responsible for ensuring that appropriate
personal protection equipment is provided and properly used.
Employees using personal protection equipment are responsible
for the proper operation, maintenance, and storage of personal
protection equipment. Because of this, both supervisors and
employees must be familiar with the techniques and procedures
used to operate, maintain, and store personal protection
What am I
responsible for regarding the use, maintenance, and storage of
personal protection equipment?
As part of
the City’s Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Control Plan, all
occupationally exposed employees must do the following:
Complete training on personal protective equipment and become
knowledgeable on how personal protection equipment is used to
Make sure personal protection equipment fits and does not cause
When garments or personal protective equipment become penetrated
by blood or other potentially infectious materials, remove the
exposed items immediately at the work area
After removing exposed garments and personal protective
equipment, place the items in a bag or container labeled
“biohazard” for storage, washing, decontamination, or disposal
Wear gloves whenever there is a possibility that your hands may
come in contact with blood or other potentially infectious
dispose single use gloves immediately after use
Decontaminate multiple-use utility gloves for re-use only if
they can still function as a barrier between you and any blood
or other potentially infectious material
Wear masks and eye protection devices such as goggles, glasses
with solid side shields, or chin-length face shields whenever
splashes, spray, spatter or droplets of blood or other
potentially infectious materials might contaminate the eyes,
nose, or mouth
Wear protective clothing such as gowns, aprons, lab coats,
clinic jackets, or similar outer garments whenever there is a
high potential for exposure to blood or other potentially
Wear surgical caps, hoods, or shoe covers whenever there is a
high potential for exposure to blood or other potentially
Note: Decisions about what types of personal protective
equipment to use for a particular job must be based on the
conditions of the work environment and the likelihood for
exposure. If there is any doubts about what types of
personal protection equipment should be worn, employees
should contact their supervisor. If the supervisor has
doubts, he or she should contact the Safety Coordinator.
supervisors responsible for regarding the use, maintenance, and
storage of personal protection equipment?
As part of
the City’s Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Control Plan,
supervisors will be responsible for the following duties:
Becoming trained on how personal protection equipment is used to
Providing, at no cost to the employee, all “appropriate”
personal protective equipment necessary to prevent infection
Note: Personal protective equipment will be considered
“appropriate” only if it does not permit blood or other
potentially infectious materials to reach an employee’s
skin, eyes, mouth, or other mucous membranes.
Ensuring that appropriate personal protection equipment is
available to all employees including those employees who have
allergies or other conditions which may prevent them from using
common types of personal protective equipment (powdered latex
gloves, one-size-fits-all face masks and shields, etc.)
Designating areas and providing containers where exposed
personal protection equipment can be stored, washed,
decontaminated, and disposed.
Enforcing the proper use of personal protection equipment
(except when it prevents the delivery of health care or poses a
greater risk than not using it)
Making arrangements for cleaning or disposal of personal
protection equipment when it is penetrated by blood or other
potentially infectious materials, at no cost to the employee
Making arrangements for the repair or replacement of personal
protection equipment when needed, at no cost to the employee
kits must be equipped with mouth guards and gloves
containers must be routinely replaced, and not allowed to over
Department have to maintain their own Exposure Control Plan and
how often do we need to do that?
document is the “basic” exposure control plan for the City.
However, if your department has regular contact with BBP such as
Police or Fire, there should be a more specific control plan
that is reviewed with your policies and procedures annually.
review, you must make sure the exposure control plan reflects
changes in technology that would reduce or eliminate exposure;
Document annual consideration and implementation of commercially
available safer medical devices; and include provisions for
employees to take part in the identification, evaluation and
selection of engineering controls and work practices as they
would apply to BBP exposures.
Where is our
“Needle Stick Log?”
Management will maintain a “contaminated sharps injury log” and
distribute it to the City Wide Safety Committee and effected
departments annually to aid in reviewing the engineering
controls and work practices. A copy of the master log may be
requested at any time throughout the year from Risk Management.
What is the
Safety Coordinator responsible for concerning the use,
maintenance, and storage of personal protection equipment?
As part of
the City’s Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Control Plan, the Safety
Coordinator will be responsible for the following duties:
Training supervisors and employees on how personal protection
equipment is used to prevent infections from Bloodborne
Encouraging the proper use of personal protection equipment
What if I
have questions about Bloodborne Pathogens?
HealthWorks is the Medical Provider for our Bloodborne Pathogens
Program and a doctor is available for answering any questions by
vaccinations to protect employees from infections caused by
There is a
vaccination for the Hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, there are
no vaccinations for the other Bloodborne pathogens, such as
Hepatitis C and HIV.
Hepatitis B vaccination is a three shot series, which prevents
infection by the Hepatitis B Virus. The second injection is
given one month after the first. The third is given five months
In over 90%
of individuals who complete the vaccination series, long-term
protection against Hepatitis B is provided for at least 10
Who gets the
Hepatitis B vaccination?
will offer the Hepatitis B vaccine free of charge to all
employees who can reasonably anticipate contact with blood or
other potentially infectious materials (employees with
occupational exposure). According to Washington State Law (WISHA),
the City must offer such employees the vaccine series within 10
working days of an employee’s assignment to duties causing
occupational exposure. Employees retain the right to refuse the
vaccination. However, if an employee refuses to be vaccinated,
the City must obtain a signed declination statement from that
employee. Employees who sign the declination statement may
request and obtain the vaccination at a later date at no cost if
they continue to be occupationally exposed.
Note: The City’s “Hepatitis B Vaccination Declination Form”
can be found in this manual’s appendix: Part F- Appendix,
sample letter to Regional Health for issuing the Hepatitis
Vaccine can be found in appendix: Part F – Appendix, FC2.3.
What if I
become exposed to blood or another potentially infectious
If you have
an exposure, it is extremely important to wash exposed skin and
to contact the appropriate medical professionals immediately.
You should follow any medical recommendations and complete the
proper paperwork as soon as it is possible.
If you do
have an exposure, call U.S.HealthWorks at 747-0776
immediately.(Within two-hours of exposure or sooner!) If it is
after office hours you will hear a series of beeps. Enter the
phone number where you can be reached followed by a # sign and
then hang up. A physician will call you back within 15
minutes. When you contact a medical professional, let them know
you work for the City of Spokane and have been exposed to blood
or another potentially infectious material. The medical
professional will want to know the following information:
you were exposed to (blood, vomit, needle stick, etc.)
your body exposed
sores, or rashes exposed
Circumstances of the incident
Identification of the source individual if possible
provide this information, you will be given advice and
counseling. If you had “significant exposure,” the medical
professionals on the hotline will notify the emergency room to
let them know you will need post-exposure treatment.
Note: A “significant exposure” is contact between blood and
another potentially infectious material and an open cut
break in the skin, or mucous membrane (eyes, mouth, and
nose). Blood to skin contact is not considered a significant
exposure. However, it should still be reported.
If you are
told that you’ve had a significant exposure and require
post-exposure treatment, you should obtain an Exposure Incident
Form and go to the emergency room for post exposure treatment
immediately. When you arrive at the emergency room, you should
fill out the Exposure Incident Form if you are able.
Note: The City’s “Exposure Incident Report” form can be
found in this manual’s appendix: Part F- Appendix,
medical professional on the other end of the hotline determines
that you haven’t had a significant exposure, you don’t need
post-exposure treatment. However, you should still fill out an
Exposure Incident Form for record keeping and prevention
the doctor do if I’ve had a significant exposure?
will make a post exposure evaluation and treat you for
exposure. State law (WISHA) requires the City or its health
care provider to do the following in post exposure evaluation
record the routes of exposure and how the exposure occurred
record the identity of the individual who was the source of the
describe your work duties as they relate to the exposure
obtain consent and test the source individual’s blood as soon as
possible to determine whether or not the individual is infected
with either a Bloodborne pathogen.
test results of the source individual
about the source individual’s test results and disclosure laws
and regulations concerning confidentiality
blood for HBV and HIV
Give you the
post-exposure Hepatitis B vaccine if your blood tests positive
with post-exposure counseling
days, provide you with a written professional opinion on any
medical conditions resulting from the exposure incident and
whether any further evaluation and/or treatment are recommended.
What if the
Doctor cannot obtain consent to test the other persons blood?
the physician. Mandatory testing for HIV may be
attainable under RCW 70.24.340(4) or WAC 246-100-206 for
employees who have experienced a substantial exposure to another
person’s bodily fluid in the course of employment. Testing can
be requested from the Regional Health District at 324-1534.
Request a Health Officer Mandate and/or a court ordered blood
draw. The exposed person may also petition the Superior Court
within (7) days for the blood draw if the Health Officer does
not provide the test.
What are the
supervisor’s responsibilities when an employee is exposed to
blood or another potentially infectious material?
after the exposure, supervisors should provide exposed employees
with the U.S. HealthWorks phone number 747-0776, the Exposure
Incident Form, and transportation to the emergency room for
post-exposure treatment if the medical professional at the
hotline recommends such treatment.
working day after the exposure, supervisors must send copies of
the completed Exposure Incident Form to both Risk Management and
Occupational Medicine Associates.
treated for exposure, will I have medical records somewhere? If
so, where will they be? Are they confidential?
If you have
been vaccinated for HBV, you should already have some records at
Risk Management and the City’s vaccination provider. If you
have an exposure incident, additional and more sensitive records
will be kept by both Risk Management and the City’s healthcare
provider. These records are kept for workers’ compensation
purposes. OSHA and WISHA require the City to track incidents;
however the names of employees will not be disclosed per
appropriate privacy laws. They will include your name and
social security number; your vaccination status; the results of
your examination, medical testing, and any follow-up procedures;
copies of the healthcare professional’s written opinion; and the
exposure incident form.
All of these
records will be kept confidential. No records will be made
public or reported outside Risk Management or the City’s
healthcare provider without your written consent or a subpoena
from an official body of law.
means human blood, human blood components, and products made
from human blood.
means pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human blood
and can cause disease in humans. These pathogens include, but
are not limited to, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
means the presence or the reasonably anticipated presence of
blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item or
means laundry which has been soiled with blood or other
potentially infectious materials or may contain contaminated
means any contaminated object that can penetrate the skin
including, but not limited to, needles, scalpels, broken glass,
broken capillary tubes, and exposed ends of dental wires.
means the use of physical
or chemical means to remove, inactivate, or destroy bloodborne
pathogens on a surface or item to the point where they are no
longer capable of transmitting infectious particles and the
surface or item is rendered safe for handling, use, or disposal.
means controls (e.g., sharps disposal containers, self-sheathing
needles, safer medical devices, such as sharps with engineered
sharps injury protections and needle less systems) that isolate
or remove the bloodborne pathogens hazard from the workplace.
means a specific
eye, mouth, other mucous membrane, nonintact skin, or parenteral
contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials
that results from the performance of an employee's duties.
“Hand washing facilities”
means a facility providing an adequate supply of running potable
water, soap and single use towels or hot air drying machines.
means hepatitis B virus.
means human immunodeficiency virus.
means reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane, or
parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious
materials that may result from the performance of an employee's
(a) The following human body
fluids: Semen, vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial
fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid,
amniotic fluid, saliva in dental procedures, any body fluid that
is visibly contaminated with blood, and all body fluids in
situations where it is difficult or impossible to differentiate
between body fluids;
(b) Any unfixed tissue or organ
(other than intact skin) from a human (living or dead); and
(c) HIV-containing cell or
tissue cultures, organ cultures, and HIV- or HBV-containing
culture medium or other solutions; and blood, organs, or other
tissues from experimental animals infected with HIV or HBV.
means piercing mucous membranes or the skin barrier through such
events as needlesticks, human bites, cuts, and abrasions.
specialized clothing or equipment worn by an employee for
protection against a hazard. General work clothes (e.g.,
uniforms, pants, shirts, or blouses) not intended to function as
protection against a hazard are not considered to be personal
means liquid or semi-liquid
blood or other potentially infectious materials; contaminated
items that would release blood or other potentially infectious
materials in a liquid or semi-liquid state if compressed; items
that are caked with dried blood or other potentially infectious
materials and are capable of releasing these materials during
handling; contaminated sharps; and pathological and
microbiological wastes containing blood or other potentially
“Sharps with engineered
sharps injury protections”
means a nonneedle sharp or a
needle device used for withdrawing body fluids, accessing a vein
or artery, or administering medications or other fluids, with a
built-in safety feature or mechanism that effectively reduces
the risk of an exposure incident.
individual, living or dead, whose blood or other potentially
infectious materials may be a source of occupational exposure to
the employee. Examples include, but are not limited to, hospital
and clinic patients; clients in institutions for the
developmentally disabled; trauma victims; clients of drug and
alcohol treatment facilities; residents of hospices and nursing
homes; human remains; and individuals who donate or sell blood
or blood components.
means the use of a physical or chemical procedure to destroy all
microbial life including highly resistant bacterial endospores.
are an approach to infection control. According to the concept
of universal precautions, all human blood and certain human body
fluids are treated as if known to be infectious for HIV, HBV,
and other bloodborne pathogens.
“Work practice controls”
means controls that
reduce the likelihood of exposure by altering the manner in
which a task is performed (e.g., prohibiting recapping of
needles by a two-handed technique)