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“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”

    

China HIV/AIDS Chronology

http://www.casy.org/chron/mainchron.htm

Parts to report 1 2 3 4 5

 

1985
6 June 1985
China announced its first AIDS-related death. The Public Health Ministry (MOH) stated that an Argentine tourist from the United States "died of severe lung infection and respiratory failure" on 6 June 1985 at the Peking Union College Hospital. "According to his family, the patient was diagnosed in the United States as having contracted AIDS," the ministry office said.
––“China Says Argentine Died of AIDS,” New York Times, 30 July 1985, p. 5; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 June 1985, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

3 September 1985
China's Ministry of Health announced that China has banned all blood products from entering China, except for a small quantity of human serum albumin.  This action was done to prevent AIDS from entering China.
––“China Bans Import of Blood Products," Xinhua, 3 September 1985; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 September 1985, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

9 October 1985
China's Disease Prevention Center in Beijing reported that out of 310 AIDS exams conducted in eight provinces, no cases of HIV were reported.
––“China on guard Against AIDS," United Press International, 9 October 1985; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 October 1985, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

29 November 1985
The Guangming Daily reported that the central government should ban homosexuality, require blood tests for all foreigners and ban the importation of all blood products in China except for limited amounts of plasma globulin. The recommendations were made to stop AIDS from entering China.
––"China Calls for Sexual Restraint to Prevent AIDS," Associated Press, 2 December 1985; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 December 1985, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

1986
25 August 1986
Citing that the old laws are no long adequate under the "Opening Up Policy," the Chinese government is expected to pass a law requiring all foreigners who plan to stay within China for six months or more, to undergo medical exams for HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases.  "It is intended to prevent infectious diseases from spreading both inside and outside China from seaports, airports, and exit and entry stations along borders," reported China Daily.
––"China Preparing Quarantine Law Aimed at AIDS," United Press International, 25 August 1986; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 August 1986, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

1 September 1986
The International Pathology Society hosted a week-long conference in Vienna, Austria. One of the main topics of the conference was HIV/AIDS and pathogenic bacterium. Along with eastern European countries, this was China first time taking part in the conference. Other issues discussed were pulmonary tuberculosis.
––"International Conference Discussed AIDS," Xinhua, 1 September 1986; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 September 1986, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

20 October 1986
China’s Heath Ministry announced it is creating China’s first AIDS prevention team. Xinhua reported that the ministry will establish a “team of 13 medical experts on virology, epidemiology and the combination of Western and traditional Chinese medicine to monitor worldwide AIDS developments and prevent the disease in China.”
––“China sets up AIDS Prevention Team,” United Press International, 20 October 1986; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 October 1986, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

22 October 1986
China Daily has reported that four Chinese have been confirmed to be HIV positive. They were reportedly infected after “being injected with imported medication.” “The official press has called for a crackdown on 'sexual liberalization' and homosexuality to prevent the spread of the disease.” Western observers note that this is the first time the Chinese government has reported its own citizens being HIV positive.
––“Four Chinese Found to Carry AIDS, Associated Press, 22 October 1986; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 October 1986, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

24 October 1986
No one on the Chinese mainland has been found to be suffering from AIDS, said Cao Qing, leader of a AIDS investigating team.  Cao noted that four Chinese hemophiliacs were found to be HIV positive after receiving blood products imported from the United States. The four patients are said not to be suffering any symptoms.
––“China has not yet Discovered AIDS Patients," Xinhua, 24 October 1986; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 24 October 1986, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

21 December 1986
During a recent venereal disease conference in Nanjing, the Ministry of Health (MOH) reported it has recorded its first cases of venereal diseases (VD) in 22 years. Although the report cited two specific cases, the MOH did not give any statistics on the number of cases which have been found thus far.  In order to combat the problem, the MOH has established the National Venereal Disease Prevention Consultative Committee and set up VD testing centers in Beijing, Shanghai and other major cities, the Xinmin Evening News reported.
––"China Reports first VD Cases in 22 Years," United Press International, 21 December  1986; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 December 1986, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

1987
7 February 1987
China reported its first AIDS-related death of a Chinese person contracting AIDS in China. The victim was a 13-year-old hemophiliac boy who contracted AIDS from imported blood products.
––"AIDS Virus-Infected Patients Taken Good Care of," Xinhua, 7 December 1987; n Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 December 1987, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

4 February 1987
In a commentary on the "decadent" American society, the Peking Review stated that "rampant disastrous drug taking, alcoholism, robbery, homicide, suicide, divorce, prostitution, homosexuality, syphilis, AIDS, and other social ills...come from their ideology."
––Donna Anderson, "Peking Daily Cautions Against Western Threats of AIDS, Drugs," Associated Press, 4 February 1987; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 4 February 1987, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

March 1987
China reported its third AIDS-related death, a resident of Fujian province who had lived in Hong Kong and New York for 15 years.
––Daniel Southerland, "China Stars AIDS Tests for Foreign Residents," Washington Post, 2 May 1987, p. A3;  in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 May 987, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

19 March 1987
The city of Shenzhen has established a monitoring station for the prevention and control of venereal diseases, one of ten set up around China. Tourism is seen as a potential method of entry for venereal diseases and AIDS. According to China News, "with the development of tourism in our country, the sources of contagion by venereal diseases brought into China by foreign visitors are increasing."
––"Unit to Monitor Venereal Disease Set up in Shenzhen;  Fear of AIDS via Tourism," BBC, 19 March 1987; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 March 1987, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

2 May 1987
China's Ministry of Health (MOH) announced that all foreigners who intend on living in China for a year or more are required to obtain a physician's certificate showing that they are HIV negative.  China began testing some students and foreign businessmen last year.
––Daniel Southerland, "China Starts AIDS Tests for Foreign Residents," Washington Post, 2 May 1987, p. A3;  in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 May 1987, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

4 May 1987
Under China's new Frontier Health and Quarantine Law, Shanghai has set up monitoring stations in "hotels, restaurants and tourist and medical facilities to offer physical check-ups, blood tests and 'other tests necessary to isolate AIDS,'" Xinhua reported.  Out of 900,000 people that passed through Shanghai last year, health officials found about 100 cases of infectious diseases. The official added, "to date we have found no AIDS carriers entering the city."
––"Shanghai sets up Stations to Check Visitors for AIDS," United Press International, 4 May 1987; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 4 May 1987, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

18 June 1987
During an interview with China's Health News, Cao Qing, China's anti-AIDS leader, urged stricter regulations on the importing of foreign blood products. Even though the central government placed a ban on all imports of foreign blood in September 1984, port officials at Dalian found that 60,000 units of gamma globulin imported in 1985 tested positive for HIV.
––“Stricter Control Urged Over Imported Blood Products," Xinhua, 18 June 1987; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 June 1987, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

22 July 1987
According to Minister of Health Chen Minzhang, HIV/AIDS in China can be checked because homosexuality and promiscuity, "which is how the disease is spread," are limited in China, the China Youth News reported.  Chen believes the AIDS virus can be kept out of China because of the ban on foreign blood imports, and any foreigner who wants to stay in China for a year or more must prove to be HIV-negative.  He did acknowledge that illegal importing of blood and the lack of disposable syringes, and Chinese women having illegal sex with foreigners could spread the disease in China. Chen urged moral and sex education for young people, the establishment of a reporting system to track AIDS, and better sampling of blood serum (HIV tests) should be implemented to help keep the AIDS rate at a minimum.
––"AIDS can be Checked in China - Experts," Xinhua, 22 July 1987; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 4 May 1987, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

10 August 1987
The Beijing Review reported that AIDS is unlikely to occur because "homosexuality and casual sex are illegal and contrary to Chinese morality."  According to China's Health Minister Chen Minzhang, about 7,000 people have been tested for AIDS in China. These are relatives and people who came in contact with China's four confirmed HIV cases, four hemophiliacs from Zhejiang.  Also reported was that seven Chinese traditional medicine specialists will study HIV/AIDS at Harvard University.
––"AIDS Unlikely to Spread In China Magazine Says," Toronto Star, 10 August 1987; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 August  1987, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

30 August 1987
The Chinese government has pledged to work with the international community and the World Health Organization to fight against AIDS. Vice-Minster He Jiesheng of Public Health stated, "AIDS challenges all countries, and its prevention and treatment is a task for all governments." He said the government will soon publish its AIDS prevention plans and regulations. These will include: the medical inspection of those entering China from abroad, "medical" supervision of those at the high-risk of contracting AIDS, and the establishment of AIDS laboratories in coastal cities.
––"China to Participate in Global Fight Against AIDS," Xinhua, 30 August 1987; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 August 1987, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

27 September 1987
Although China has implemented measures to control the spread of HIV/AIDS in China, medical experts said it is necessary for China to "strengthen popular education about AIDS, seriously carry out prevention measures and establish a system for checking the spread of AIDS," reported the Beijing Review. The article said to date China has adopted several regulations and measures to fight AIDS:

  • publicize knowledge about AIDS, including methods of transmission and symptoms;
  • forbid any AIDS carrier from entering China;
  • require all foreigners who plan to stay in China to prove by medical exam they are HIV-negative;
  • ban the import of blood or blood products, and second-hand clothing;
  • forbid sexual contact with foreigners;
  • require all medical departments to dispose of any medical equipment and medical devices used on foreign patients.

Chinese medical experts believe the spread of AIDS will be limited in China because homosexuality, promiscuity, and drug abuse are illegal and not tolerated in Chinese society.
––"China Makes Efforts to Prevent AIDS," Xinhua, 27 September 1987; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 September 1987, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

29 September 1987
Ministry of Health (MOH) officials announced they plan to enforce Article 30 of the Regulations on Public Order to prevent the spread of AIDS in China. Article 30 states, "Prostitution, whoring following an introduction, abetting prostitution, and whoring are strictly forbidden and offenders face a maximum 15 days detention, a warning, re-education and a maximum fine of 5,000 yuan (1,350 USD)."
––Jane McCartney, "Chinese Authorities Ban Sex with Foreigners to Stop AIDS," United Press International, 29 September 1987; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 29 September 1987, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

28 October 1987
The mayors of Chongqing, Guangzhou, Wuhan and Shenyang have declared their cities AIDS free. To date China has recorded six HIV cases: an Argentine tourist, a Chinese man  who contracted HIV while living in the West and four hemophiliacs from Zhejiang province, of which one has died.
––"Four major Chinese Cities say They are AIDS Free," Kyodo News Service (Tokyo), 28 October 1987; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 October 1987, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

9 December 1987
The Canadian Embassy reported that a Canadian woman who died from AIDS may have been infected from a acupuncture treatment she received about 20 months before. According to the Health and Welfare Canada, she did not belong to any high risk group. To date, China as reported three AIDS-related deaths: Argentine tourist, Chinese man infected while living in the Untied States, and a 13-year-old hemophiliac. According to Chinese health officials there have been no cases of AIDS being transmitted in China. Chinese officials dismiss the report as "medically unsound."
––"Embassy Says Canadian Died From AIDS after Acupuncture Treatment," Associated Press, 9 December 1987; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 December 1987, http://www.lexisnexis.com; "Doctor Refutes Report of Acupuncture-Transmitted AIDS," Xinhua, 10 December 1987; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 December 1987, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

22 December 1987
Since 1985, Qi Xiaoqiu, a senior official in the Department of Epidemic Prevention under the Ministry of Public Health states that since 1985 there have been 11 reported cases of HIV/AIDS in China, of which three have died.  All but four of the 11 cases involved foreigners.
––Edward A. Gargan, "China Taking Stringent Steps to Prevent the Entry of AIDS," New York Times, 22 December 1987, p. A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 December 1987, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

1988
14 January 1988
While announcing the release of "Several Regulations on the Detection and Control of AIDS," He Jiesheng, Vice-Minister of Health, remarked that following the Opening Up Policy and expanding contacts with foreigners, China is open to the possibility of an AIDS epidemic. China began testing for HIV in 1984, and to date only three HIV/AIDS cases have been discovered in China, two were tourists and one was an overseas Chinese. In testing foreigners who planned to live in China for over a year, seven were found to have HIV/AIDS and were sent home. In testing of imported blood products, four Chinese nationals were found to be HIV-positive. The "Several Regulations on the Detection and Control of AIDS" is China's first national set of regulations on the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS. "It defines in detail those to be tested; implementation plans for AIDS detection, control and prevention; and how to report on AIDS epidemic and its control," Xinhua reported. The new regulations state:

  • All people entering China must fill out a health questionnaire;
  • People intending to live one year or more must provide an approved AIDS test;
  • Chinese nationals who have lived abroad for more than one year must be tested upon return to China; and
  • No one is permitted to import blood, blood products, organisms and animals possibly contaminated with the AIDS virus. 

He Jiesheng, Vice Minister of China’s Health Ministry said, “These regulations are China’s first designed to prevent an AIDS epidemic.”
––"Prevention of AIDS is Important Because of Open Policy," Xinhua, 14 January 1988; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 January 1988, http://www.lexisnexis.com; ––“China Issues Regulations on AIDS,” Xinhua, 14 January 1988; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 January 1988, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

22 January 1988
Zeng Yi, Vice President of the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medical Sciences said that the three AIDS cases found in China were either foreigners or returning overseas Chinese. “Investigations have shown that China has no sources for the dread disease Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.”

––"Scientist Says China has No AIDS 'Sources,'" Xinhua, 22 January 1988; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 January 1988, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

28 January 1988
Zeng Yi, Deputy Director of the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine reported that all blood products manufactured by the Changchun Institute of Biological Products in Jilin province were free from the AIDS virus. The tests examined 51 batches of albumin, 63 batches of immune globulin, 40 batches of hepatitis B vaccine and two batches of factor VII vaccine. Furthermore, 3,700 potential blood donors in Changchun were also shown to be free from the AIDS virus.
––"Changchun's Blood Products Free from AIDS Virus," Xinhua, 28 January 1988; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 January 1988, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

29 January 1988
Zeng Yi, Vice President of the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medical Sciences called for the suppression of prostitution and introducing regular blood testing to protect China from the AIDS epidemic.  Zeng said AIDS entered China through two channels: one channel was through contaminated bloods products, and the second is through casual sex with the increasing numbers of foreigners entering China. Since China has banned imported blood products, the "most likely way of contracting the acquired immune deficiency syndrome is through casual behavior, according to Zeng Yi," reported Xinhua.  The high cost associated with wide-spread  blood testing has been dramatically reduced when China produced its own HIV antigen used in testing for HIV exposure. China has also set up a nationwide network to supervise the spread of the disease, and to establish contacts with HIV/AIDS experts in France, Germany, Japan and the United States.
––“China Steps Up Anti-AIDS Measures," Xinhua, 29 January 1988; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 29 January 1988, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

2 March 1988
The World Health Organization (WHO) announced it will cooperate with the Chinese government in the areas AIDS education and prevention. These will include the following areas:

  • Cooperation in testing epidemic diseases;
  • Evaluating Chinese Traditional medicine for AIDS treatment;
  • Educating lab and healthcare workers;
  • Providing awareness for the Chinese people;
  • Instituting a plan to provide for the high quality of AIDS testing in China; and
  • Inviting foreign AIDS experts to exchange knowledge about AIDS.

Dr. J.  Mann, WHO’s Chairman on AIDS programs stated, “up to now we have not seen AIDS spread in China, so it is not too late for China to prevent it.”
––“WHO and China Join Hands in Fight against AIDS,” Xinhua, 2 March 1988; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 March 1988, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

5 March 1988
Zeng Yi, chief of the only Chinese AIDS research program stated, “It’s a foreign threat. The only way for AIDS to come into China is from foreigners.”

––David R. Schweisbeg, “China and AIDS: China begins to grapple with AIDS,” United Press International, 5 March 1988; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 March 1988, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

15 March 1988
Couples in Shanghai will need to pass physical exams to receive a marriage license from the local government. Sources say the exam will include an HIV/AIDS test, as well as for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
––"Shanghai to require Marriage-Minded to Pass Physical Exams," Ashai News Service (Japan), 15 March 1988; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 March 1988, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

28 May 1988
China has established the first non-governmental AIDS foundation to “raise funds for research and prevention.” The AIDS Research Foundation of China (ARFC) will be directed by Chen Chunming, President of the Chinese Academy of Preventative Medicine. Only three confirmed AIDS related deaths have been reported in China: an Argentine tourist, a Chinese man who spent time in the United States, and a 13 year-old hemophiliac boy who was “infected by a blood product imported from the United States.” The ARFC will be based in Beijing and will also hold academic meetings, train medical technicians and promote exchanges of information with researchers from around the world. A branch office will also be set up in Hong Kong to coordinate overseas relations and fund-raising activities.
––“China Established AIDS Foundation,” Associated Press, 28 May 1988; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 May 1988, http://www.lexisnexis.com; "AIDS Research Foundation Set up in China," Xinhua, 28 May 1988; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 May  1988, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

31 May 1988
China has established the National Center for the Prevention and Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, with a total of 16 surveillance stations set up around China under its control, reported China Daily.  Also, China has established HIV/AIDS surveillance stations in eight major Chinese cities. To date 26,000 HIV tests have been carried out since 1984.
––"China Acts Up to Crackdown on Sexually Transmitted Diseases," Xinhua, 31 May 1988; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 31 May 1988, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

31 March 1988
US drug manufacturer G.D. Searle & Company signed an agreement with the State Pharmaceutical Administration of China to promote US drug sales in China.  "This is a good beginning between the United States and China," said Liu Yonggang, a Vice-President of the Chinese Administration.  Under the agreement Searle will have the right to "exclusively any products that result from research and development," reported the Associated Press (AP).  Dr. Shen Jiaxing, Deputy Director of the Chinese Pharmaceutical Agency said although AIDS was not specifically mentioned in the agreement, it might be an area of collaboration.  "We have not had a chance to talk that out, but it's possible our approaches could be synergistic," Shen added.
––David Briscoe, "US Company Signs Drug Pact with China," Associated Press, 31 March 1988; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 31 March 1988, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

24 August 1988
Zeng Yi Vice-President of the China Institute of Preventive Medicine said to date no AIDS sufferers has been found in China.  Out of 30,000 blood samples tested, only 14 cases were positive. Of these samples, 10 were from  foreigners, and four were from Chinese hemophiliacs who received tainted blood products from overseas.
––"AIDS Prevention," Zhongguo Xinwen She (Beijing), 24 August 1988; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 September 1988, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

25 November 1988
Shanghai health officials reported that a foreigner was found to be carrying the AIDS virus. He was tested as part of a program to test all foreigners who plan to live in China for a year, returned Chinese from abroad, and Chinese patients who might have used imported blood products.
––"Shanghai Finds Foreign AIDS Virus Carrier," Xinhua, 25 November 1988; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 November 1988, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

     

28 November 1988
Chinese health officials acknowledged that seven Chinese citizens are infected with the AIDS virus and 14 foreigners also were carrying the virus. These results where given after health authorities tested 67,200 people for HIV/AIDS. Ye Guanyun, a venereal disease expert at the Ministry of Public Health (MOH) reported that venereal disease cases are increasing at an annual rate of 300 percent, specifically in the coastal cities.
––"China Acknowledges 21 Cases of AIDS," United Press International, 28 November 1988; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 November 1988, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

1 December 1988
During an event marking the first World AIDS Day, Zeng Yi, Deputy Director of the AIDS Prevention Department of the Ministry of Public Health (MOH) reports there have only been seven recorded cases of Chinese citizens being infected with HIV/AIDS. However, since 1985, three foreign AIDS sufferers and 11 foreign HIV carriers have been found in China.  Health News reported the most threatening channels for AIDS to enter China are from prostitution and promiscuous sex with foreigners.  Guangming Daily said, "AIDS can be controlled and even stamped out if we insist on monogamy and put an end to extra-marital sexual behavior."
––"China Playing its Part in World Anti-AIDS Battle," Xinhua, 1 December 1988; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December 1988, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

6 December 1988
An AIDS monitoring center has been set up in Wuhan, Hubei province and has begun testing throughout the province. Last October, Wuhan discovered its first HIV/AIDS case, a foreign student.
––"AIDS Monitoring Network Set Up in Hubei Province," Xinhua, 6 December 1988; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 December 1988, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

27 December 1988
Members of the National People's Congress (NPC) called for an early enactment of China's draft law on prevention of infectious diseases. According to the law, infectious diseases are placed into three categories calling for varying degrees of restrictions. Diseases such as the plague and cholera are listed in the first category and are the most restrictive. HIV/AIDS is placed in the second group along with hepatitis and syphillis. This decision was based on the fact that "no full-fledged AIDS cases have been discovered among Chinese mainlanders and that AIDS is not easily transmitted and spreads relatively slowly," said health Minister Chen Minzhang.  NPC member Yang Lieyu suggested that more emphasis should be placed on health education in preventing AIDS.
––"Stricter Monitoring of AIDS Urged," Xinhua, 27 December 1988; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 December 1988, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

1989
22 February 1989
Sun Xinhua of the Ministry of Public Health (MOH) announced a new law that authorizes health officials to test any Chinese citizen deemed at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS.  MOH officials have already begun testing Chinese citizens in Beijing, Shanghai, Canton and other major cities whose job brings them in close contact with foreigners. Sun said that under the new law, "if local authorities want someone tested, he must be tested. He has no right to refuse."  He added, "If any Chinese is found to be an AIDS sufferer, he will be quarantined and will not be allowed to continue working or going to school."  To date China has emphasized creating barriers to the AIDS virus, rather than testing its own people.  The new law also covers 34 other infectious diseases including the plague and cholera.
––Kathy Wilhem, "Law Gives China Broad AIDS-Testing Authority," Associated Press, 22 February 1989; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 February 1989, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

25 February 1989
Cao Qing, head of China's AIDS Prevention team announced that China will soon set up an AIDS Research Center which will study the use of traditional Chinese Medicine in the treatment of AIDS.  Official statistics show only 22 people have been found to have the AIDS virus, of which only four were Chinese nationals and one has died.
––"China to Establish 'Traditional Medicine' AIDS Research Center," Xinhua, 25 February 1989; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 February 1989, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

31 March 1989
China's first films dealing with AIDS have been playing to full houses in Shenyang city. Many schools, factories and government offices have rented the movies to show to their students and employees. The two films, one a popular science film named "AIDS," has been advertised under the Chinese characters for "Super Caner." The other a feature film named the "AIDS Patients," has been advertised as "Pornographic Pestilence."  The feature film shows the destinies of three young Chinese AIDS victims after they have sexual relations with a foreign teacher.
––"'Controversial' AIDS Film Fills Cinemas," Xinhua, 31 March 1989; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 31 March 1989, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

10 April 1989
Dai Zhicheng, an official from the Ministry of Health (MOH) reported the number of sexually transmitted diseases has risen to 140,000 cases over the last nine years, and 56,090 in 1988 alone. To date there have only been 22 HIV cases reported in China.
––"Incidence of Infectious Diseases Down in China,' Xinhua, 10 April 1989; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 April 1989, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

26 April 1989
The Guangzhou based Nanfang Daily reported that a blood product made in Spain tested positive for the AIDS virus. The r-globulin, labeled as gamma biomar  was originally purchased in Macau, and brought into China. Chinese health officials are asking anyone who might have taken this product to be tested for HIV/AIDS as soon as possible.
––"Product Test Reveals AIDS," Xinhua, 26 April 1989; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 April 1989, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

5 August 1989
While addressing a national seminar on AIDS Policy held in Beijing, Minister of Health Chen Minzhang reported China has 25 cases of HIV infections, three of which have developed AIDS. However, the total number of sexually transmitted disease (STDs) cases reached 160,000.
––"China Emphasizes Prevention and Monitoring of AIDS," Xinhua, 5 August 1989; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 August 1989, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

1 November 1989
China has identified its first confirmed indigenous HIV case. Cao Qing, Vice Director of the Department of Epidemic Prevention in the public Health Ministry said the man, a former shop assistant in Beijing, “was detained for committing homosexual acts, a crime in China.” China has said that none of the 25 confirmed HIV cases originated on the mainland. To date, one Chinese citizen has died from HIV/AIDS, which he received while he was in the United States. Four Chinese died of AIDS in Hangzhou. These were related to “transfusions with imported blood.”
––“China Discovers First AIDS Virus Carrier,” Associated Press, 1 November 1989; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 November 1989, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

28 November 1989
While attending an international conference on "The Spread of the AIDS Virus from Mother to Baby," Chinese Health Minister Chen Minzhang said the prevention of AIDS should focus on increasing education and awareness. Referring to AIDS in China, Chen believes the threat of AIDS is greater in large urban areas where there is an increase of prostitution, venereal diseases and drug problems.
––“Chinese Health Minister on AIDS Prevention," Xinhua, 28 November 1989; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 November 1989, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

1 December 1989
During a symposium on AIDS prevention, Chinese health experts called on the central government to "widen supervision and set up consulting centers; to use disposable hypodermic syringes; and to publicly disseminate information on AIDS," reported Xinhua. Ministry of Health (MOH) officials reported that China has a total of 32 HIV/AIDS cases, of which six were Chinese. Among the Chinese, four had been infected through tainted blood products, one from engaging in homosexual activities and one who has recently returned from Africa.  Chinese officials also note that the number of sexually transmitted diseases has risen 105.16 percent in the first of half of this year compared to the same period last year. There have been a total of 204,077 STD cases in China since the early 1980s, of which 134,691 were male and 69,386 were female. So far, 140,000 people in China have been tested for HIV/AIDS.
––“Public Warned to be on Guard Against AIDS," Xinhua, 1 December 1989; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December 1989, http://www.lexisnexis.com; "VD Cases Multiply in China," Xinhua, 2 December 1989; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 December 1989, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

1990
3 January 1990
Chinese officials have reported that they will increase their surveillance of China's high-risk groups, including drug addicts, reported Heath News. Over the past few years, Chinese health authorities have monitored over 148,000 people, including Chinese who have returned from abroad, venereal disease patients, blood donors, foreigners, homosexuals, prostitutes and their clients.
––"Risk Groups to be Eyes for AIDS," Xinhua, 3 January 1990; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 January 1990, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

7 February 1990
The Ministry of Public Health (MOH) reported that by the end of 1989, the number of HIV cases in China has risen to 194, of which three foreigners had developed AIDS.  Minister of Public Health Dai Zhicheng said of those infected, 153 were from mainland China and 41 were foreigners. The sharp increase is due to HIV testing among drug users in Yunnan province.  These tests revealed 146 cases of HIV infection in Yunnan.  This is the first time China has traced HIV/AIDS cases among drug users in remote areas. HIV/AIDS has now been reported in 10 provinces and regions. "The situation shows that AIDS has not only arrived in China, but is also spreading fast," said Dai.
––"China Reports 194 Infected by AIDS Virus," Xinhua, 7 February 1990; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 February 1990, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

10 February 1990
Speaking at a round-table on AIDS prevention, Zhen Xiwen, Vice-President of the Chinese Academy of Preventative Medical Science said an AIDS epidemic falls into three stages: 1) the infection of the virus; 2) the spreading of the virus; and 3) the disaster caused by the disease to the economy, culture and the society as a whole by the virus.  Experts at the meeting gave several recommendations:

  • Since HIV/AIDS is primarily transmitted through blood, the central government should establish a nation-wide monitoring agency as soon as possible, and each blood donor should be carefully examined.
  • The central government should pass laws and regulations on the prevention of AIDS.
  • Since it is not possible to have all medical facilities convert to disposable syringes, medical personnel should trained on proper sterilization techniques.
  • Education and awareness should be provided to eliminate drug addiction and abnormal sex behavior, such as homosexuality.

––"Specialists Call for Control of AIDS at Early Stage," Xinhua, 10 February 1990; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 February 1990, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

1 March 1990
Dai Zhicheng, Director of Epidemic Prevention at the Ministry of Public Health announced the formation of the National AIDS Committee (NAC). Headed by Vice-Minister of Public Health He Jiesheng, the NAC will be responsible for drafting China's policies and plans for AIDS prevention and control and to control various activities in this effort.  China listed AIDS as one of its infectious diseases in 1986, and in 1987 it formulated its National Program on AIDS Prevention. According to health officials, 50 HIV test facilities have been set up throughout China, and two confirmatory test labs have been established in Beijing and China. Together, this forms China's national AIDS monitoring and reporting network.

Chinese health officials and the World Health Organization (WHO) have drafted China's first National Plan to Prevent and Control AIDS over the next three years. The medium and long term objectives and strategies include  "professional training and surveillance on and research into the disease.  Efforts will be made to five priorities to prevention of AIDS transmission through sex, blood and prenatal care, as well as to increase surveillance of high-risk groups and promote education and awareness."
––"China Sets Up National AIDS Committee," Xinhua, 1 March 1990; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 March 1990, http://www.lexisnexis.com; "China Drafting three-year Plan to Combat AIDS," Xinhua, 1 March 1990; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 March 1990, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

2 March 1990
Yunnan health officials placed 146 AIDS patients in local quarantine for medical care according to the Ministry of Health (MOH).  Dai Zhicheng, Director of the Epidemic Prevention Department for the Ministry of Health said that when 1,000 registered heroin users were tested for HIV, 146 were discovered to be HIV positive. "Dai said the discovery took China's health authorities by surprise and created a new challenge for the country's AIDS prevention and control strategy," reported Xinhua.
––"Yunnan AIDS Carriers Quarantined," Xinhua, 2 March 1990; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 March 1990, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

12 April 1990
A HIV/AIDS Medical facility that specializes in using traditional Chinese medicine has been set up in Harbin, Heilongjiang. Head physician Huang Binshan and some US doctors have claimed some success in treating 181 AIDS patients.
––"Center for AIDS Patients," Xinhua, 12 April 1990; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 April 1990, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

20 June 1990
China attended the 6th International Conference on HIV/AIDS held in San Francisco, California and hosted by the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Several countries and organizations threatened to boycott the conference because of the US policy of barring any person infected with HIV/AIDS to enter the country. The United States later relented and said it would issue 10-day visas to people who wanted to enter the Untied States for professional or scientific purposes. According to Xinhua, nearly 500 demonstrators "many of them homosexuals, walked down San Francisco to protest the US immigration policies and what they called 'complete lack of government response' to the epidemic." Xinhua also wrote that "nearly 90 percent of adult US victims are male homosexuals or intravenous drug users or a combination of both."
––"International AIDS Meeting to Open in San Francisco," Xinhua, 20 June 1990; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 June 1990, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

17 July 1990
Chinese officials reported they have discovered another 91 HIV cases along China's border with the "Golden Triangle," reported China Daily.  He Jiesheng, Vice-Minister of Public Health said the 91 victims were infected through "communal use of contaminated syringes for intravenous injections."  To date China has 305 cases of HIV, including Chinese nationals and foreigners.
––"Ninety-One More Drug Addicts Found Infected with AIDS," Associated Press, 17 July 1990; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 July 1990, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

18 October 1990
The Ministry of Public Health stated, “The spread of AIDS has become relatively serious in our country.” From 1985 to the present, a total of 446 cases have been confirmed HIV positive and five (two Chinese citizens and three from outside China) have progressed to AIDS. Of the 446 cases, 378 are Chinese citizens and 68 are from outside China.  Of the 378 Chinese citizens, 368 are from Yunnan and all are related to the sharing of needles.  The Ministry of Public Health has established three HIV/AIDS testing laboratories, thus beginning a monitoring network.

––“AIDS Problem ‘relatively serious,’” Xinhua, 18 October 2001 in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 October 2001, http://www.lexisnexis.com. 

20 October 1990
Dr. Qi Xiaoqiu of the Epidemic Prevention Department of the Health Ministry reported that 378 Chinese nationals have tested positive for HIV. “All but 10 of the 378 were from the southwest Chinese province of Yunnan, which borders the drug-producing Golden Triangle.” All of these AIDS victims “said they were drug addicts who injected heroin.” Before last year, the only Chinese that tested positive for the AIDS virus were four hemophiliacs infected by tainted blood products from abroad. To date four Chinese have died of AIDS.

––Charlene L. Fu, “134 New AIDS Cases Reported in China,” Associated Press, 20 October 1990; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 October 1990, http://www.lexisnexis.com. 

3 November 1990
China announced the death of two Chinese men from AIDS. One of these men was a drug addict from Yunnan, and the other was a Beijing resident who contracted HIV through sexual intercourse while traveling abroad. Since 1985, China has confirmed that 446 people have contracted the AIDS virus, of which 378 are Chinese. Some 368 of the Chinese carriers are from Yunnan.
––"China Announces Two Deaths," Toronto Star, 3 November 1990; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 November 1990, http://www.lexisnexis.com. 

8 November 1990
Some 250 Chinese and 140 US experts from medical, legal, educational, social and religious circles attended a two-day Sino-US conference on the management of HIV/AIDS in Beijing. During the opening speech, Chen Minzhang, Chinese Minister of Public Health stated, "To effectively restrain the spread and finally put under control this deadly infectious disease, we much take unified and trans-regional and transnational measures and set up a global network for prevention and treatment." Zhu Qi, a professor at the National Health Education Institute of China presented a paper that said the cause of the rampant AIDS threat is sexual promiscuity. "Only through healthy lifestyle can humanity survive the AIDS epidemic," he said. Zhu pointed to homosexuality, drug addiction and pre-marital sex as the root causes of the rapid spread of the AIDS epidemic.  Professor Wang Xiaodao of Beijing Medical University and a committee member of the Chinese Sexual Science Committee told the symposium that "promiscuous sexual relations destroy the ecological balance in the process of human sexual activity as well as the psychological and social balance of sexual relations will be destroyed," reported Xinhua. 

Dr. Fredric Colley of the Oregon College of Oriental Medicine reported that chronic pain was successfully relieved in some 50 AIDS patients treated with traditional Chinese medicine.  Colley said, "It is not a fact that traditional Chinese medicine helps alleviate the pain of some AIDS patients and to improve their quality of life," reported Xinhua. Dr Wu Pingbo of the Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine said the lives of over 3,000 AIDS patients in Africa were "prolonged and their symptoms alleviated" according to Xinhua. "Most Western medicines, although proved effective in treating AIDS, has side effects or is poisonous. Chinese traditional herbs, even when they are used over a long period of time, will not lead to negative results," Wu reported.
––"Sino-American AIDS Symposium Opens in Beijing," Xinhua, 8 November 1990; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 November 1990, http://www.lexisnexis.com; "Traditional Chinese Medicine Effective in Alleviating AIDS Pain," Xinhua, 9 November 1990; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 November 1990, http://www.lexisnexis.com; "Healthy Behavior Key to AIDS Eradication," Xinhua, 9 November 1990; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 November 1990, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

9 November 1990
During a Sino-American HIV Symposium in Beijing, two Chinese academic professionals stated that “healthy behavior” is the key to stopping the spread of AIDS. Zhu Qi, from the National Health Education Institute “pointed out that the root cause of the swift spread of AIDS is unhealthy life styles, such as homosexuality, drug addiction, and non-marital sexual relations.” He stated, “Only through a healthy lifestyle can humanity survive the AIDS epidemic." Wang Xiaodao, a professor at the Beijing Medical University and a committed member of the Chinese Sexual Science Committee told the symposium that "promiscuous sexual relations destroy the ecological balance of normal microbes, and pathogenic micro-organisms grow and spread, then the ecological balance in the process of human sexual activity as well as the psychological and social balance of sexual relations will be destroyed." He described venereal diseases and AIDS as double punishment inflicted by nature on human society.

“The Chinese specialists agreed that establishing healthy lifestyles is the only way to control AIDS. They asserted that it is impossible to try to control AIDS with special medicines and condoms, not only because there is little chance of discovering a cure for aids within this century, but also because HIV becomes part of the genes of the affected cell as soon as it enters the body. Thus it is difficult to treat patients with anti-AIDS drugs.”
––“Healthy Behavior Key to AIDS Eradication,” Xinhua, 9 November 1990; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 November 1990, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

16 November 1990
Earlier this year, over 200,000 visitors attended an exhibition in Beijing on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) hosted by the Beijing Municipal Health Education Institute (BMHEI). Shan Guangnai, Deputy Research Fellow with the sociological institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences said, "The best defense against AIDS is information.  Only after people fully understand the seriousness of the disease can they do their utmost to protect themselves and others."
––"Prevention, Still Only Cure for AIDS," Xinhua, 16 November 1990; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 November  1990, http://www.lexisnexis.com. 

29 November 1990
Xinhua has reported that two sexually transmitted cases of HIV/AIDS have been confirmed in Yunnan. “Both cases are women and they became infected by their husbands who had been exposed to the virus by communal use of contaminated syringes.”
––“Two HIV Cases Detected in Yunnan,” Xinhua. 29 November 1990; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 29 November 1990, http://www.lexisnexis.com

29 November 1990
The following interview was broadcasted on China Central Television (CCTV): A narrator started by saying ''AIDS was introduced into our country in the early 1980s. In recent years, the disease has become widespread to a relatively serious extent, and has become a severe epidemic in certain localities.'' Then followed an interview with the Public Health Minister Chen Minzhang. [Full Text]

––“Health Officials on Measure to Control the Spread of AIDS,” China Central Television, 29 November 1990; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 29 November 1990, http://www.lexisnexis.com

1 December 1990
To mark the third annual World AIDS Day, health officials passed out a 90-page pamphlet entitled "AIDS." Also, some 600 grassroots doctors gathered in Beijing to participate in China's first in-service training class concerning the prevention and treatment of AIDS.  Since 1985, 446 HIV cases have been reported, of which five have developed full-blown AIDS.  Although the incidence of HIV/AIDS is sill quite low, "the Chinese government has confronted the hovering shadow of AIDS and along with the world health organization (WHO) has prepared a medium term program for its control, which has been reviewed in draft form and will be finalized shortly," said Roy Morey, resident representative of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) in China.
––“China Commemorates World AIDS Day," Xinhua, 1 December 1990; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December 1990, http://www.lexisnexis.com

1991
1 March 1991
Speaking at a national meeting on AIDS monitoring and testing, a senior Ministry of Health (MOH) official reported in the past five years, China has tested some 400,000 blood samples to monitor AIDS in China.  As of last September China has confirmed 446 HIV cases, of which five have developed AIDS (two were Chinese nationals). The number of HIV/AIDS cases is distributed over 11 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Dai Zhicheng announced that China would step up its AIDS monitoring efforts in the special economic zones, coastal cities and tourism areas. The coastal province of Guangdong has reported nine HIV cases of which eight were overseas visitors, and the one Chinese case was infected with the AIDS virus during a trip overseas.
––“China Steps up AIDS Monitoring," Xinhua, 1 March 1991; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 March 1991, http://www.lexisnexis.com

14 March 1991
While addressing an international conference co-sponsored by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Development Program (UNDO) on AIDS prevention and control, Deputy Minister of Public Health He Jiesheng said that "the prevention of control of the AIDS epidemic have become one of the priorities in China's health sector in recent years, due to the increased international contacts," wrote Xinhua. In her speech, she also noted that "education and publicity and maintain strict control" were the key elements of HIV/AIDS prevention.

Dai Zhicheng, Head of the Ministry of Health's (MOH) Department of epidemic Prevention, reported that China plans to test up to three million citizens and increase its surveillance of high-risk groups.  To date, the MOH tested only 500,000 people for the AIDS virus. "The numbers are far from enough to get a clear picture of AIDS distribution in China." He added, "We will try to get a clearer picture in two to three years by doing a lot more testing, particularly of high-risk groups." The three year program will cost about three million USD, of which China will provide one million USD.
––“China Hastens AIDS Prevention and Control," Xinhua, 14 March 1991; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 March 1991, http://www.lexisnexis.com; "China to expand Anti-AIDS Measures," United Press International, 15 March 1991; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 March 1991, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

21 March 1991
The number of border quarantine stations have increased to 151, which employ over 3,000 personnel. China's original border quarantine control system was established in 1973. However, due to China's "opening up," the "Border Quarantine Law" was published in 1986. The National Office for Border Control was opened in 1988, and the Ministry of Health (MOH) published details of the law in 1989. In the past few years, these stations have reported 45,000 cases of infectious diseases, of which 128 were HIV cases and two were AIDS cases. The stations also discovered 1,208 cases of venereal diseases, along with several cases of hepatitis, cholera, malaria, and pulmonary tuberculosis.
––“China Has Set up 151 Border Quarantine Stations," Xinhua, 21 March 1991; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 March 1991, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

21 May 1991
Yin Dakui, Director of the Sichuan Provincial Public Health Department announced Sichuan's first registered HIV case, a middle-aged male laborer who returned from overseas in early April.
––“First HIV-Positive Case Found in Sichuan," China Press, 12 May 1991; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 March 1991, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

14 June 1991
Several farmers in two of Beijing's agricultural districts tore up and burned prints of oil paintings because they believed the pictures contained the AIDS virus, reported Beijing Daily.  After a rumor that an unnamed publishing company was spreading AIDS, "some farmers who did not understand the true situation were scared of being infected and many tore from wall or burned the oil paintings," the paper reported. 
––"Chinese Farmers Thought AIDS Spread by Paintings," Agence France Presse, 14 June 1991; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 June 1991, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

25 June 1991
In an article of the global impact of HIV/AIDS, the Los Angeles Times reported that China’s HIV infection total is estimated at 20,000.

––Robert Steinbrook, “Speaking of AIDS,” Los Angeles's Times, 25 June 1991, p. 8.

22 July 1991
At a national seminar on AIDS prevention and control in Kunming, Yunnan, the Ministry of Health (MOH) said along with increasing international contacts and the development of tourism, China is faced with a growing threat of AIDS. Since 1985, China has confirmed 493 HIV cases, of which five had developed AIDS. Statistics show that blood transfusion and sexual activities are the main methods of HIV transmission, however, no case of mother-to-infant transmission has been recorded. Since China reported its first HIV/AIDS case, it has taken the following steps to prevent AIDS in China:

  • 1986 - The Ministry of Public Heath established the AIDS Prevention and Control Group.  Shortly thereafter, the Group set up a series of programs related to awareness, education and testing, as well as professional training and development.
  • 1989 - China passed the "Law to Prevent and Control Infectious Diseases," which AIDS, syphilis and gonorrhea were labeled as second grade infections.
  • 1990 - China established the National AIDS Prevention and Control Commission along with a expert committee to guide and supervise the nation wide campaign against AIDS.

A official from the World Health Organization (WHO) stated, "China has an excellent county-town-village epidemic prevention system in rural areas, and that this factor will be of great importance in curbing the spread of the AIDS virus," reported Xinhua.
 ––“China Sets Up to Fight AIDS," Xinhua, 22 July 1991; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 July 1991, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

6 September 1991
The Ministry of Public Health (MOH) reported the number of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) decreased by 30 percent during the first half of 1991. An official from the MOH said the STD rate is now under control in China. He credits the crackdown on prostitution for this decline.  MOH statistics show that over 40 percent of prostitutes arrested by the Public Security Bureau (PSB) carried some type of STD.  During 1990, 44,117 cases of STD were reported to the MOH.  The Ministry of Health called on "public health departments across the country to coordinate with public security departments to help prevent and treat STD," wrote Xinhua.
––“China Curbs Sexually Transmitted Diseases," Xinhua, 6 September 1991; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 September 1991, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

30 September 1991
Health News published an article describing the discrimination that HIV/AIDS patients face in China. It cited a case of a man from Hebei province.  When he went to a local Hebei hospital, over half the patients moved out of the ward, and some called for his family to leave the area.  In Guangzhou, nurses refused to take blood from HIV/AIDS patients. In Zhejiang province, a recent university graduate has been turned away by possible employers, and his parents have been ostracized. Some shop assistants have refused to accept money from HIV carriers fearing they could contract the virus from the money, reported the paper.
––“AIDS Carriers Suffer Doubly in China," Agence France Presse, 30 September 1991; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 September 1991, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

20 November 1991
Over 50 doctors, counselors, scholars and social workers from over 30 provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities, universities and other units attended a training program on AIDS counseling hosted by the Beijing-based National Health Education Institute (NHEI) and co-sponsored by the Ministry of Public Health (MOH) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The first of its kind in China, the program trained the participants to become experts in AIDS counseling and treatment in their local facilities and institutions.  "Counseling is a good and useful way to provide people with correct information and knowledge about AIDS and to make them aware of the ways of HIV transmission," said Wan Yanhai, an assistant researcher from the NHEI.
––“Educate China to Fight AIDS," Xinhua, 20 November 1991; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 November 1991, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

23 November 1991
Shanghai announced the discovery of its first HIV case. The Liberation Daily reported that a 28-year-old Chinese woman tested positive after her finance from Hong Kong also tested positive during a pre-marital health exam. "Shanghai authorities expelled the businessman from China, immediately hospitalized his girlfriend and banned their marriage," the paper said.  In 1990, Shanghai health authorities expelled an American homosexual who tested positive for the AIDS virus and disinfected the entire hotel where he was staying.
––“Shanghai Reports First Case of AIDS Virus," Agence France Presse, 23 November 1991; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 23 November 1991, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

30 November 1991
While addressing a AIDS forum to mark World AIDS Day, Minster of Public Health Chen Minzhang reported the number of HIV cases has risen to 615, of which eight had developed full-blown AIDS. Of the AIDS patients, three were Chinese nationals, of which one died in 1989 and one in July of this year. (122 cases were discovered in the first 11 months of 1991.) HIV cases have been reported in 15 Chinese provinces, autonomous regions, and cities.  Chen noted most of the new infections were contracted through needle sharing in southwest China and Chinese who have returned from abroad in the coastal areas. Patients also include prostitutes and venereal disease patients from the larger cities. To date no mother-to-child transmission has been recorded.

Health experts list the areas in which China should strengthen prevention and control:

  • Prevent HIV/AIDS from entering China from neighboring countries.
  • Increase AIDS education and awareness among labor and service personnel who travel to counties with a high rate of HIV infections.
  • Crack down on illegal behavior, such as prostitution and drug abuse.
  • Standardize medical sterilization procedures.
  • Closely monitor expectant mothers to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS.

––“122 More AIDS Cases reported in China," Xinhua, 30 November 1991; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 November 1991, http://www.lexisnexis.com; "China Highly Concerned About AIDS," Xinhua, 30 November 1991; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 November 1991, http://www.lexisnexis.com; Fan You, "AIDS in China Spread Unabated," Guangming Ribao, 1 December 1991; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 December 1991, http://www.lexisnexis.com

30 November 1991
Guangdong health officials reported a total of 22 HIV cases, of which two have developed AIDS, and one had died since 1986.  In the first 11 months of 1991, health officials discovered 13 of the 22 cases.  Statistics show that of the 22 HIV/AIDS cases, all of them originated outside mainland China; 15 were foreigners and seven were local Chinese who were infected abroad.  Of the two AIDS patients, one was Indonesian and died in a Guangdong hospital and one was from Hong Kong who was sent back last March.  Of the 22 confirmed HIV cases, one was found in 1987, two in 1989, five  in 1990 and 13 this year.  Guangdong health officials have set up 36 AIDS monitoring stations across the province.
––"Guangdong Steps up Fight Against AIDS," Xinhua, 30 November 1991; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 November 1991, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

30 November 1991
China Daily reported the opening of Beijing first AIDS counseling center located in You'an Hospital. Yang Guanglu, a member for the Counseling Committee on Venereal Diseases with the Ministry of Public Health (MOH) and the Center's administrator, said the clinic aims to help provide accurate information about AIDS through literature and counseling on its transmission, symptoms and prevention. "Our first task is to provide information about AIDS," Yang said.  The Clinic will also offer testing and treatment for HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. He added the names, address and medical records will remain strictly confidential. "If an AIDS-infected person comes in, I will treat him myself," Yang acknowledged. "But if I couldn't do enough alone, I would have to study the case  with doctors in the big hospitals in Beijing."  The clinic currently has two beds designated for AIDS patients. Yang added, "Its impossible that we would have a large number of AIDS patients in a year or two." In Beijing, with 11 million residents, "the risk of infection is miniscule compared with large Western cities," he said.
––""Beijing Sets up AIDS Clinic," Xinhua, 30 November 1991; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 November 1991, http://www.lexisnexis.com; Pascale Trouillaud, "First AIDS Clinic Opens in Beijing," United Press International, 3 December 1991; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 December 1991, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

1992
17 March 1992
China's Ministry of Public Health reported there were 212 confirmed cases of HIV infection in 1991, of which 177 are Chinese residents. Three have developed AIDS, of which one is a Chinese national.
––"Infectious Disease Drops in China," Xinhua, 17 March 1992; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 March 1992, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

9 April 1992
China's Health Education Institute announced the opening of an AIDS hotline in Beijing. They confirmed that all callers will be able to remain anonymous.
––"Beijing Opens 'AIDS Hotline,'" Xinhua, 9 April 1992; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 April 1992, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

15 April 1992
The Hainan Provincial AIDS Control Association was established in Haikou today. Hainan province has one of China's 13 monitory centers, with five monitoring spots on the island. To date no cases of HIV have been reported, but two people were confirmed to have HIV after returning from aboard.
––"AIDS Control Association Established in Hainan," Xinhua, 15 April 1992; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 April 1992,, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

9 May 1992
An editorial entitled "Drive Away the AIDS Phantom that has Entered China - Situation of Prevention and Cure of AIDS on Chinese Mainland," which was published in the Guangming Ribao, warns of the potential of an increased AIDS rate in China. The report noted that most AIDS cases in China now involve local residents rather than overseas infections. It said that although there has been no reported case of mother-infant transmission, four-fifths of China AIDS cases originated in Yunnan, most of which are related to needle sharing.

According to the article, the first step to be taken should be to increase AIDS surveillance. It said 12 types of people should be closely monitored: venereal disease patients, prostitutes, drug addicts, homosexuals, users of imported blood products, returned seaman, Chinese who work abroad, hotel staff and tour guides, residents of border areas and home towns of overseas Chinese, those who have close contact with AIDS patients or work in AIDS laboratories, foreign students, and blood, tissue and organ donors.

Recent propaganda efforts during the last five years have not been satisfactory because "even population groups with higher educational standards have limited knowledge about AIDS," and "one can only guess what limited knowledge the relatively poorly-educated rural population may have about AIDS," the article said. 

The disadvantages China faces are China's vast potential number of AIDS patients; limited funds for AIDS prevention, control and research; a medical system which cannot afford to quarantine a large number of people; a large illiterate population, a wide variety of nationalities and languages, and traditional taboos about sex.
––Zeng Liming, "Drive Away the AIDS Phantom that has Entered China - Situation of Prevention and Cure of AIDS on Chinese Mainland," Guangming Ribao, 9 May 1992; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 May 1992, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

6 July 1992
According to the People's Daily, Lu Weibo of the Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine has succeeded in treating AIDS patients in Tanzania with traditional Chinese herbal medicine. The report states of the 158 AIDS patients treated, 39.87 percent became HIV negative after 10 to 15 months. The mortality rate of patients being treated with a combination of Chinese and western medication was 12.04 percent, but patients treated with only western medication reached 60 percent.
––"China Succeeds in Treating AIDS with Chinese Herbal Medicine," Xinhua, 6 July 1992; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 July 1992, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

6 July 1992
China's Jilin province and Denmark have signed a trade deal that will allow Denmark to import 260 million USD worth of a newly developed anti-AIDS drug called milingwang.  The medicine was developed by Lin Haifeng, Director of the Tonghua Institute of Medicines for AIDS Prevention and Cure. Xinhua reported that milingwang has been tested on AIDS patients in Yunnan, Argentina, Brazil and Tanzania, and results showed the medicine has "curative effects over some AIDS patients."
––"China to Export Anti-AIDS Medicine," Xinhua, 6 July 1992; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 July 1992, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

24 July 1992
China sent its first delegation to the International Conference on AIDS. At the conference China outlined its medium-range AIDS prevention plan and confirmed its has 11 AIDS patients. Chinese officials also presented their findings on using Chinese traditional medicine to treat AIDS.
––"Chinese Official Briefs International Meeting on AIDS Policy," Xinhua, 24 July 1992; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 July 1992, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

22 September 1992
During a regional AIDS conference on the effects AIDS has on development held in Kunming, Yunnan, He Jiesheng, Vice Minister of Public Health announced that China has 932 confirmed cases of HIV infection, of which 11 have full-blown AIDS (nine have died).  The three day conference was attended by China, India, Vietnam, Thailand, Hong Kong, Macao, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and focused on how to increase regional cooperation on the fight against AIDS.
––"Seminar on AIDS Effects on Development Held in Kunming," Xinhua, 22 September 1992; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 September 1993, http://www.lexisnexis.com; "932 people Infected with AIDS in China," Kyodo News Service (Tokyo), 23 September 1992; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 23 September 1993, http://www.lexisnexis.com

29 October 1992
The Ministry of Health (MOH) reported China has 148,000 registered drug users, twice the number in 1990. "Most of the verified HIV carriers were drug abusers in the southern province of Yunnan and contracted the virus by sharing needles," the report said.  It also noted a recent survey of 5,000 drug addicts in Xi'an revealed that 90 percent of drug abusers were males under the age of 25.
––"China Battles Rising Tide of Drug Abuse," Kyodo News Service (Tokyo), 29 October 1992; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 July 1992, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

8 November 1992
The World Health Organization (WHO) warned that the spread of AIDS may be spreading throughout Asia at a rate equal to that of Africa during the early 1980s. Michael H. Merson, director of the WHO’s Global Program on AIDS, stated that the “AIDS epidemic was threatening Asian governments and healthcare systems and could, in some nations, wipe out the most productive elements of the labor force.” Some health experts believe that the number of Chinese infected with HIV/AIDS is much higher than the official estimate of approximately 1,000 cases because of the increase in intravenous drug use in China’s south west provinces.

––Phillip Shenon, “Edge of the Chasm: AIDS Comes to Asia,” New York Times, 8 November 1992; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 November 1992, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

14 November 1992
Medical experts attending a recent AIDS conference advise that "publicity should be further expanded to spread scientific knowledge and help the public adopt healthy lifestyles, especially among some high-risk sectors of the population, such as drug addicts," reported China Daily. China has reported 148,000 registered drug users, and 890 HIV cases.
––"Medical Workers Call for Greater AIDS Awareness," Kyodo News Service (Tokyo), 14 November 1992; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 November 1992, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

23 November 1992
The National Health Education Institute's "AIDS Hotline" sponsored China's first AIDS awareness conference for gay men in an attempt to educated Beijing's gay population about HIV/AIDS. The conference was advertised throughout Beijing's gay meeting areas, but only 30 people showed up.  China reports around 900 HIV carriers.
––Geoffrey Crothall, "Beijing Hosts China's First AIDS Summit for Gays," South China Morning Post, 23 November 1992; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 23 November 1992, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

1 December 1992
During a conference coinciding with World AIDS Day, Chen Minzhang, Minister of Public Health, announced that out of only two million Chinese tested, 969 have confirmed cases of HIV infection, 12 of which have developed into full-blown AIDS and nine of whom have died. Official statistics show that 74 percent of AIDS victims contracted the disease through drug abuse/ sharing of needles, and the rest through sexual intercourse. To date China has 148,000 registered drug users, and 360,000 people have tested positive for a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Chen said China has begun to establish a national surveillance system for AIDS control.

According to a report in the Worker's Daily, China has yet to launch a national AIDS prevention campaign and "must adopt suitable measures including education and law enforcement to control the spread of prostitution, casual sex, drug use and other hideous trends in society." The Guangdong-based Yangcheng Evening News stated that the "human face of AIDS" must be addressed. It reported about a boy who was not allowed to attend primary school because he was the son of an HIV carrier. "After the government intervened, the school grudgingly relented but made the boy sit all alone in class," the paper reported.

Bernard Kern, Beijing representative of the United Nations (UN), stated, "For the last three years, WHO has urged that there is still time to act.  That time is rapidly running out." He continued, "There is a rapidly expanding portion of the population that is mobile and affluent. Among this sector is a growing number of people who patronize prostitutes or use drugs. Unfortunately, the very people who are personally benefiting from economic progress may include those most at risk for HIV transmission."  Arthur Holcombe, of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) said, "Public policy should be based on realities, not ideals...and concentrate on making drug using and sexual behaviors safe." He urged the use of condoms by prostitutes and clean needles by drug users, but admitted that there is little chance that the present Chinese system will stop criminalizing homosexuals, prostitutes, and drug users.
––"China has 969 Reported Cases of AIDS Infection," Xinhua, 1 December 1992;  in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December  1992, http://www.lexisnexis.com; "China Marks World AIDS Day with Warning," Kyodo News Service (Tokyo), 1 December 1992; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December  1992, http://www.lexisnexis.com; "Time is Running Out for China to Fight AIDS," Agence France Presse, 1 December 1992; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December  1992, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

28 December 1992
Experts from the Economic Institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences have concluded that "AIDS in not merely a medical question but it influences socio-economic life as well," reported Xinhua. They note that research must be done on the relationship between AIDS and the rural labor migration, infection and high-labor-flow occupations, and the impact of AIDS on labor markets and investment practices.
––"Chinese Economists Join AIDS Research," Xinhua, 28 December 1992; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 December  1992, http://www.lexisnexis.com.

1993
10 February 1993

The China National Health Education Institute, under the Ministry of Public Health, “has mapped out a national plan to motivate gay men to play an active role in the prevention of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS),” reports the English language China Daily. AIDS coordinator Wan Yanha