Faith based approaches
Faith-based organisations exist in almost every community and play an
important role in the emotional, social and spiritual aspects of many
people's lives. In many communities, faith-based workers have become
active in HIV care and prevention projects, as they have faced the
increasing numbers of people living
with or affected by HIV, who are seeking counselling and support
increasing numbers of children
needing support as they care for parents or siblings with HIV
increasing numbers of children
orphaned by HIV
increasing numbers of deaths among
younger members of faith communities.
As many faith-based organisations consider and develop their responses
to the HIV epidemic they face the need to tackle stigma and
discrimination towards people with HIV, including discrimination by
people working in faith-based organisations, and the need to develop
responses that are sensitive to religious beliefs and writings. It may
be especially difficult for faith-based organisations to have
sexual behaviour, sexuality and
sexually transmitted infections
preventing the spread of HIV,
especially the issue of condom use
working with marginalised groups, e.
g. sex workers, street youth, intravenous drug users, men who have
sex with men.
People may be motivated to respond to the HIV epidemic in a number of
ways. Some people experience the loss of a friend or loved one from
HIV/AIDS or may find out that they are themselves HIV-positive This kind
of experience can encourage people to advocate within their faith-based
organisation for a response to HIV, either at a local or national level.
Some religious health institutions may advocate for a response by
approaching religious leaders or by forming networks of similar
organisation to broaden and strengthen their response. This newsletter
looks at different entry points for HIV/AIDS projects, as well as
practical approaches to dealing with particularly difficult issues, such
as talking about sex and working with young people.
Responding to HIV
Why have some faith-based
organisations responded more quickly to HIV/AIDS than others?
The HIV epidemic has been
particularly severe in sub-Saharan Africa, where the latest UNAIDS
report estimates there are 24.5 million people living with HIV. In
this region religious beliefs are particularly strong and these
affect how people see themselves, how they think, how they act and
how they view disease.
Some people believe that too few faith-based organisations have
developed positive responses to HIV/AIDS. Statements by prominent
religious leaders have led to discrimination, stigma and guilt. In
other cases, religious groups have failed to respond strongly to the
epidemic. A recent report of the World Council of Churches concluded
that the response of Christian Churches and other religions has been
inadequate. According to Rev Gideon Byamugisha, a priest in the
Church of Uganda: 'It is not so much that the church has refused
concerning AIDS... rather that it has failed.'
What factors have been important in prompting organisations and
individuals to become Involved HIV/AIDS programmes?
1. Personal experience
Direct personal contact with the human
consequences of HIV, e.g. finding out that you or a friend are HIV
positive or having a with member of your faith community become sick and
die of the disease.
1. The Reverend Gideon Byamugisha
was ordained a priest in the Church of I Uganda in 1992. Three years
later he became the first practising priest in Africa to declare
publicly that he was living with HIV.
‘My own experience of coming out openly has been mostly very
positive. When I joined Namirembe Diocese I told my bishop, the Rt
Rev Samuel Ssekkadde, about my HIV status. He and his wife were
incredibly supportive and understanding and even offered us the use
of the house where we now live. He said, “Gideon, don’t worry. I’m
going to pray for you. And you have a special mission here.” So I
left my teaching job at the theological college and came to
Namirembe Diocese to strengthen the AIDS programme here. All the
support the care and acceptance that Pamela and I have received here
from the bishop, his wife, the clergy and the Christians of this
diocese has helped us to live positively and to dedicate our lives
to the fight against HIV.'
Adapted from Open Secret People facing up to HIV and AIDS in
Uganda. [See Resources
2. Internal advocacy
Those religious organisations that have
become involved with issues relating to HIV/AIDS have often had within
them members who have lobbied and advocated for greater involvement on
2. In September 2000, after
attending the Xlllth World AIDS Conference in Durban, South Africa,
staff at St John’s Cathedral HIV Education and Information Centre,
in Hong Kong, shared the video by the African Regional Forum of
Religious Health Organisations in Reproductive Health with the
Chinese clergy. The clergy in Hong Kong are still uncomfortable
about HIV/AIDS issues and sex and sexuality issues in general. This
may be because the number of people with HIV in Hong Kong is quite
small. It is unlikely that clergy will have had the opportunity to
meet people with HIV/AIDS and it is hard to change their attitude. I
believe that will take time and effort, but at least we are sowing
Elijah Fung, StJohn’s Cathedral HIV Education and Information
Centre, Hong Kong,
3. Responses from church leaders
Church leaders who acknowledge the
challenge of HIV/AIDS and do not condemn those affected by it, but offer
support and understanding, can motivate others within religious groups
to respond positively to those affected by HIV/AIDS.
3. 'In an ideal world we have hoped
that everyone would be responsible about sex...that everyone would
behave as we would have hoped they would do. Unfortunately, in the
real world that is not the case and it is to fly in the face of
ghastly fates to pretend otherwise. So we are going to have to teach
people so-called safer sex, we are going to have to speak about
condoms and seek to make it possible for people to have access to
reproductive sexual health.'
Archbishop Emeritus Desmond Tutu. video address to Breaking the
Silence. Religious Health Organisations Speak Out on HIV/AIDS
symposium, South Africa. July 2000.
3. In 1989, his Eminence the Chief
Khadi of Uganda attended a national AIDS-education workshop held by
the Islamic Medical Association of Uganda. As a result of the
workshop he declared a 'jihad' or 'holy war' on HIV/AIDS. This
declaration of support from the highest level of Uganda's Muslim
community was the first step in mobilising the Muslim community to
become active in HIV/AIDS prevention and care.
What can be done to encourage more groups to be involved?
There are many answers - some of which are suggested on the
following pages. In the case of religious organisations, responses need
to be sensitive to their writings, thinking and beliefs. Religious and
non-religious organisations can engage positively with each other,
learning from each other and respecting the different and diverse views
which individuals and organisations hold.
Religious Health Organisations
How health organisations can respond
Faith-based organisations can I
respond to the HIV epidemic at a national, regional or community level.
Here we look at responses from religious health organisations.
The African Regional Forum of Religious Health Organisations in
Reproductive Health has been
set up to help health workers promote a more open approach to sexual and
reproductive health. Health workers in religious health organisations
face the challenge of matching the needs of communities with the beliefs
and teachings of their churches.
The forum, which is facilitated by International Family Health, UK, has
members in Nigeria, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and
Namibia and collaborating organisations in South Africa. It brings
together Catholic, Protestant and Muslim organisations and hopes to
build links with groups across the Baha'i, Hindu, Buddhist and Jewish
The forum aims to encourage advocacy and to help members to:
share information and expertise
provide advice in reproductive
health which is God-centred, respecting of human dignity,
technically sound and sustainable
develop comprehensive reproductive
carry out activities at local,
regional and national levels.
As part of the Forum's activities, International Family Health co-ordinated
a symposium, - Breaking the Silence. Religious Health Organisations
Speak Out on HIV/AIDS - at the XIIIth World AIDS Conference, South
Africa, and developed a video, featuring Desmond Tutu, based on the
symposium (see Resources
Future activities will include developing a web-site, continuing
production of the Forum Review newsletter and research activities
Contact: International Family Health
Tel: +44 (0) 20 7247 9944; Fax: +44 (0) 20 7247 9224.
Responses can also begin when religious health organisations widen
their activities to include religious leaders, as well as health
The Islamic Medical Association of Uganda (IMAU) began organising
HIV/AIDS workshops for Imams in the early 1990s. Talks between health
professionals and religious leaders at early workshops revealed the need
for HIV/AIDS projects that reached Muslim families through educators
trained with and sanctioned by imams.
Three projects were developed.
The Madarasa AIDS education and
prevention project provides HIV/AIDS education to young people
in Muslim schools and aims to teach young people to empathise with
and help people living with HIV/AIDS.
Community action for AIDS
prevention works within
an urban setting to provide HIV/AIDS training to religious and
community leaders. In addition, the project trains groups of bicycle
taxi drivers and market vendors to pass on information about
HIV/AIDS through their interaction with the public.
The Family AIDS education and
prevention through Imams project aims to provide education,
basic counselling and motivation for behaviour change through
individual home visits to people living with HIV/AIDS.
Initially, information about condoms was not included in these projects,
but after talking with Islamic leaders, project leaders agreed that
education on responsible use of the condom (as a third line of defence
against HIV/AIDS after abstinence and having sex only within marriage)
could be included.
Community-level responses often involve community health workers and
community volunteers. The HIV epidemic means that an increasing number
of people need physical and spiritual care and this means an increasing
workload for religious health workers. Volunteers from within religious
communities can help to share this task. Volunteers and religious health
workers may need training and support to understand about HIV and the
needs of people living with the disease, and support for themselves so
that they do not experience 'burnout'.
Where to start
In this article we consider how
faith-based organisations can start to respond to HIV/AIDS.
The example of service to and care
for others and the provision of emotional and spiritual support are
common to most faiths. Many faith-based groups have been at the
forefront of the response to HIV/AIDS, especially in sub-Saharan
Mission hospitals, such as
Chikankata in Zambia, have been pioneers in providing home-based
care for people with HIV/AIDS.
Faith-based organisations, such
as the Family AIDS Caring Trust (FACT) in Zimbabwe, have
developed ways of supporting and caring for orphans and children
affected by HIV/AIDS.
Many groups have developed ways
of working with young people within the faith community to
prevent HIV/AIDS, e. g. AIDS Care Education and Training in
These activities can be considered as
entry points for faith-based organisations wishing to get involved with
HIV/AIDS. Entry points may depend on the type of work groups are already
involved in outside the field of HIV/AIDS. Mission hospitals may be more
likely to start by extending care for the sick into their homes, while
churches and mosques are more likely to start working with young people
in their own faith community, or support vulnerable groups, e. g.
children who have been orphaned by HIV/AIDS (see
Such activities can provide a basis for moving on to more difficult
areas of work, e. g. discussing ways of preventing the spread of
HIV/AIDS, discussing sexual behaviour and working with marginalised
groups such as sex workers or intravenous drug users.
Some involvement by members of religious communities may focus on their
existing strengths while avoiding subjects that go against their
religious beliefs, as in Thailand where Buddhist monks counsel and
provide spiritual support to people with HIV.
In Chiang Rai, Buddhist monks work with staff at the Mae Chan Hospital
to prevent HIV/AIDS while caring for those already infected. The monks
provide one-to-one counselling in the hospital and also provide
community support. When educating people about HIV the monks use
Buddhist teachings (see
page 5). The monks do not
prohibit condom use, but they leave its discussion to lay educators in
Temples in Chiang Rai have become a venue for activities for people
affected by HIV. Activities include meditations, yoga, exercises, herbal
saunas, food preparation and even income generating projects like making
herbal medicines. The monks also conduct home visits.
The Family AIDS CaringTrust (FACT)
Church programme was
set up in 1994. The programme began by holding discussions with
church leaders to sensitise them to the issues around HIV/AIDS,
and then church leaders mobilised church members. The programme
focuses on raising awareness about HIV/AIDS and supporting and
Six hundred volunteers support 10-12,000 people with HIV/AIDS and
15,000 orphans. Volunteers give basic nursing information to those
caring for the sick and basic nursing care to sick people with no
carer. The programme also provides people with HIV/AIDS with food,
clothes, school fees and medicines.
Children orphaned by HIV/AIDS are supported through home visits,
provision of food, school fees and legal advice. Volunteers also
provide bereavement counselling and spiritual support. However,
limited resources and a harsh economic climate pose a challenge to
coping with large numbers of orphans. Programme workers have
identified supporting the increasing number of child-headed
households and coping with the long term psychological effects of
HIV/AIDS on children as the main challenges for the future.
For more information contact Lorraine Muchaneta, FACT PO Box
970, Mutare, Zimbabwe
Tel:+263 2061648, Fax:+263 20 65281
organisations are now moving from the more traditional area of care into
HIV prevention. Different faiths have different views on how the spread
of HIV can be reduced. Some faiths suggest abstinence, some suggest
faithful relationships, some suggest condom use to prevent the spread of
HIV. Encouraging open discussion about sexual relationships is
important. Within faith-based organisations this can take place in:
youth groups and confirmation
faith-based publications and radio
education at religious health
training programmes for religious
and lay leaders.
The next step is for faith-based organisations to move into more
challenging areas, such as needle exchange and working with marginalised
groups, e.g. sex workers. The Evangelical Church of Eritrea began
working with a group of 30 sex workers in 1998, training them to make
handicrafts and supporting them financially during this training. Four
of the 30 sex workers are HIV positive. The church is planning a meeting
of church leaders to discuss issues around HIV/AIDS and to encourage
them to write in their church newsletters about HIV/AIDS awareness.
With thanks to Dominique Mathiot, Country Programme Adviser, UNAIDS,
5 Andinet Street, PO Box 53666, Asmara, Eritrea.
Fax: +291 1 151600.
Catholic Aids Action,
set up in 1998, was the first national church- based programme of
HIV/AIDS prevention and care in Namibia. The programme used the
country’s 90 Roman Catholic parishes, 300 small Christian
communities, Catholic hospitals, clinics, schools and hostels as a
basis for spreading its message.
Home-based care and support for orphans and those affected by
HIV/AIDS were relatively easy to include in the programme, because
they are based on the Christian values of spiritual and physical
care for others.
It was harder to include AIDS prevention. Catholic AIDS Action
realised that it had to address the issue of sex and sexuality and
that the programme had to be open about the use of condoms.
Serious moral dilemmas emerged over advocating the use of
condoms. After much debate, the programme decided to address
condom use because, much as it might wish that everyone could
fulfil a higher moral standard, it s first priority was to help
prevent the spread of HIV.
Lucy Steinitz, Catholic Aids Action, Windhoek, Namibia
Faith-based organisations' responses to
the challenge of HIV/AIDS can be strengthened if those responses are
sensitive to religious beliefs and writings.
Some organisations use teachings from religious texts to support their
response to HIV/AIDS and to encourage people to accept and care for
people living with HIV/AIDS rather than to judge them. Buddhist monks in
Chiang Rai, Thailand, provide counselling and education services for
people affected by HIV. When conducting educational activities the monks
use Buddhist teachings on moral conducts for human behaviour.
There are five moral conducts in Buddhism:
do not destroy life
abstain from sexual misconduct
abstain from intoxicants
do not take what is not given
abstain from falsehood.
Catholic AIDS Action, Namibia, has designed a pastoral care handbook,
which encourages people to respond to HIV in a Christian way. The
handbook encourages Christians to turn their faith and prayers into
action and includes prayers composed by Catholic teenagers as part of a
Youth Leadership Retreat in 1998.
'AIDS demands that we reaffirm our faith in Christ, that through him,
love conquers death. If that is where we stand, seeing ourselves as the
body of Christ on earth, then we must see HIV/AIDS as the call of our
time to reach out in compassion and love to those who suffer. In loving
these neighbours as ourselves, we will truly see Christ in them.'
To love my neighbour: A pastoral care handbook for Namibia,
Catholic AIDS Action, Namibian Catholic Bishops Conference, PO Box
11525, Windhoek, Namibia. Fax: +264 61 248 126. E-mail:
But can faith-based organisations use religious writings and beliefs to
help them move into areas that are traditionally more difficult, e.g.
talking openly about safer sexual behaviour?
Treasuring the gift, a training manual by Project Concern
International (Zambia) and the Lusaka Interfaith HIV/AIDS Networking
Group, is designed for use with religious youth groups and examines how
to approach discussions about sex and sexual behaviour from a
faith-based perspective. The Lusaka Interfaith HIV/AIDS Networking Group
aims to 'put aside doctrinal and denominational differences in order to
work together against HIV/AIDS'. The book aims to provide material that
can be used by youth groups of any faith (see
page 7). Treasuring the
gift - how to handle God's gift of sex, Project Concern
International, Box 32320, Lusaka, Zambia. E-mail:
Talking about sex
The HIV epidemic has forced many
faith-based organisations to start talking about the sensitive issues of
sex and sexuality.
Many religious leaders, organisations and groups are uneasy talking
about sexuality and sex. This may be because they have never talked
about or have no experience of these subjects themselves. People may
also be unsure how to relate these subjects to religious writings and
beliefs. In many societies, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, sex is a
taboo subject even between parents and children, and so is even more
difficult to talk about openly in a wider setting.
'Talking about sex in the Church
is very difficult because church leaders have not done it before,
and sometimes they believe that a holy place should not be made
unholy by such talk.'
Rev Karl Dortzbach and Ndunge Kiti in Helpers for a healing
community: A personal counselling manual for AIDS, MAP
A basic belief for many faith-based
communities is that care for others is important and that the
relationship between people is an expression of, and a pathway into, a
relationship with God. In view of this, many faith-based communities
abstinence, if people are not
sex within a faithful marriage only.
Some members of faith-based organisations (and in the wider community)
think that talking about sex may:
result in increased promiscuity
seem to condone sex outside marriage
encourage young people to have sex
Some people also believe that promoting condom use could result in
people practising 'unacceptable' sexual behaviour rather than
However, research has shown that educating young people about sex,
HIV/AIDS and health in general does not result in increased sexual
activity, but leads to a decrease in adolescent sex, unwanted
pregnancies and STIs.
If faith-based groups wish to move towards open discussion about sex it
is important to acknowledge that:
there is more sexual activity
happening in communities than they might readily accept
much of this sex is unsafe (as well
as unlawful and unacceptable in churches' eyes)
not all 'lawful' unions are safe.
'Sexuality [is] a topic the church
has found difficult to address. Its silent and joyless
condemnation of sexuality in general has been a contributing
factor in the spread of AIDS. How can it promote a positive
sexuality, a recognition of the gift and goodness of sex, the
right relationship between men and women? This is particularly
important for young people. In some African countries there is no
sex education for the young because no one will talk about it
[sex] except in condemnatory terms. The Church needs to be
actively working with young people in communities, in promoting an
open, caring discussion about sexuality. It needs to affirm the
sacredness of sex as a gift to be valued.'
The Reverend Dr Susan Cole King
How could we do it?
Talking about sexual matters
in a religious context can be done if physical, spiritual and moral
health are linked. In a religious context, it is not enough to consider
the physical consequences of pregnancy, STIs and HIV/AIDS, without
considering the spiritual, psychological and social consequences of sex
outside or before marriage.
Religious texts can help religious leaders and groups to talk positively
about sex, e.g. the Bible has many positive references to sex, sexuality
and sexual health.
Before starting to talk about sex in a group setting, consider who your
audience will be (e.g. young people, married couples) and what you would
like to discuss with them (e.g. faithful relationships, safer sex).
Different people will need different information and have different
concerns. On the following page is an exercise to use with young people
as a discussion starter, or you could try using picture codes (pictures
of people in different situations) to start the discussion.
With thanks to Ian Campbell and Alison Rader of the Salvation Army
and the Rev Gideon Byamugisha, Namirembe Diocese, Uganda.
with young people
Working with young people
Talking about sexual behaviour can be
difficult but this practical activity can help young people consider the
choices they have.
Many faith-based organisations already have social networks for young
people in the form of church youth groups and these can provide a forum
for addressing issues to do with sexual behaviour and HIV prevention.
Frank and open discussions about these issues can encourage young people
to practise safer sexual behaviour and protect them against HIV
This exercise can be used to start discussions about sexually
transmitted infections, HIV/AIDS and how young people can avoid
infection. Read through the activity before you start and make sure you
have enough background knowledge to answer any questions the group might
have. The point of the exercise is to encourage young people to think
about their attitudes and choices and share them with the group.
The Three boats
Use this exercise with a group of young people who know and trust
Start with everyone sitting in circle.
Ask the group 'What three ways can HIV be passed from one
person to another?
Let the group answer.
Correct any Incorrect
Information and add points that are missed.
Make sure they mentions:
a. sexual intercourse without a
b. blood contact
c. mother to child.
How can we can avoid HIV or sexually transmitted infections?
Make sure the group mentions:
a. no sex (abstinence)
b. only having sex with one
uninfected partner who has no other partners (faithfulness)
Tell the group 'HIV is spreading like a flood - if we are not
careful we will all drown'.
Ask the group:
'Are many people in our
community in danger of drowning in the flood of HIV?'
'In a flood how do people
usually save themselves?'
Make sure they mention boats.
Ask the group:
'Is it possible to avoid HIV
Remind the group that during a
flood people can save themselves by getting into a boat and that
there are three boats that can save us from HIV infection:
the NO SEX (abstinence) boat
the FAITHFULNESS boat
the CONDOM boat - using a new condom correctly every time you
Ask the group:
'Who decides which boat you get
'How easy is it to get into a
'Do we need help?'
'What kind of help?'
'Is it possible to help another
person get into and stay in a boat? How?'
'Which boat or boats should a
believer be on?'
Choose three places in the room to represent three boats.
Give each group member a character, e.g. an 8-year-old boy, an old
farmer, a sex worker, a drunkard, a young girl, a member of the
church choir, a businessman, a student.
Ask each person to think about the family, work, social life of
their character and decide which boat they would choose or whether
they would stay in the sea of HIV. After five minutes ask each
person to go to the boat they have chosen. Then ask why their
character has chosen that boat. As a group discuss whether everyone
agrees with this choice and why they do or do not agree.
Adapted from Treasuring the gift (see
The Tanzania Episcopal Conference comprises 12 Catholic dioceses
and its youth desk co-ordinates youth activities, including meetings
sexual and reproductive health
HIV/AIDS/STIs life skills education.
Youth groups talk about HIV prevention
because HIV/AIDS affects all aspects of young people's lives and
sexually active young people are most affected by HIV.
Prevention activities include:
anti-AIDS youth clubs.
Some groups also care for orphaned children or people with HIV/AIDS.
The youth training is supported by educational materials, including
books, videos and posters about life skills and sexual health.
Contact George Kanga, Secretary, Tanzania Episcopal conference, PO
Box 2 133, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
Fax: +255 022 2850295 E-mail:
Has this information been useful?
7 Page 8
Letter / Resources
Light in the darkness
I would like to share an
analogy promoted by the Reverend Dr Zephanius Kametha, former deputy
speaker of Parliament in Namibia.
Dr Kametha refers to the vast Namibian desert, where, looking around, at
first you see nothing, especially at night. The sky at that time is vast
and dark. Blackness overwhelms you. You feel so alone, so insignificant.
And then you look up and see a few stars: the longer you look, the more
you see. Slowly they seem to light up the sky. You feel their presence:
the hope, the sense of grace - God's spirit reaching out, accepting you,
and granting you the feeling of belonging.
And so it is in real life: when you feel all alone; when you cannot see
anything, that is when-if you keep searching-you can often see (and
feel) that sense of grace and of belonging to something larger than
Lucy Steinitz, Catholic Aids Action, Windhoek, Namibia.
Gender and faith
Why does gender disappear when we discuss faith? Discussions about
faith and HIV seem to suggest that men and women use their spiritual
beliefs in the same way and that religions or spiritual traditions treat
men and women equally in sexual and other matters. This is not true by a
long shot. Discussions about faith often make no distinctions between
men and women and suggest that believers are a homogenous group.
We need to consider how faith-based approaches to abstinence and marital
fidelity might differ for men and for women. In the context of women's
vulnerability, appeals to men for marital faithfulness have a quite
different meaning than appeals to young men and women to avoid sexual
experimentation. A quite different reading would arise from appealing to
a woman to abstain from sex if her informal partnership directly relates
to her survival and that of her children. Abstinence is not the same for
everyone. These are gender issues, and merely calling the appeals
faith-based does not erase them.
It is also important to examine whether faith-based systems are
reinforcing gender roles which increase vulnerability to AIDS.
Questioning or re-examining gender roles, through HIV-related work or
other channels, can encourage greater equality between men and women.
Tim Frasca, Fundacion CIPRESS, Santa Beatriz 84-C, Providencia,
Facing AIDS: The challenge, the Churches' Response A World
Council of Churches Study Document
This book addresses question related to the churches' response to
HIV/AIDS and is based on a three year study carried out by the World
Council of Churches Consultative Group on AIDS.
Available free to readers in developing countries, in English, French
and Spanish from: Health and Healing Desk, World Council of Churches,
150 route de Ferney, 1211 Geneva 2, Switzerland.
Open secret: people facing up to HIV and AIDS in Uganda (No. 15
in the Strategies for Hope series) describes how in Uganda, openness
about HIV and AIDS and action at all levels, has breached the wall of
silence around the HIV epidemic and reduced HIV-related stigma and
Available for £4.50 from Teaching-aids At Low Cost (TALC) P O Box 49,
St Albans, Herts AL1 5TX. UK
Fax: +44 1727 846852
Breaking the silence: religious health organisations speak out on
HIV/AIDS. This video is the result of the international symposium of
African Regional Forum of Religious Health Organisations in Reproductive
Health held during the 11th World AIDS conference, Durban, South
Contact International Family Health, Cityside, 40 Adler Street,
London E1 1EE, UK
Tel: +44 20 7247 9944. Fax: +44 20 7247 9224.
Copies of Archbishop Emeritus Desmond Tutu's video message for the
forum symposium are also available from IFH.
Editor Lisa Oxlade
Design and production Ingrid Emsden
Editorial advisory group Calle Almedal, Dr Sandra Anderson,
Kathy Attawell, Dr Rachel Baggaley, Teresita Bagasao, Dr Nina
Castilio-Caradang, Nancy Fee, Susie Foster, Tim Frasca, Dr Sam
Kalibala, Dr Elly Katabira, Dr Ute Küpper, Philippa Lawson, Dr
Simon Mphuka, Dr Arletty Pinel, Dr Eric van Praag
Aids Action Publishing partners HAIN (the
Philippines) KANKO (Kenya) SANASO Secretariat (Zimbabwe) ENDA
(Senegal) ABIA (Brazil) Colectivo Sol (Mexico) Consultants based
at University Eduardo Mondlane (Mozambique)
AHRTAG's AIDS programme is supported by CAFOD, Christian
Aid, DfkF/JFS, HIVOS, ICCO, Irish Aid, Misereor, Norwegian Red