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Sexual Activity

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Abma, J. C. and F. L. Sonenstein. 2001. “Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Practices among Teenagers in the United States, 1988 and 1995.” Vital & Health Statistics - Series 23, Data From the National Survey of Family Growth pp. 1-79.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This report presents national estimates of sexual experience, contraceptive use, and selected aspects of sexual behavior among never-married males and females aged 15-19 years in the United States. Data are presented for the years 1988 and 1995 according to age, race and Hispanic origin, progress in school, and other relevant characteristics. Tables present trends over time as well as comparisons between subgroups. METHODS: Descriptive tables of numbers and percents are presented and interpreted. Data for females are from the National Survey of Family Growth, and data for males are from the National Survey of Adolescent Males. RESULTS: About half of all never-married teenagers, about 17.5 million, had had sexual intercourse at least once in 1995. For male teenagers, this represents a decline since 1988, and for females, the proportion was stable across the two time points. The proportion of teen females who had sex before age 15 years increased. In 1995, 29 percent of females and 19 percent of males had unprotected recent sexual intercourse. About one-quarter of teens used no contraceptives during their first sexual intercourse. The condom remained the most popular method of contraception. Although teenagers' use of oral contraceptives dropped between 1988 and 1995, use of injectable and implant contraceptives began. Teenagers with more highly educated mothers, mothers who delayed their first birth beyond age 19 years, those from two-parent families, and those whose schooling was on schedule, were less likely to engage in sexual risk behaviors. These teenagers, along with those who were Protestant, also experienced the largest improvements across time in sexual risk behaviors. [Source: ML]

Bearman, P. S. and H. Bruckner. 2001. “Promising the Future: Virginity Pledges and First Intercourse.” American Journal of Sociology vol. 106, pp. 859-912.
Abstract: Since 1993, in response to a movement sponsored by the Southern Baptist Church, over 2.5 million adolescents have taken public "virginity" pledges, in which they promise to abstain from sex until marriage. This paper explores the effect of those pledges on the transition to first intercourse. Adolescents who pledge are much less likely to have intercourse than adolescents who do not pledge. The delay effect is substantial. On the other hand, the pledge does not work for adolescents at ail ages. Second, pledging delays intercourse only in contexts where there are some, but not too many, pledgers. The pledge works because it is embedded in an identity movement. Consequently, the pledge identity is meaningful only in contexts where it is at least partially nonnormative. Consequences of pledging are explored for those who break their promise. Promise breakers are less likely than others to use contraception at first intercourse. [Source: SC]

Langer, L. M., G. J. Warheit, and L. P. McDonald. 2001. “Correlates and Predictors of Risky Sexual Practices among a Multi-Racial/Ethnic Sample of University Students.” Social Behavior and Personality vol. 29, pp. 133-144.
Abstract: This research identifies the correlates and predictors of risky sexual behaviors among an ethnically diverse multiethnic sample of college students attending a large state university in the southeastern U.S. (N=338). Nine risk and five protective factors served as independent/predictive factors in the analyses. The dependent variable was scores on a risky sexual behaviors scale. Six of the nine risk factors and four of the five protective factors were significantly correlated with scores on the risky sexual behaviors scale. Regression analyses identified six significant predictors of risky sexual practices: number of partners in last six months; religious values; condom attitudes; age at first sex; hinging on alcohol; and residential locus. These terms explained 29.4% of the total variance in risky sexual behavior scores. Implications for prevention programs and future research are noted. [Source: SC]

Paradise, J. E., J. Cote, S. Minsky, A. Lourenco, and J. Howland. 2001. “Personal Values and Sexual Decision-Making among Virginal and Sexually Experienced Urban Adolescent Girls.” Journal of Adolescent Health vol. 28, pp. 404-409.
Abstract: Purpose: To guide the development of an intervention to reduce the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in urban, adolescent girls, we investigated such girls' reasons for deciding to have or not to have sexual intercourse. Methods: Consecutive girls greater than or equal to 14 years of age attending an urban adolescent clinic were invited to complete an anonymous survey about sexual decision-making. In this pilot study, girls were asked: (a) whether they agreed with a statement that they had or had not had sexual intercourse "because of my values and beliefs"; and (b) to select from a list one or more specific reasons why they had or had not had intercourse. The girls were categorized by self-report as either "virgins," "currently inactive" (no intercourse in the preceding 3 months), or "currently active" (had intercourse during the preceding 3 months). Results: Usable surveys were obtained from 197 adolescents whose age (18.2 +/- 2.6 years) and race (69% black) were comparable to those of clinic attendees in general. Forty girls (20%; age 16.1 +/- 2.1 years) were virgins, 25 girls (13%; age 17.8 +/- 2.3 years) were inactive, and 132 girls (67%; age 18.9 +/- 2.5 years) were currently active. "Values and beliefs" were cited as the reason for decisions about sexual behavior by 53% of the virgins, but only by 24% of the sexually inactive and 24% of the sexually active girls (p = .002). Virgins were more likely than inactive girls to cite three specific reasons for not having sex: "not the right thing for me now" (82% vs. 50%, p = .007), "waiting until I am older" (69% vs. 8%, p = .001), and "waiting until I am married" (67% vs. 38%, p = .02). The reason "against my religious beliefs" was cited by 23% of virgins and 13% of inactive girls (p = not significant). Personal values were implicit in the two specific reasons for having sex that active girls chose most frequently, namely, "I like/love the person" (86%) and "I like having sex" (37%), although only 24% of these girls had explicitly cited "values and beliefs" as their reason for having sex. Conclusions: Our data indicate that urban girls, both those who have had sexual intercourse and those who have not, view their sexual behavior as being based on personal (although infrequently religious) values. Many of the virginal urban, adolescent girls we surveyed hold abstinence as a personal value. The sexually active adolescents perceive the decision to have sexual intercourse as being based affirmatively on their personal values rather than on the chance occurrence of opportunities to have intercourse. These data may be useful in the development of new strategies for reducing urban adolescent girls' risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases. [Source: SC]

Rosenthal, S. L., K. M. Von Ranson, S. Cotton, F. M. Biro, L. Mills, and P. A. Succop. 2001. “Sexual Initiation - Predictors and Developmental Trends.” Sexually Transmitted Diseases vol. 28, pp. 527-532.
Abstract: Background: Early initiation of sexual intercourse is associated with increased risk for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases. Goal: To examine variables related to sexual initiation and developmental changes in the reasons why adolescent girls have sexual intercourse. Study Design: A longitudinal study of girls recruited from an adolescent medicine clinic was performed. Results: Logistic regression showed that girls who described their families as being expressive, having a moral-religious emphasis, providing supervision, and having greater maternal education, and who experienced menarche at an older age were older at sexual initiation. On the basis of contingency analyses, younger girls were less likely to report attraction or love, and more likely to report peers having sex as a reason for sexual intercourse at initiation. A generalized estimating equation analysis indicated that girls at younger ages are more likely to report curiosity, a grown-up feeling, partner pressure, and friends having sexual intercourse as reasons for intercourse. Girls at older ages are more likely to report a feeling of being in love, physical attraction, too excited to stop, drunk or high partner, and feeling romantic as reasons for having sexual intercourse. Conclusions: Prevention programs should include a focus on familial characteristics and susceptibility to peer norms. They should be conducted with sensitivity to the developmental changes in intimate relationships that occur during adolescence. [Source: SC]

Rucibwa, Naphtal Kaberege. 2001. “Family and Peer Influences on Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors in Black and Hispanic Adolescent Males.” Dr.P.H. Thesis, Loma Linda University.
Abstract: In California, pregnancy is one of the most important social problems in adolescence. Although, the teenage pregnancy rate has been decreasing since 1991, the number of babies fathered by males younger than 20 years remains high due to frequent sexual involvement, particularly in Black and Hispanic youths. A total of 178 adolescent males, 88 Blacks and 90 Hispanics, aged 13 to 19 years were selected from a database of a 1996 Youth Survey conducted as part of the local needs assessment in neighborhoods with high rates of teen pregnancy in San Bernardino County, California. The purpose of this study was to assess the sexual attitudes and behaviors, and to investigate the relationships of family and peer factors and the dimensions of the expanded Health Belief Model with sexual involvement in the study population. Nearly 67% of the sample were sexually experienced. Of them, 71% were Blacks and 63% were Hispanics. Approximately, 36% of Blacks and 33% of Hispanics reported being sexually experienced by age 13 years. Almost 43% of Blacks and 40% of Hispanics reported that they had sexual intercourse during the month preceding the survey. Both Black and Hispanic adolescent males who had been sexually experienced reported a strong belief that sexual intercourse validates masculinity and increases a closeness to a girlfriend. Findings from the multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that, as exposure to the family and peer risk factors increases, so does the likelihood of sexual involvement in both Black and Hispanic respondents. Black adolescent males were more likely to be influenced by having a father who had been a teen dad (OR = 2.8), whereas Hispanics were more likely to be influenced by having a sibling who had been a teen parent (OR = 9.8). Black and Hispanic respondents who perceived peer pressure as a reason to engage in sexual behaviors were twice as likely to engage in sexual behavior themselves, when compared with those who were not influenced by their peers. Two dimensions of the expanded Health Belief Model, perceived benefits of sexual intercourse and perceived self-efficacy of refusing sexual intercourse predicted sexual involvement in both ethnic groups. Results of this study can be used to design comprehensive health education and social programs that involve parents, youths, siblings, peers, church leaders, community groups, and school teachers. These programs should be culturally appropriate in order to help Black and Hispanic teens take control over their sexual behaviors. Recommendations include a longitudinal design to explore the factors that influence some adolescent males abstain from engaging in sexual behaviors until a later age. [Source: DA]

Sharpe, T. T. 2001. “Sex-for-Crack-Cocaine Exchange, Poor Black Women, and Pregnancy.” Qualitative Health Research vol. 11, pp. 612-630.
Abstract: A sample of 34 poor Black women who exchanged sex for crack was screened to discover if sex-for-crack exchanges resulted in pregnancies. Ethnographic interviews were conducted with women who became pregnant this way. Out of the 34 women, 18 reported sex-for-crack pregnancies, and more than half of that number became pregnant this way more than once. Twenty-nine pregnancies were reported. Only 2 women chose to have abortions. Interview transcripts were analyzed using qualitative data analytical procedures. The following three issues shaped the women's responses to sex-for-crack pregnancies: (a) severity of crack use, (b) religious beliefs, and (c) social organization patterns within poor Black communities. The findings have implications for drug treatment and child welfare policy. [Source: SC]

Wilcox, B. L., S. S. Rostosky, B. A. Randall, and M. L. Comer Wright. 2001. Adolescent Religiosity and Sexual Behavior: A Research Review. Washington, DC: The National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.

Bearman, Peter S. and Hannah Bruckner. 2000. “Promising the Future: Virginity Pledges as They Affect Transition to First Intercourse.” Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research, Columbia University.

Figlio, David and Jens Ludwig. 2000. “Sex, Drugs, and Catholic Schools: Private Schooling and Non-Market Adolescent Behaviors.” Columbia University.

Hogan, Dennis P., Rongjun Sun, and Gretchen T. Cornwell. 2000. “Sexual and Fertility Behaviors of American Females Aged 15-19 Years: 1985, 1990, and 1995.” American Journal of Public Health vol. 90, pp. 1421-1425.
Abstract: Features a study which characterized changes in sexual and reproductive behaviors from 1985-1995 among females aged 15 to 19 years in the United States. Methodology of the study; Results and discussion; Conclusions. Objectives. This study characterized changes in sexual and reproductive behaviors from 1985 through 1995 among American females aged 15 to 19 years and related these changes to family factors. Methods. Nationally representative sample survey data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth were analyzed with Weibull hazards models of age at first intercourse and first pregnancy and with logistic regression models of contraceptive use at first intercourse and pregnancy outcome. Results. Improvements in the family socioeconomic situations of young women have lessened the risk of teen motherhood, while changes in family structure have increased the risk. Young women whose parents have more than a high school education, who live with both parents, and who attend church delay the timing of first sexual intercourse and are more likely to use a contraceptive. Conclusions. The trend of increases in teenage motherhood has ended owing to a halt in increases in the proportion of sexually active young women and substantial improvement in contraception, with the greatest improvements among those from advantageous family situations. [Source: AS]

Holder, David W., Robert H. Durant, Treniece L. Harris, Jessica Henderson Daniel, Dawn Obeidallah, and Elizabeth Goodman. 2000. “The Association between Adolescent Spirituality and Voluntary Sexual Activity.” Journal of Adolescent Health vol. 26, pp. 295-302.
Abstract: Described the spectrum of adolescent spirituality and determined the association between dimensions of spirituality and voluntary sexual activity (VSA) in adolescents. Ss were 141 11-25 yr olds who completed a 153-item instrument assessing sociodemographics, psychosocial parameters, and 8 specific aspects of spirituality including: (1) religious attendance, (2) religious importance, (3) intrinsic and (4) extrinsic religious motivation, (5) belief in God, (6) belief in divine support, (7) existential aspects of spirituality, and (8) spiritual interconnectedness. Adolescents were also asked about VSA. Adolescent religious attendance was equally distributed across the categories from "none" to "weekly or greater" attendance. Over 90% felt religion was somewhat important in their lives. Over 85% reported belief in God. 56% percent of respondents reported a history of VSA. Greater importance of religion and higher spiritual interconnectedness with friends were inversely associated with VSA. A multiple logistic regression model including age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, and specific denomination of religious faith, importance of religion, and spiritual interconnectedness found that spiritual interconnectedness with friends and age were independent predictors of VSA. [Source: PI]

Karnehm, Amy Lynn. 2000. “The Effects of Parental Practices on Adolescent Sexual Initiation Prior to Age 16.” Ph.D. Thesis, The Ohio State University.
Abstract: In my dissertation I examine the transmission of family social capital from parent to child, as it impacts adolescent sexual initiation prior to age 16. I extend the application of James Coleman's ideas and borrow from the conclusions of Alejandro Portes to integrate social capital theory with parenting practices and theories of adolescent sexual behavior. Using the 1979-1996 mother, child, and young adult data files from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), I examine parenting factors (i.e., shared activities as indicators of the parent-child bond, parental support, and parental control) and child and family characteristics (e.g., maternal education, race/ethnicity father presence, maternal aspirations for child's education) that distinguish teens born to young mothers who have "early sex" (initiate prior to age 16), from those who delay their initiation until or past age 16. I also explore how the effects of parenting practices on early sexual initiation differ by gender and by father presence/absence. As hypothesized, children who reported at least monthly church attendance with their parents at age 10 or 11 are more likely to delay their first sex until at least age 16. However, contrary to expectations, children whose mothers took them to cultural performances were more likely to have had sex before age 16. This level of analysis suggests that early background characteristics may be more important than parental practices in predicting early sexual initiation. This dissertation concludes by suggesting a need for a more intensive examination of the relationship between family interaction processes and early sexual initiation than is possible with a large-scale data set such as the NLSY. [Source: DA]

Lammers, C., M. Ireland, M. Resnick, and R. Blum. 2000. “Influences on Adolescents' Decision to Postpone Onset of Sexual Intercourse: A Survival Analysis of Virginity among Youths Aged 13 to 18 Years.” Journal of Adolescent Health vol. 26, pp. 42-48.
Abstract: Background: Previous research has focused on risk factors associated with early onset of sexual intercourse among adolescents. This study hypothesizes that protective factors identified for other health compromising behaviors are also protective against early onset of sexual intercourse. The study sample included 26,023 students in grades 7-12 (87.5% white, 52.5% male) who did not report a history of sexual abuse in a statewide survey of adolescent health in 1988. Methods: Bivariate analyses were stratified into early (13-14 years), middle (15-16 years) and late (17-18 years) adolescence and by gender, Cox proportional hazards survival analysis, stratified by gender, was used to determine risk and protective factors associated with delayed onset of sexual intercourse. Results: Variables showing a significant bivariate association with lower levels of sexual activity across all age groups and genders were: dual-parent families, higher socioeconomic status (SES), better school performance, greater religiosity, absence of suicidal thoughts, feeling adults or parents cared, and high parental expectations. High levels of body pride were associated with higher levels of sexual activity for all age and gender groups. In the multivariate survival analyses, variables significantly associated with delayed onset of sexual activity for both males and females included: dual-parent families, higher SES, residing in rural areas, higher school performance, concerns about the community, and higher religiosity. High parental expectations were a significant protective factor for males but not for females. Conclusion: While many protective factors are not subject to intervention, the present analyses indicate that teen pregnancy prevention may be enhanced by addressing family and educational factors, [Source: SC]

McClure, Regina M. 2000. “Attitudinal Correlates of Abortion among Female Adolescent Offenders.” Ph.D. Thesis, Fuller Theological Seminary School of Psychology.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was twofold, to examine: (a) the association between age and the percentage of pregnancies ending in abortion, and (b) the relationships between abortion attitudes, and religious participation and unwanted sexual experiences. This study is important in that it utilized a nonclinical, at-risk sample of Black and Latina female adolescents and measured a large, diverse group of demographic and risk variables. One hundred female adolescent offenders were administered a questionnaire to assess (a) number of pregnancies, (b) number of abortions, (c) abortion attitudes, and (d) frequency of religious participation. The Sexual Abuse Exposure Questionnaire measured exposure to unwanted sexual experiences. A correlational approach produced inconclusive results; however, demographic characteristics identified for this at-risk group can inform pregnancy prevention and options counseling. [Source: DA]

Miller, K. S., R. Forehand, and B. A. Kotchick. 2000. “Adolescent Sexual Behavior in Two Ethnic Minority Groups: A Multisystem Perspective.” Adolescence vol. 35, pp. 313-333.
Abstract: Adolescents are at high risk for a number of negative health consequences associated with early and unsafe sexual activity, such as infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, as well as unintended pregnancy. In the present study, a multisystem model was applied to one adolescent sexual behavior, penile-vaginal intercourse. Nine hundred seven Black and Hispanic adolescents (aged 14 to 17 years) and their mothers were interviewed. Factors from three systems (self, family, and extrafamilial) that are influential in the lives of adolescents were evaluated using four outcome measures. Factors from most or all systems emerged as predictors of each outcome measure. A cumulative risk index suggested a linear relationship between the number of systems identified as being at risk and indicators of adolescent sexual behavior. The implications for prevention are discussed. [Source: ML]

Monson, Bruce H. 2000. “Four Levels of Sexual Involvement, and Their Association with Dating Patterns, Family Relationships, and Other Related Factors.” Ph.D. Thesis, Utah State University.
Abstract: This study examined four levels of sexual involvement among adolescents. Levels of sexual involvement were (1) adolescents who had experienced sexual intercourse; (2) adolescents who had been involved in petting but had never had intercourse; (3) adolescents who had made out but had never petted or had sexual intercourse; and (4) adolescents who had never made out, petted, or had sexual intercourse. The sample consisted of 308 eleventh graders from a semi-rural area of the state of Utah. Dating patterns, particularly early age at first date, were found to be significantly associated with most levels of sexual involvement. Early age at first date was associated with a high level of sexual involvement, with 90% of the adolescents who dated at age 13 or before having experienced sexual intercourse by their junior year in high school. Having a steady boyfriend or girlfriend was also associated with a higher level of sexual involvement, with 58% of those who reported having a steady dating partner reporting sexual intercourse involvement. Close relationships with family, father, and mother were more predictive of less female involvement in sexual activity than male. Relationship with mother was not significant for adolescent male sexual involvement. Having peers who approved of adolescent sexual involvement was more associated with male than female sexual activity. Higher frequency of church attendance was a strong predictor of less sexual involvement for both genders. More factors proved to be predictive of adolescent female than male sexual activity on all levels of sexual involvement. A history of sexual abuse and having high educational goals were significantly associated with female sexual involvement only. [Source: DA]

Parker, Shandowyn L. 2000. “Family Environment and Sexual Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescent Females.” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Alabama at Birmingham.
Abstract: Many interventions have addressed risk-taking behavior as they pertain to sexual risk behaviors. Such interventions have mainly addressed the influence of peers and the environment in adolescent risk-taking behavior. Few studies have addressed the role of family environment in adolescent risk-taking behavior. The aims of the study were to develop a measure to assess family environment, to evaluate the psychometric properties of the family environment measure, and to assess associations between family environment constructs and outcome variables, such as condom use, sexually transmitted diseases history, drug use history, and parental communication. The study assessed 4 constructs of family environment: family cohesion, family conflict, family expressiveness, and family moral religious emphasis. The findings from this study showed that family cohesion was a significant predictor of healthy behaviors among African American adolescent females 14-18 years old residing in Jefferson County, Alabama. [Source: DA]

Rivers, Monica Corbitt. 2000. “Resisting Risk: The Protective Roles of Family Environment and Personal Resilience among African-American Adolescent Girls Living in Low-Income Neighborhoods.” Ph.D. Thesis, Vanderbilt University.
Abstract: Personal resilience was examined as a mediator of the influence of specific family environment variables (cohesion, control, achievement-orientation, moral-religious emphasis, and conflict) on selected developmental outcomes (academic achievement, alcohol and tobacco use, sexual behavior, and delinquent behavior) in African-American early adolescent girls. The sample included 106 10 to 12 year old African-American girls living in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Findings provided no evidence of a direct effect of family environment on developmental outcomes; therefore, the hypothesized mediational model could not be tested. Additional analyses, however, revealed significant direct effects of personal resilience on two developmental outcomes under investigation, alcohol and tobacco use and delinquent behavior. Possible explanations for the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. [Source: DA]

Rotheram-Borus, M. J. 2000. “Expanding the Range of Interventions to Reduce HIV among Adolescents.” AIDS vol. 14, pp. S33-S40.
Abstract: Objective: Structural interventions are identified to reduce adolescents' HIV risk. Method: The goals, strategies, approaches, and delivery sites of adolescent HIV prevention programs are reviewed. Results: In addition to reducing sexual activity and substance use, HIV prevention programs may also reduce adolescents' HIV risk by: decreasing poverty; ensuring access to HIV testing, healthcare, general social skills training, and employment opportunities; and requiring community service for students. Adolescent HIV prevention programs do not currently utilize diverse modalities (computers, videotapes, television, telephone groups, computerized telephones) or sites (parents' workplaces, religious organizations, self-help networks, primary healthcare clinics) for delivering interventions. Diversifying current approaches to HIV prevention include: economic development programs; mandating delivery of programs at key developmental milestones (e.g, childbirth, marriage) and settings (school-based clinics, condom availability programs); securing changes in legislative and funding policies through ballot initiatives or lawsuits; and privatizing prevention activities. Conclusions: To implement structural HIV interventions for adolescents requires researchers to shift their community norms regarding the value of innovation, adopt designs other than randomized controlled trials, expand their theoretical models, and adopt strategies used by lawyers, private enterprise, and lobbyists. [Source: SC]

Whitaker, D. J., K. S. Miller, and L. F. Clark. 2000. “Reconceptualizing Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Beyond Did They or Didn't They?” Family Planning Perspectives vol. 32, pp. 111-117.
Abstract: Context: Adolescent sexual behavior is typically studied as a dichotomy: Adolescents have had sex or they have not. Broadening this view would lead to a greater understanding of teenagers' sexual behavior. Methods: Interview data from 907 high school students in Alabama, New York and Puerto Rico were used to examine the relationships between sexual experience and a variety of social, psychological and behavioral variables. Four groups of teenagers are compared: those who did not anticipate initiating sex in the next year (delayers), those who anticipated initiating sex in the next year (anticipators), those who had had one sexual partner (singles) and those who had had two or more partners (multiples). Results: Compared with delayers, anticipators reported more alcohol use and marijuana use; poorer psychological health; riskier peer behaviors; and looser ties to family, school and church. Similarly, multiples reported more alcohol and marijuana use, riskier peer behaviors and looser ties to family and school than singles. Risk behaviors, peer behaviors, family variables, and school and church involvement showed a linear trend across the four categories of sexual behavior. Conclusions: The traditional sex-no sex dichotomy obscures differences among sexually inexperienced teenagers and among adolescents who have had sex. Prevention efforts must be tailored to the specific needs of teenagers with differing sexual experiences and expectations, and must address the social and psychological context in which sexual experiences occur. [Source: SC]

Zaleski, E. H. and K. M. Schiaffino. 2000. “Religiosity and Sexual Risk-Taking Behavior During the Transition to College.” Journal of Adolescence vol. 23, pp. 223-227.
Abstract: The degree to which religious identity acts as a protective buffer against sexual risk-taking in late adolescence was investigated in 230 first-year college students. Allport and Ross' Religious Orientation Scale was used to examine the relationship between religiosity, and sexual activity and condom use. Results indicate that greater intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity were associated with less sexual activity and condom use. Therefore religious identification may protect against initiating sexual activity among late adolescents, but may fail to protect against practicing unsafe sex among students who are already sexually active. [Source: SC]

Ali, Heidi Karamat and Anthony Naidoo. 1999. “Sex Education Sources and Attitudes About Premarital Sex of Seventh Day Adventist Youth.” Psychological Reports vol. 84, p. 312.
Abstract: 37 Seventh Day Adventist youth were surveyed about their sex education and attitudes towards premarital sex. Analysis indicated differences between their attitudes and actual sexual behaviour. While 70%. endorsed the church's prohibition on premarital sex, 54% had engaged in premarital sex. [Source: PI]

Bearman, P. S. and H. Bruckner. 1999. Power in Numbers: Peer Effects on Adolescent Girls' Sexual Debut and Pregnancy. Washinton, DC: The National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.

Belicose, Raymond Michael. 1999. “The Influences of Cognitive Development and Reference Groups on Teen Contraceptive Use.” Thesis, Rutgers the State University of New Jersey.
Abstract: A considerable number of unmarried adolescents are sexually active and not using birth control consistently. This study explored the influences of cognitive development and reference groups on adolescent birth control use and tested two theories through a field study. Changing individual, familial, and societal elements were reviewed, with a focus on the factors attendant upon adolescent sexual activity concomitant with inconsistent contraceptive use. Cognitive Development and Reference Group theories were utilized as frameworks to guide the study. A field study was conducted at an urban high school in order to test the above theories. The sample consisted of 100 never-married, high school students (ages 15 to 18) who voluntarily completed two anonymous questionnaires that revealed information regarding their cognitive levels, religiosity, family communication levels and peer influences as well as their sexual and contraceptive patterns. The data were analyzed in descriptive and qualitative format. Although the sample size was limited, several findings were areas for further exploration and supported in the literature. Female students were significantly more effective users (p $<$ 0.05) of birth control at first intercourse than the males. Independent T-tests showed a significant relationship between students who were inconsistent birth control users and students who reported low levels of family communication (p $<$ 0.001) when compared with effective birth control users. Compatibility, a measure of how well students felt they got along with parents, was significantly higher (p $<$ 0.01) for consistent birth control users than inconsistent users. Where students agreed they could talk with parents about birth control, the highest level of reported communication (73%) was among the consistent birth control users with the lowest among non-consistent users (49%). This category was significantly different (p $<$ 0.05) for consistent and inconsistent birth control users. A relationship between adolescent birth control use and cognitive development was not demonstrated in this study, however, qualitative responses helped to uncover other thought processes affecting birth control use. This study supports the need for future research to focus on the relationship between family communication, adolescent sexual behavior and contraceptive use. [Source: PI]

Benda, Brent B. and Robert Flynn Corwyn. 1999. “Abstinence and Birth Control among Rural Adolescents in Impoverished Families: A Test of Theoretical Discriminators.” Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal vol. 16, pp. 191-214.
Abstract: Studied 357 adolescents (aged 13-17 yrs) who resided with AFDC families in rural Arkansas. Predictors of birth control from sociodemographic variables, control, strain, and differential association theories were examined. Results indicate that all of the study factors, with the marginal exception of attachment to father, showed significant variance between the 3 groups of Ss who had not had sexual intercourse, those who always used birth control, and those who did not always use birth control. The 1st function of the analysis discriminated between Ss who had not had sexual intercourse and those who were sexually active, and indicated that the former (in order of discrimination) were younger, had fewer sexually active friends or family members, were more religious, had more fear of giving birth if sexually active, and had stronger beliefs in the moral validity of societal laws and norms. The 2nd function discriminated between Ss who always used birth control and Ss who did not always use birth control. The significant discriminators (in order of discrimination) showed that Ss who always used birth control attended church more often, were more likely to be persons of color than Caucasian, had closer attachments to their mothers, and presently did not desire a baby to love. [Source: PI]

Darroch, J. E., D. J. Landry, and S. Oslak. 1999. “Age Differences between Sexual Partners in the United States.” Family Planning Perspectives vol. 31, pp. 160-167.
Abstract: CONTEXT: Researchers have examined the age of partners of young women at first intercourse and of young women who have given birth, but little is known about the age of partners of young women in current sexual relationships or young women who have had an abortion. METHODS: Data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) were used to examine age differences between women and their current partner and women's use of contraceptives at last intercourse, by marital status and by the age difference between women and their partner. Data from the NSFG and the 1994-1995 Alan Guttmacher Institute Abortion Patient Survey, with supplemental information from other sources, were used to estimate 1994 pregnancy rates for women by their age and marital status, according to the age difference between the women and their partner. RESULTS: Among all sexually active women aged 15-44, 10% had a partner who was three or more years younger, 52% a partner who was within two years of their age, 20% a partner who was 3-5 years older, and 18% a partner who was six or more years older. In contrast, 64% of sexually active women aged 15-17 had a partner within two years of their age, 29% a partner who was 3-5 years older, and 7% a partner who was six or more years older. Among women younger than 18, the pregnancy rate among those with a partner who was six or more years older was 3.7 times as high as the rate among those whose partner was no more than two years older. Among women younger than 18 who became pregnant, those with a partner who was six or more years older were less likely to have an unintended pregnancy (70%) or to terminate an unintended pregnancy (21%) than were those whose partner was no more than two years older (82% and 49%, respectively). Among women younger than 18 who were at risk of unintended pregnancy, 66% of those who had a partner who was six or more years older had practiced contraception at last sex, compared with 78% of those with a partner within two years of their own age. Young women who were Catholic and those who had first had sex with their partner within a relatively committed relationship were less likely to be involved with a man who was six or more years older than were young women who were Protestants and those who first had sex with their partner when they were dating, friends or had just met. Young women who had ever been forced to have sex were twice as likely as those who had not to have a partner who was 3-5 years older. CONCLUSION: Although the proportion of 15-17-year-old women who have a much older partner is small, these adolescents are of concern because of their low rate of contraceptive use and their relatively high rates of pregnancy and birth. Research is needed to determine why some young women have relationships with an older man, and how their partner's characteristics affect their reproductive behavior. [Source: CI]

Doebler, Melanie Kay. 1999. “Successful Outcomes for Rural Young Women: A Longitudinal Investigation of Social Capital and Adolescent Development.” Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University.
Abstract: The concept of social capital, and the theory of social structure and interpersonal relations that undergirds it, has emerged as an increasingly popular explanation for the successful transition from adolescence to young adulthood. It provides a unique theoretical approach for examining successful youth development because it attempts to integrate seemingly disparate disciplinary explanations into a unified theory. According to Coleman (1988), the capital that is generated through family and community social relations is an essential factor in the successful transition to adulthood. Using longitudinal data collected over 11 years from a sample of rural, white, socially and economically disadvantaged adolescent girls from a single community in Pennsylvania's Appalachian mountains (N = 244), this study investigated the relationship between family-based and community-based social capital in adolescence and positive outcomes in young adulthood. Social capital was assessed by examining data collected during the adolescent phase of the study. Indicators of family-based social capital included family structure, mother working outside the home, number of siblings, and family relations. Community-based social capital measures included family mobility, church attendance, and participation in extra-curricular school activities, vocational activities, and volunteer activities. Outcome data were collected as part of a followup survey administered to the same sample of girls when they reached young adulthood. Indicators of positive outcomes included delaying parenthood beyond age 18, educational attainment which included participation in post-secondary education and graduating from high school, and workforce participation. Logistic regression analyses, which controlled for parental human capital and behavioral trajectory at ninth grade, revealed that family-based and community-based indicators of social capital had no effect on delaying pregnancy or parenthood beyond the age of 18. However, indicators of family-based and community-based social capital were found to be significantly related to post-secondary educational participation, high school graduation, and workforce participation. In other words, those who possessed higher degrees of social capital in adolescence were more likely to further their educations in post-secondary settings, graduate high school, and participate in the workforce as young adults. Participation in extra-curricular school activities, a measure of community-based social capital, had the strongest effect in each of the statistically significant models. [Source: PI]

Donnelly, Joseph, David F. Duncan, Eva Goldfarb, and Carolyn Eadie. 1999. “Sexuality Attitudes and Behaviors of Self-Described Very Religious Urban Students in Middle School.” Psychological Reports vol. 85, pp. 607-610.
Abstract: Data from a survey of 869 students aged 11-15 yrs and attending 6 urban middle schools were analyzed to identify differences in sex attitudes and behaviors between self-reported very religious students and their less religious peers. The two groups were demographically similar. They differed on only two attitude items, one suggesting that intercourse was a normal part of teenage dating and the other suggesting intercourse was alright if the two people were in love. The groups did not differ in their estimation of their peers' sexual activity or attitude or in terms of their own intercourse behavior or future intentions. Results do not support the view that the problem of excess teenage pregnancies is the result of loss of religious faith, or that religious instruction is a means to promote sexual abstinence and prevent teen pregnancies. [Source: PI]

D'Onofrio, B. M., L. J. Eaves, L. Murrelle, H. H. Maes, and B. Spilka. 1999. “Understanding Biological and Social Influences on Religious Affiliation, Attitudes, and Behaviors: A Behavior Genetic Perspective.” Journal of Personality vol. 67, pp. 953-984.
Abstract: Although the transmission of religiousness has been assumed to be purely cultural, behavior genetic studies have demonstrated that genetic factors play a role in the individual differences in some religious traits. This article reviews the extant behavior genetic literature and presents new analyses from the "Virginia 30,000" on the causes of Variation in religious affiliation, attitudes, and practices, and relates these to personality as construed by Eysenck. Results indicate that religious affiliation is primarily a culturally transmitted phenomenon, whereas religious attitudes and practices are moderately influenced by genetic factors. Further, Eysenck's personality traits do not mediate genetic influences on religiousness, but significant negative genetic correlations are found between church attendance and liberal sexual attitudes. Implications and possibilities for future studies are discussed. [Source: SC]

Kew, Richard. 1999. “Whatever Happened to Sleeping Around?” Touchstone: A Journal of Ecumenical Orthodoxy vol. 12, pp. 15-17.

Leader, Ermine Theodora Browne. 1999. “Teenage Pregnancy in St. Kitts-Nevis: Psychosocial and Familial Factors.” Thesis, Andrews University, Berrien Springs.
Abstract: Problem. This study was conducted to examine some of the factors that are related to teenage pregnancy in St. Kitts-Nevis. It focused on the relationship between teenage pregnancy and father absence/presence, intergenerational teenage pregnancy, childhood sexual abuse, and domestic violence. A young girl's view of her relationship with both parents, the self-esteem of respondents, and their level of attendance and participation in church-related activities were also studied. Method. Two instruments were incorporated into the questionnaire administered to females in St. Kitts and Nevis between the ages of 12 and 21, some of whom had experienced a pregnancy, and others who had not. These groups were called pregnant and nonpregnant groups. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) was used to measure self-esteem. The Factors Related to Teenage Pregnancy Questionnaire gathered data pertinent to the research questions and other demographic information. Of the 319 respondents, approximately 71% came from St. Kitts and 29% from Nevis. Results. Significant differences were found between both groups on four of the eight variables in the Attitude to Father cluster, and on three of the eight on the Attitude to Mother cluster, with the nonpregnant group giving more positive evaluations of their relationships with parents than the other group. No significant relationship was established between father presence/absence and teenage pregnancy and none was found between teenage pregnancy and intergenerational teenage pregnancy. Significant differences between groups were found on two of the six variables in the Domestic Violence cluster, and a significant relationship was found between childhood sexual abuse and early pregnancy. All five variables in the Attitude to Church factor produced significant differences, but no significant difference was found between the self-esteem scores of both groups. Conclusions. Nonpregnant respondents evaluated their relationships with father and mother more positively than their counterparts. Both groups' experience of father absence/presence was comparable. The data suggest that intragenerational influences on teenage pregnancy are stronger than intergenerational patterns. Domestic violence occurs more frequently in the experience of the pregnant group, as did childhood sexual abuse in which case grandfathers and fathers were the least likely perpetrators and uncles and brothers were the main perpetrators. The nonpregnant group placed higher value on their religious experience, but levels of self-esteem were comparable for both groups. [Source: PI]

Liebowitz, Stephen W., Dolores Calderon Castellano, and Israel Cuellar. 1999. “Factors That Predict Sexual Behaviors among Young Mexican-American Adolescents: An Exploratory Study.” Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences vol. 21, pp. 470-479.
Abstract: Investigated the association between teenage sexual activity and the independent variables of child's religiosity, educational goals, educational grades, perception of parent-child communication, self esteem, and perception of parent-child congruity about sexual values. The sample consisted of 413 Mexican American students (aged 11-14 yrs) who were in either the 6th, 7th, or 8th grades. The best predictors of absence of sexual activity were child's religiosity, educational goals, and perception of the congruency of parent-child sexual values. Child's perception of the congruency of parent-child sexual values accounted for more of the variance than any of the other statistically significant predictor variables. This suggests that increasing congruity between parent-child sexual ideas and values is the best preventive measure to delay sexual activity among Mexican American teenagers. [Source: PI]

Thomas, Gary. 1999. “Where True Love Waits.” Christianity Today vol. 43, pp. 40-45.

Vogt, Nancy R. 1999. “Correlates of Adolescent Sexual Activity in the Family: A Religious Group.” Ph.D. Thesis, Fuller Theological Seminary School of Psychology.
Abstract: Adolescent sexual activity has been the subject of considerable research. Among the variables that have been found to correlate with intercourse in this age group are age, self-esteem, closeness with parents, and affiliation with a religious organization. This study examined these variables in 100 girls, ages 12-18, living communally in a uniquely sexually open religious group known as the Family. Only age was found to correlate with sexual intercourse within the group. In addition, results from girls in the Family were compared with data from the Search Institute survey of same-age girls raised noncommunally. Girls in the Family were more involved in religious activity but did not experience intercourse at a greater rate, even though they are permitted to do so from age 16. Though age and intercourse were positively correlated in both groups, parental closeness and religious affiliation decreased with age in the Search group and not for girls in the Family. Also, girls in the Family did not choose intercourse more often than girls raised in more traditional contexts. Further study is recommended to focus on whether adolescent girls believe they must choose between sexual activity and church involvement or closeness with their parents. [Source: PI]

Wynn, Theresa Ann. 1999. “The Sociodemographic, Personal, and Problematic Factors Associated with Sexual Intercourse among a Sample of Adolescent Females.” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Alabama At Birmingham.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between selected sociodemographic, personal, and problematic factors and the onset of coitus among a sample of adolescent females. This study analyzed Black and White adolescent females aged 15 to 19 years that participated in the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) Cycle 5. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to perform descriptive statistics, chi-square analyses, Mann-Whitney U tests, and logistic regression analyses. Alpha levels of.05 and.01 were used for all statistical tests and practical significance was determined by examining the effect sizes of each independent variable. Chi-square analyses revealed that there were associations between the onset of coitus and respondents' age, race, education level of parents, school dropout, and cigarette smoking. Mann-Whitney U analyses found the valuing of one's religion and church attendance to be inversely associated with sexual intercourse. There was no association between an adolescent's educational aspirations and the onset of coitus. Chi-square analyses also found parent-child birth control and pregnancy communication to be significantly associated with engagement in sexual intercourse; however, there was no association between parent-child sexually transmitted disease (STD) communication and engagement in coitus. Similarly, chi-square analyses revealed that having received formal sex education on safe sex practices, abstinence, STD, and birth control did not increase or decrease adolescents' onset of coitus. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the overall percentage predicted correctly by the variables used in this equation for ever engaging in sexual intercourse was 70.26%. The strongest predictors in their order of strength were age, church attendance, having talked with parents about birth control, having dropped out of school, and race. This investigation provided implications for health educators and recommendations for the field of health education promotion. [Source: PI]

Zacharioudakis, Manos Antonis. 1999. “Problem Behaviors of Greek-American Adolescents: The Relationship of Ethnic Identification to Risks and Protective Factors.” Ph.D. Thesis, St. John's University (New York).
Abstract:In a cross-sectional study of 257 Greek-American (GA) adolescents from across the US (ages 16-19, 72% female, 93% USA born) the incidence and psychosocial corrlates of problem behaviors (PB) (i.e. smoking, drinking, marijuana, heavy drugs, sexual intercourse, deviant behaviors) were explored. Jessor and Jessor's Problem Behavior Theory's (PBT) generalizability in this population were examined. Differences in PB incidence, risks, and predictors, explored through correlational and multiple regression analyses, across GA ethnic identification, gender, and school status (i.e. high school-college) were found. The findings generally supported PBT. Strong positive intercorrelations among all PB, all (but one) positive intercorrelations among prosocial behavior, and all negative correlations of PB with prosocial behavior, and all negative correlations of PB with prosocial behaviors were documented, as hypothesized. The "one latent factor of general deviance" hypothesis found support for males, but not for females or the total sample. Higher Greek-identified youth showed higher drinking, smoking, and deviance, and lower marijuana/drug use and sexual experience scores, compared to lower Greek-identified youth, but these differences were due to SES differences and disappeared when SES factors were partialled out. Family cohesiveness showed protective main effects for most PB but no interaction with ethnicity effects. Family adaptability failed to show any significant effects. Significant gender differences were found: males showed higher marijuana, alcohol use, deviance scores, and sexual promiscuity and less diet/laxative pill use that females (no smoking or heavier drug use gender differences were found). Females showe higher levels of religiosity, stressful events and psychopathology (i.e. anxiety and general symptomatology, but not depression). College students showed higher scores for most PB (except heavy drugs or deviance). Youth from non-intact parental marriages showed significantly higher levels of all PB while intact family incidence showed a positive correlation to Greek ethnic identity. In predicting the total sample's PBindex, in decreasing order, friends' regular engagement In smoking/drinking/marjuana use/sex, time going to bed on weekends, stressful life events, relative parent-friend influence, non-acceptance of premarital sex by youth, intolerance of deviance, parental approval of PB, and age, were the significant predictors. Significant differences in predictors were found among ethnic, gender, and college-status subgroups (e.g. a high contribution of PBT "personality" variables only for high Greek identifiers, of family cohesion for females, and of "perceived environment" factors--i.e. friends models and parental controls--for males). [Source: DA]

Brewster, Karin L., Elizabeth C. Cooksey, David K. Guilkey, and Ronald R. Rindfuss. 1998. “The Changing Impact of Religion on the Sexual and Contraceptive Behavior of Adolescent Women in the United States.” Journal of Marriage and the Family vol. 60, pp. 493-504.
Abstract: Studied the impact of religious affiliation on intercourse risk and contraceptive use among adolescent women during the 1980s when church-based groups were increasingly involved in debates over reproductive and family issues. However, adolescent nonmarital intercourse and birth rates were rising, suggesting that religious organizations, even as their visibility increased, became less effective at transmitting their values. The authors pooled data from 2 national surveys conducted in 1982 and 1988 and found that affiliation had modest, but stable, effects among Black teens. Among Whites, the impact of a fundamentalist Protestant affiliation increased. White fundamentalists were less likely to be sexually active in 1988 than in 1982. [Source: PI]

Conley, O. Stephen. 1998. “Early Sexual Onset: A Study of the Relationship between Social and Psychological Factors in the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health.” Ph.D. Thesis, Virginia Commonwealth University.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to utilize the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (Wave I) to develop models to predict the onset of sexual intercourse before the age of 16, the experience of forced sexual intercourse for females and the choice to have multiple sexual partners with both genders. One cross-sectional wave of the public use dataset from this large nationally representative study (Add Health) was analyzed. Social and psychological variables were tested through logistic regressions and descriptive statistics. Findings demonstrated that 41.5% of male adolescents and 37.3% of female adolescents in the sample had experienced sexual intercourse. More than half of the nonvirgin subjects (53.1%) reported beginning sexual intercourse by the age of 16. Initial predictive models found that black males who report having trouble with teachers ($p < .01$), early dating onset ($p < .05$) and use cigarettes ($p < .05$) are more likely to experience sexual intercourse prior to the age of 16 (N = 563). A second model found black males more likely to experience intercourse prior to age 16 if they report having trouble with teachers ($p < .01$), early dating onset ($p < .05$), use cigarettes ($p < .05$), see religion as very important in their lives ($p < .05$), have a mother who has received welfare payments ($p < .05$), and began early use of marijuana ($p < .05$).When all races and genders were assessed in model predicting sexual intercourse before age 16, ($N = 5,702$) several factors showed significance at the $p < .01$ level. These included early dating onset, failure of one or more of four core subjects, being African American, using cigarettes, having a mother who has received welfare, having been expelled from school, females experiencing forced sexual intercourse, father's attitude that is accepting of adolescents having sex with a steady girlfriend or boyfriend, use of alcohol outside of the family, early marijuana use, trouble with teachers and not feeling loved and wanted. African American youth were more than three times as likely as other races to experience sexual intercourse under age 16. Young women who had been forced to have sexual intercourse were more than three times as likely as those who had not been forced to experience sexual intercourse under age 16. A model (N = 3,080) predicting females who are forced to have sexual intercourse found significance at the $p < .01$ level for the following factors: early dating onset, African American, no residential father in the home, cigarette use, being expelled from school, use of alcohol outside of the family, and not feeling loved and wanted. Conversely, a model predicting males who force females to have intercourse found highest significance if there was no father in the home, the mother had received welfare, and parents were accepting of adolescent sexual intercourse with a steady girlfriend. Multiple partners were predicted in the final logistic regression model (N = 1,400) if the subject was male, had friends who used cigarettes, used alcohol outside of the family, had been dishonest with parents about whereabouts and for females, if they had experienced forced sexual intercourse. Implications of the findings for program and policy development are discussed, and recommendations are made for additional research with the Add Health public use dataset. [Source: DA]

Fehring, Richard J., Kerry H. Cheever, Karyn German, and Connie Philpot. 1998. “Religiosity and Sexual Activity among Older Adolescents.” Journal of Religion and Health vol. 37, pp. 229-247.

Hughes, Jean Susan. 1998. “The Relationship of Leisure Lifestyle to Selected Risk Behaviors of Adolescents.” Ed.D. Thesis, University of Arkansas.
Abstract: Currently, there is a need to develop holistic models that address the multidimensional, psychosocial determinants of adolescent risk behavior. Approximately 40% of an adolescent's waking hours are unstructured, unsupervised discretionary time. This study surveyed 114 students in an alternative high school program. A risk behavior index was developed that was a composite measure of the incidence and severity of adolescent pregnancy, juvenile delinquency, substance use, undereducation, and stress. Using simultaneous regression, the risk index was examined in relation to (1) selected leisure variables of intrinsic leisure motivation, leisure constraints, leisure satisfaction and leisure interests; (2) selected social variables of gender, age, employment status of mother, income, number of adults in the household, relationship with parents, ruralness and number of siblings; (3) selected personal variables of school discipline problems, grade point average, absences, employment status of subject, and weekend curfew; and (4) selected group belonging variables of gang membership church membership, school athletics, school club, youth group, and community recreation agency. The leisure related measures used the intrinsic leisure motivation scale of Weissinger and Bandalos (1995), the leisure constraint scale of Raymore, Godbey, Crawford, and von Eye (1993), the leisure satisfaction scale of Ragheb and Beard (1980), and the leisure interest scale of Beard and Ragheb (1992). The results showed a negative relationship of the risk index to intrapersonal constraints, outdoor leisure interests and belonging to a church. There was a significant positive relationship between the risk index and belonging to a gang, working, problems at school and grade point average. None of the social variables were related to risk behavior. The significance of the study is the development of a risk index as a composite score. The study indicates a need to measure adolescent interests in order to meet their needs and create more involvement in structured settings. [Source: PI]

Hunter, Marcia. 1998. “The Experience of Mothering and Its Relationship to Adolescent Childbearing.” Thesis, The Fielding Inst, Santa Barbara.
Abstract: This study investigated whether or not pregnant, maternally deprived adolescent females have lower levels of separation-individuation and ego identity formation than neverpregnant, nonmaternally deprived teens. Data were collected from 70 adolescents, most of whom were Caucasian and living in small towns in the northeast part of the United States. Data collection sites included high school parenting programs, medical offices, teen drop-in centers, and shelters for homeless teenagers. The sample was divided into 4 groups: 24 in the Neverpregnant/Nonmaternally deprived group, 15 in the Pregnant, Nonmaternally deprived group, 16 in the Neverpregnant/Maternally deprived group, and 15 in the Pregnant/Maternally deprived group. Each participant completed a Background Data Schedule, a Childhood Experience Questionnaire, and 2 self-report measures: (The Separation Individuation Test of Adolescence (SITA), The Ego Identity Scale (EIS). Two other self-report measures, The Parental Acceptance Rejection Questionnaire and The Personality Assessment Questionnaire, were used to operationalize maternal deprivation status. Primary data analysis was by MANOVA and ANOVA. When the groups were compared for demographic differences, several significant variances were found. The groups differed in Paternal age, Maternal age, Paternal employment status, Paternal grade completed, Maternal grade completed, Number of maternal children, and Teen religion. Predictions that pregnant, maternally deprived adolescents would show lower levels of separation individuation and ego identity formation than neverpregnant, nonmaternally deprived teens were not supported. However, main effects were found when the groups were compared separately by pregnancy and maternal deprivation status. Pregnant participants had significantly lower scores than neverpregnant participants on the Nurturance and Healthy Separation subscales of the SITA. They also had significantly lower Total Ego Identity scores and significantly lower scores on 4 of the 6 subscales of the EIS (Early Childhood, Play Age, School Age, Adolescence). Maternally deprived participants had significantly lower scores on the Nurturance, Healthy Separation, and Rejection Expectancy subscales of the SITA than Nonmaternally deprived teens. Maternally deprived adolescents also had significantly lower Total Ego Identity scores than Nonmaternally deprived teens. Although results did not show an interaction between adolescent pregnancy and maternal deprivation, the findings do indicate developmental disruption related to the separate conditions of pregnancy and maternal deprivation in adolescent females. [Source: PI]

Medoff, M. H. 1998. “Estimates of the Abortion Demand of Young and Older Teenagers.” Population Research and Policy Review vol. 17, pp. 539-549.
Abstract: This study estimates the demand for abortion by younger (ages 15-17) and older (ages 18-19) teenagers. The empirical results show, for both age groups, abortion demand is price inelastic and a normal good with respect to income. Teenage abortion demand is also found to be positively related to labor force participation and state Medicaid funding and negatively related to religiosity and unemployment. State family planning programs, AFDC benefits, and parental involvement laws are found not to be significant determinants of teenage abortion demand. [Source: SC]

    

Moore, Kristin A., Jennifer Manlove, Dana A. Glei, and Donna R. Morrison. 1998. “Nonmarital School-Age Motherhood: Family, Individual, and School Characteristics.” Journal of Adolescent Research vol. 13, pp. 433-457.
Abstract: Nationally representative data from the National Center for Education Statistics were analyzed to examine individual-, family-, & school-level predictors of nonmarital motherhood for adolescents in grades 8-12. All independent variables were measured in 8th grade, & the analyses were repeated separately for black & white adolescents (total N = 7,930 girls, of whom 471 had given birth). Results show that school safety was an important predictor of nonmarital motherhood. However, school context did not override family- & individual-level effects. Low individual educational performance measures, eg, lower test scores & self-reported grades, predicted a higher risk of early motherhood, as did being held back in school & repeatedly changing schools. A substantial level of involvement in school clubs & religious organization was associated with lower risk of school-age motherhood. [Source: SA]

O'Conner, M. L. 1998. “Religion Plays a Growing Role in White Teenagers Sexual Decision-Making.” Family Planning Perspectives vol. 30, pp. 295- 296.

Poulson, Ronald L., Marion A. Eppler, Tammy N. Satterwhite, Karl L. Wuensch, and Lessie A. Bass. 1998. “Alcohol Consumption, Strength of Religious Beliefs, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Students.” Journal of American College Health vol. 46, pp. 227-232.

Sawyer, Robin G., Paul J. Pinciaro, and Anne Anderson Sawyer. 1998. “Pregnancy Testing and Counseling-a University Health Center's 5-Year Experience.” Journal of American College Health vol. 46, pp. 221-225.

Scharf, Alice Anne. 1998. “Environmental Stress, Potential Protective Factors, and Adolescent Risk-Taking.” Ph.D. Thesis, Fordham University, New York.
Abstract: Recent research has examined the impact of various risk and protective factors on adolescent risk-taking behaviors; however these studies have been narrowly focused and often included aggregated indices measuring involvement in several behaviors. The present study examined contributions of life event stress and daily hassles as risk factors and religiosity and attitudinal intolerance for deviance as protective factors for five separate behaviors including: adolescent alcohol use, marijuana use, delinquent behaviors, risky sexual behaviors, and the potential for dropping out of school. Participants included 201 urban and mostly minority high school students from all four grades. Results from simultaneous regression analyses demonstrated the following eight significant interactions: life events and attitudinal intolerance for deviance, daily hassles and attitudinal intolerance for deviance, and life events and extrinsic religiosity for alcohol use; life events and extrinsic religiosity and life events and intrinsic religiosity for marijuana use; life events and attitudinal intolerance for deviance, daily hassles and attitudinal intolerance for deviance, and life events and extrinsic religiosity for delinquent behaviors; and life events and extrinsic religiosity for the potential for dropping out of school. Only main effects were found to be significant for levels of risky sexual behaviors. Being male significantly predicted higher levels of delinquent behaviors and risky sexual behaviors. All other demographics inconsistently predicted levels of risk-taking behaviors. For males, significant interactions were found for alcohol use and delinquent behaviors. And for females, significant interactions included life event stress with extrinsic religiosity and life event stress with intrinsic religiosity for alcohol use. Results indicate that levels of religiosity and attitudinal intolerance for deviance generally had moderating effects for adolescents experiencing high levels of life events or daily hassles. Contributions of both stressors to higher levels of all five risk-taking behaviors suggest that involvement in these behaviors may be maladaptive ways to cope with stress. High levels of protective factors appear to guard adolescents against involvement in substance use, delinquency, and the potential for dropping out of school. Adolescents facing high levels of stress who have low levels of protective factors are at particular risk for engagement in risk-taking behaviors in response to stress. [Source: DA]

Spear, Hila J. 1998. “Teenage Pregnancy: The Experiences of Adolescent Females Who Attend an Alternative School.” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Virginia, Charlottesville.
Abstract: Teenage pregnancy is considered to be a major social and community health problem. One out of ten adolescent girls in the United States experiences pregnancy (Trussel 1990; Alan Guttmacher Institute, 1994). During adolescence, pregnancy impacts the physiological, psychological, and sociological health status of females. Moreover, pregnancy can have long-term physical, psychological, educational, and occupational effects on female adolescents as they move toward adulthood (Santelli & Kirby, 1992; Trad, 1994). The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of pregnant adolescent females. More specifically, the individual adolescent's perceptions and personal perspectives related to the experience of pregnancy were studied. A naturalistic design was used. A purposive sample of participants was solicited from an alternative school program for pregnant teens. The primary data collection method was the use of in-depth interviewing. Other data included field notes and demographic information. In addition, the researcher became a participant observer at the alternative school and observed and interacted with the participants and other students. Peer auditing and debriefing were important components of the analysis process. Intense analysis of cases extracted from the narrative data revealed the following topical categories: (1) decision-making, (2) contraceptive behavior and sexual attitudes, (3) attitudes of self and others about pregnancy, (4) interpersonal relationships, (5) self-perception, (6) fears, (7) personal change, (8) responsibility, and (9) future expectations. In addition, broader themes, characteristic of the participants' experiences as a whole, were identified and developed. Themes included fantasy thinking, religion and fate, propensity for violence, fragmentation of pregnancy, parenting, and marriage, and to be nurtured and to nurture. The findings indicated that the participants viewed pregnancy as a challenging yet fairly normative event. Decisions regarding what to do about their pregnancies were made with relatively little deliberation and influenced primarily by their mothers. All participants opted to continue with their pregnancies and planned to parent. Overall, pregnancy was perceived by the participants as an event that would have little long-term impact on their lives. They expressed a sense of hopefulness and confidence in their futures related to their abilities to manage parenthood, achieve educational goals, and maintain supportive interpersonal relationships with the fathers of their babies and families. [Source: PI]

Spencer, Jennifer Michael. 1998. “Self-Esteem as a Predictor of Initiation of Coitus in Early Adolescents.” Ph.D. Thesis, Indiana University, Bloomington.
Abstract: Adolescents in the United States are initiating coital behavior at earlier ages and in larger percentages than ever before (Sonenstein, Pleck, & Ku, 1991; Centers for Disease Control, 1991). As a result, they are at risk at younger ages and for longer periods of time for the problems associated with sexual activity, such as unplanned pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS. Prior studies of early adolescent sexual behavior have targeted demographic, social and physiological variables. Race/ethnicity (Aneshensel, Becerram Fielder, & Schuler, 1990; Zelnik, Kantner & Ford, 1981), socioeconomic status, (Furstenberg, Morgan, Moore, & Peterson, 1987, Hogan & Kitagawa, 1985) family structure (Hogan & Kitagawa, 1985, Zelnik, et al, 1981), and religiosity (Thronton & Camburn, 1989) all have been found to be significantly associated with the adolescent's decision to engage in coitus (Miller, Christenson and Olson 1987; Simmons, Blyth & VanCleave, 2979; Biglan, Metzler, Wirt, Ary, Noell, Ochs, French & Hood, 1990; Halpern, Udry, Campbell & Suchindran, 1993; Chilman, 1980; Udry, 1982). Strong evidence has also been presented linking initiation of coitus with early pubertal maturation. However, the relationship of psychological factors, such as self-esteem, to initiation of intercourse has received relatively little attention in the research literature. Using a framework based on the available literature and the tenets of problem behavior theory (Jessor & Jessor, 1977), this longitudinal study of early adolescents (age 12-14) explores gender differences in self-esteem as a predictor of subsequent initiation of coitus in early adolescents. Results confirm that gender differences in self-esteem exist, with higher levels self-esteem being predictive of sexual debut for boys, and lower levels of self-esteem being predictive of sexual debut for girls. [Source: DA]

August Prudhomme, Nellie R. 1997. “The Relationship between Family Functioning and Female Adolescent Sexual Behavior.” D.N.S. Thesis, Louisiana State University Medical Ctr. in New Orleans S. of Nursing.
Abstract: A descriptive exploratory design was used to examine the relationship of sociodemographic characteristics, family functioning levels, family and community socioeconomic status, and peer relationships to adolescent sexual behavior. Four questionnaires (Demographic Profile, Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale, Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale, and an Index of Peer Relations) were administered to 101 African American female adolescent volunteers. Means, standard deviations, and frequency distributions were used to describe sociodemographic characteristics of the subjects, and frequency distributions were used to describe the sexual activity of the subjects. The associations between the dependent and independent variables were examined, using the Chi-Square statistic, Fisher's Exact test, and t-tests. Results indicated an association between age, neighborhood socioeconomic status, church attendance, grade point average, educational aspirations, and family cohesion levels and sexual activity status among the subjects. Although the differences fell short of statistical significance, trends related to parent's home ownership, family types, parent-adolescent communication, and single-parent household structures were consistent with those of earlier investigations. Implications for nursing include assessing family functioning and the interrelationships of family members and the adolescent in the family setting. The results of this assessment can be used to guide clinical programs for counseling and strengthening families with adolescents. [Source: DA]

Feldman, Linda, Philippa Holowaty, Bart Harvey, Katherine Rannie, Linda Shortt, and Alykhan Jamal. 1997. “A Comparison of the Demographic, Lifestyle, and Sexual Behaviour Characteristics of Virgin and Non-Virgin Adolescents.” Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality vol. 6, pp. 197-209.
Abstract: Compares the demographic, lifestyle, & sexual behavior characteristics of 605 virgin & 321 nonvirgin adolescents, drawing on 1994 self-administered questionnaire data from students, grades 9-13, living near Toronto, Ontario. A Multiple logistic regression model showed that variables significantly associated with being a virgin were being in grades 9-11, being female, doing 14+ hours a week of homework, & stating ethnicity as Asian, while those significantly associated with nonvirginity were involvement in a serious relationship in the previous 12 months, masturbation or oral sex of or by a partner, heavy drinking, drinking & driving, daily smoking, & doing 5 or fewer hours of homework per week. Parent education, birthplace, religious attendance, TV/computer/telephone use, physical activity, feelings of happiness, family functioning, & satisfaction with serious relationship were not significantly associated with virginity status. In addition, nonvirgins who had had a serious relationship in the previous 12 months were significantly less likely to state that they were very likely to use condoms than those who had not been in a serious relationship. Some 19% of virgins had engaged in either masturbation or oral sex of or by a partner. Among nonvirgins, 46% used condoms every time during the previous five times they had vaginal or anal intercourse, & 16% of nonvirgins had experienced anal intercourse. Findings are discussed in relation to the sexual health education needs of adolescents. [Source: SA]

Lewis, Averetta Elizabeth. 1997. “The Relationship of Age, Religiosity, and Depression on Risk-Related Behaviors among African-American Mothers.” Ph.D. Thesis, Michigan State University.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the relationship of age, religiosity, and depression on risk related behaviors among African-American mothers. An aspect of risk behaviors that has gained increased attention is sexual risk behavior. The rise of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), human immunovirus (HIV), and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are rising in the African-American female population. However, missing in the literature are studies that correlate the risk related behaviors, religiosity, and depression in adolescent and adult African-American mothers. An integrated framework derived from the Health Belief Model and the Social Control Theory was used to guide the study. It is believed that adult mothers being more mature, are less likely to engage in risk related behaviors than are adolescent mothers. In a retrospective, exploratory study, using secondary analysis of data, a data set of 127, (78 adolescent African-American mothers--ages 12-17) and (49 adult African-American mothers ages 18 and older) was analyzed. This data set was obtained from the Ethnic Families Research Project (EFRP) of H. P. McAdoo, PhD conducted in 1994-1997. Three areas were examined: First, age, as it relates to risky behaviors, is explored using five risk-related indicators: (a) the inconsistent or lack of use of birth control; (b) the non use of condoms or abstinence (as compared to all of those not using birth control other than condoms and all of those who are not using birth control); (c) experienced an unwanted pregnancy and birth; (d) experienced an unwanted miscarriage or abortion; and (e) the use of illicit drugs. Second, the relationship of depression to risky sexual behaviors is examined through the use of the five risk-related indicators and responses from the Beck Depression Index. Lastly, the relationship of religiosity to risky sexual behaviors is explored using the five risk-related indicators. The independent variables for this study were: age, religiosity, and depression. Dependent variables consisted of five risk-related indicators: (a) the inconsistent or lack of use of birth control; (b) the non use of condoms or abstinence as compared to all of those not using birth control other than condoms and all of those who are not using birth control; (c) experienced an unwanted pregnancy and birth; (d) experienced an unwanted miscarriage or abortion; and (e) the use of drugs. Findings revealed that there was no significant differences in the age of the mothers, level of religion, depression, and risky sexual behaviors. The practical and policy implications of this study were also examined. [Source: DA]

Macbeth, David Michael. 1997. “Risk Factors Associated with Early Adolescent Sexual Values and Behaviors.” Ph.D. Thesis, Utah State University.
Abstract: Adolescent sexual activity and subsequent pregnancy are an increasing dilemma facing American society. There appears to be an increase in the incidence of casual sexual activity among adolescents that leads to over 50% of students between grades 9 and 12 having been involved in sexual intercourse. This study examines changes in adolescent sexual attitudes, behaviors, and values in a select population over a 2-year time span. A survey of 548 families with adolescents was used to determine the impact of the Facts and Feelings home-based sexual abstinence program on mean scores for academic aspirations, academic achievement, sexual knowledge, the intention to have intercourse, sexual behavior, religiosity, mother approachability, father approachability, frequency of parental communication, sexual abstinence skills, friends', approval of premarital sex, value against sex prior to marriage, risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease, sex being acceptable in relationships, adolescent's values match parent's values, parents approve of premarital sex, and adolescent's rating of physical maturity. The sample was randomly split into equal size experimental and control groups. The treatment materials were given to the experimental group following a baseline measurement, and the control group received the materials after the study was completed 2 years later. Data were collected at four time intervals: pretest, 3-month posttest, 1-year posttest, and 2-year posttest. Dependent variables were identified from previous research as possible antecedents to early sexual activity. The youth studied were in the sixth and seventh grades, and were generally sexually abstinent throughout the study. Hypotheses were related to gender, group membership, and the interaction of these variables over time. A majority of the significant findings came in the hypotheses regarding gender. There were limited findings in the hypothesis that dealt with group membership, group membership by gender, and the interaction effects of gender by group over time. Most of the treatment effects were time limited and not maintained for long periods of time following the treatment. There was evidence that the Facts and Feeling materials used in the study were beneficial in changing behavior, values, and attitudes regarding teenage abstinence for a short time immediately following the treatment period. [Source: PI]

McLaughlin, Caitlin S., Chuansheng Chen, Ellen Greenberger, and Cornelia Biermeier. 1997. “Family, Peer, and Individual Correlates of Sexual Experience among Caucasian and Asian-American Late Adolescents.” Journal of Research on Adolescence vol. 7, pp. 33-53.
Abstract: Explores ethnic & gender differences in sexual behavior among Caucasian & Asian-American state university students in CA (total N = 350), drawing on survey data. Consistent with previous studies, Caucasians reported having more sexual partners than did Asian-Americans, & males reported having more sexual partners than females. Peer interactions & attitudinal & dispositional factors were consistently related with number of sexual partners, while family factors were not. Discriminant analysis of five variables (eg, risky behaviors, casual sex endorsement, & religiosity) yielded two functions capable of predicting levels of sexual experience for 61%-92% of participants. [Source: SA]

Miller, Brent C., Maria C. Norton, Thom Curtis, E. Jeffrey Hill, Paul Schvaneveldt, and Margaret H. Young. 1997. “The Timing of Sexual Intercourse among Adolescents: Family, Peer, and Other Antecedents.” Youth and Society vol. 29, pp. 54-83.
Abstract: Children's perceptions of their relationships with their parents and peers in 1976 and 1981, respectively, along with other salient antecedent variables, were related to their age at 1st sexual intercourse, as reported in 1987. Data came from the National Survey of Children, a 3-wave longitudinal study of 1,145 children aged 7-11 yrs (Wave 1), 12-16 yrs (Wave 2), and 18-22 yrs (Wave 3). Age of first date, dating frequency, number of friends perceived to have had sex at age 16, being Black, having parents undergo marital changes during the child's school years, and fighting at school were the most significant predictors of age at 1st sexual intercourse among males. All of these variables except fighting at school and dating frequency were significant predictors among females. Additional significant variables predicting age of first sex among females were menarche, parents' education, mother's coercive behavior and love withdrawal, and attitudes about attending religious services. [Source: PI]

Neumark Sztainer, Dianne, Mary Story, Simone A. French, and Michael D. Resnick. 1997. “Psychosocial Correlates of Health Compromising Behaviors among Adolescents.” Health Education Research vol. 12, pp. 37-52.
Abstract: Investigated psychosocial correlates of diverse health-compromising behaviors among adolescents of different ages. Ss included 123,132 11-21 yr old males and females in 6th, 9th, and 12th grade. Psychosocial correlates of substance abuse, delinquency, suicide risk, sexual activity, and unhealthy weight loss behaviors were examined. Psychosocial variables included emotional well-being, self-esteem, risk-taking disposition, number of concerns, extracurricular involvement, religiosity, school connectedness and achievement, physical and sexual abuse, and family connectedness and structure. Results show that risk-taking disposition was associated with nearly every behavior across age and gender groups. Other consistent correlates included sexual abuse and family connectedness. Correlates of health-compromising behaviors tended to be consistent across age groups. However, stronger associations were noted between sexual abuse and substance use for younger adolescents, and risk-taking disposition and school achievement were stronger correlates for older youth. Findings suggest the presence of both common and unique etiological factors for different health-compromising behaviors among youth. [Source: PI]

Russo, N. F. and A. J. Dabul. 1997. “The Relationship of Abortion to Well-Being: Do Race and Religion Make a Difference?” Professional Psychology Research and Practice vol. 28, pp. 23-31.
Abstract: Relationships of abortion and childbearing to well-being were examined for 1,189 Black and 3,147 White women. Education, income, and having a work role were positively and independently related to well-being for all women. Abortion did not have an independent relationship to well-being, regardless of race or religion, when well-being before becoming pregnant was controlled. These findings suggest professional psychologists should explore the origins of women's mental health problems in experiences predating their experience with abortion, and they can assist psychologists in working to ensure that mandated scripts from ''informed consent'' legislation do not misrepresent scientific findings. [Source: SC]

Stephenson, Andy Lee. 1997. “The Role of the Fundamentalist Church Institution in Value Clarification among Adolescents.” Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Texas, Arlington, Arlington.
Abstract: This study randomly examined 51 senior pastors and 47 youth workers from a fundamentalist denomination to analyze leadership influence and other church factors influence on the involvement of the fundamentalist church in addressing and educating adolescents in value clarification. The study also surveyed 241 adolescents to discover the influence of church discussion, parental communication and church size on adolescent sexual behavior. The results of the study indicate senior pastor's and youth worker's previous training are significant predictor variables of church involvement in the education of adolescents in value clarification. Also senior pastor readiness to educate youth in value clarification of societal issues was a significant factor in the youth worker sample. The results revealed larger churches were more likely to address value clarification with their adolescents than small churches in the youth worker sample. The adolescent sample reported total parent-adolescent communication was inversely related to adolescent sexual behavior. When father-adolescent and mother-adolescent communication were analyzed separately, father-adolescent communication was a significant predictor variable inversely related to adolescent sexual activity. Church size was also a predictor variable with churches in the middle size category indicating a positive relationship to increased sexual activity of adolescents when compared to small churches. Age and gender were also significant predictors of adolescent sexual activity. [Source: DA]

Stratkotter, Rainer Franz. 1997. “Re-Examining Udry's (1988) Biosocial Model of Adolescent Male Sexuality.” M.A. Thesis, University of Alberta (Canada), Edmonton.
Abstract: Udry's (1988) biosocial model of adolescent male sexuality describes how testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), age, pubertal development, and church attendance combine to produce variability in sexual behaviors and thoughts. A re-examination of Udry's model and analytic approach, using his data and a series of LISREL structural equation models (SEMs), shows the following: (1) Models with multiple indicators of sexuality failed to fit the data, whereas models using single indicators of sexuality did fit. Udry's factor analysis implies strict proportionality constraints among the covariances for the multiple indicators; these constraints did not match the data, which suggests that sexuality's indicators have non-identical determinants; (2) Udry's model of T and SHBG effects was slightly different than a model using Free-Testosterone (Free-T); (3) Udry's specification of zero measurement error affects his coefficient estimates but not his model fit; and (4) Udry's claim that T and SHBG are crucial components of adolescent male sexuality is upheld. [Source: DA]

Brewer, Nancy Jean. 1996. “Analysis of the Timing of the Transition to Sexual Intercourse for Rural Adolescent Males.” Ph.D. Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University.
Abstract: The purpose of the present research was to study rural adolescent males' transition to nonvirginity from a developmental perspective and within a social context. The intent of this analysis was to determine what variables were associated with making the transition from virgin to nonvirgin and to be able to predict which of these students are at risk of making this transition earlier than their other cohort members. A total of 148 males from a rural eastern Appalachian community met the selection and longitudinal criteria for inclusion in this study. The findings were based on the subjects' responses to an 18-page, paper-and-pencil, self-report questionnaire which began in the Fall of 1985 and continued through the Fall of 1989. This study employed discrete event history analysis with a complementary log-log link. In order to achieve the purposes of this research, this method enabled the researcher to identify variables that were associated with the hazard or risk of becoming sexually active, and to analyze how these variables changed over time. Of the 21 variables analyzed, the full model identified four predictors, age, pro-misconduct, church attendance and deviant behavior as being associated with the risk of initiating sexual intercourse for rural adolescent males. The order in which the predictors were significant in the stepwise regression model were age, deviant behavior, pro-misconduct, peer relations and church attendance. The estimated median lifetime was Survey 3, when 50% of the subjects had made the transition from virgin to nonvirgin. The results of this study also indicate rural adolescent males make this transition at rates comparable to males from other populations. In this study, the largest transition was between the age of 14 to 15, with most males sexually active by age 18. These findings are consistent with the literature concerning teenagers generally. Implications for health education include the need for developing and implementing comprehensive sexuality curricula before seventh-grade, when 90% of the subjects are still not sexually active. It has also been recommended that community-based organizations and religious institutions may be utilized to significantly impact adolescent male sexual behavior. [Source: DA]

Cooksey, Elizabeth C., Ronald R. Rindfuss, and David K. Guilkey. 1996. “The Initiation of Adolescent Sexual and Contraceptive Behavior During Changing Times.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior vol. 37, pp. 59-74.
Abstract: Examines changes in the initiation of adolescent sexual & contraceptive behavior in the US, 1978-1988, drawing on data for a sample of white & black women ages 10-19 from Cycles III & IV of the National Survey of Family Growth. Results indicate overall population patterns of earlier initiation of sexual intercourse & increased use of condoms at first intercourse are not found in all segments of the population. In general, the effects of race, religion, mother's education, & age changed during this time period. The long-term trend of younger age at first intercourse was halted for blacks, & reversed for white, fundamentalist Protestants, but continued for all other whites. Overall, patterns throughout the decade suggest that pressures from parents, religious groups, & others either lead to a later age at first intercourse or use of contraception, but not both. A notable exception is that increased maternal education leads to both a later age at first intercourse & a higher likelihood of using contraception at first intercourse. [Source: SA]

Corcoran, Jacqueline. 1996. “Ecological Factors Associated with Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenting.” Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Texas At Austin.
Abstract: The central purpose of this research was to discover, using Bronfenbrenner's conceptual framework (1979) of an ecological systems model, the combination of factors that successfully predicted pregnancy/parenting status in a convenience sample of 105 teens attending pregnancy prevention programs across a southwestern state. Non-pregnant/non-parenting teens were compared with pregnant and/or parenting teens along factors organized by the following three main systems of interacting categories of variables as explicated by Bronfenbrenner (1979): (1) the microsystem consisting of the psychological variables of self-esteem, depression, and stress levels experienced, and the social psychological variables of alcohol and drug abuse; (2) the mesosystem consisting of religious affiliation and family structure, family functioning, problems with friends, the neighborhood, and the school as well as enacted social support; (3) the macrosystem consisting of household income, parents' occupations, and race. Logistic regression modeling with the entire data set as well as gender and race subsets indicated support for an ecological systems model. The final model included macrolevel (income), mesolevel (communication problems within the family, Catholic religious affiliation, a positive relationship with school, fiancial support from family), and microlevel (age, high stress) factors that acted in combination to predict pregnancy status. The female-only group (N = 82) and the Hispanic group (N = 42) were the only subsamples to have enough members to support statistical modeling. The model for females includes the macrosystem variables of age and income, the mesosystem variables of religious orientation, emotional support from friends, and family communication, and the microsystem variables of depression and drug use. For Hispanics, the macrosystem variables of age and income and the microsystem variable of stress were the factors to enter the logistic regression model. Suggestions for future research and policy and service delivery recommendations are discussed. [Source: DA]

Griffin Carlson, Mary S. 1996. “Adolescent Abortion: Family Interactions as Contributors to the Perceived Quality of Parental Involvement.” Thesis, University of Georgia.
Abstract: Young women from seven private abortion clinics in three different states were surveyed prior to their abortions. The clinics were chosen to include a range of socioeconomic status as well as a balance of inner city dwellers, suburbanites and small-town inhabitants. For a period of approximately 3-1/2 months, every unmarried or non-emancipated patient under the age of 18 who entered the clinics was asked to participate. Participation was strictly voluntary and anonymous. Clinic personnel estimated, however, that there was a 50-70% refusal rate. Only those subjects who were accompanied to the clinics by their parents were used in the analyses to avoid the inclusion of any fabricated data. The goal was to identify a set of variables which might be used to predict outcome for pregnant adolescents who seek consultation with their parents. Almost 60% (59.1%) of the adolescents in the sample stated they had experienced positive interactions when including parents in the decision-making process, while 40.9% reported negative experiences. A model testing approach was used in the analyses. Fourteen predictor variables which had been elicited from the literature on adolescent pregnancy and abortion were separated into three models. The Demographic Model included the variables of age, race, religious denomination, family configuration and adolescent's perception of parents' income (APPI). The Religious Model included the variables of religious denomination, mother's religiosity, father's religiosity and whether the teen considered herself to be born again, evangelical or fundamentalist. The Family Model included the variables of cohesiveness, adaptability, communication, parenting style, coping and family stress pile-up. Multiple regression analyses revealed that neither the Demographics nor the Religious Model was predictive of the adolescent's perceived quality of parental involvement. Four of the family variables, however, variance. These findings support the argument [Source: PI]

Henshaw, S. K. and K. Kost. 1996. “Abortion Patients in 1994-1995: Characteristics and Contraceptive Use.” Family Planning Perspectives vol. 28, p. 140.
Abstract: Results of a 1994-1995 national survey of 9,985 abortion patients reveal that women who live with a partner outside marriage or have no religious identification are 3.5-4.0 times as likely as women in the general population to have an abortion. Nonwhites, women aged 18-24, Hispanics, separated and never-married women, and those who have an annual income of less than $15,000 or who are enrolled in Medicaid are 1.6-2.