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“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”


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The combination of both HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis C (these diseases) will eventually change the structure of families to the way governments conduct business. With these diseases (they) are causing a reduction in the work force and resulting in a massive brain drain for current and future generations. As more people become ill with either disease, they become less productive and their economic resources are spent on medical care. Because they are only focusing on basic needs (shelter, food, and medicine) they are not purchasing non-essential or luxury goods and services. This change in purchases causes a dramatic change in the economic structure of their respective society. The resulting effect on non-infected people will be that they will have to pay more money for goods and services, and will have to pay higher taxes if they want the government to maintain the same level of services as it did in the past.

A report from the CIA states that these diseases will have:

·         A destabilizing Political and Security Impact- In our view, the infectious disease burden will add to political instability and slow democratic development in Sub-Saharan Africa, parts of Asia, and the former Soviet Union, while also increasing political tensions in and among some developed countries.

·         The severe social and economic impact of infectious diseases and the infiltration of these diseases into the ruling political and military elites and middle classes of developing countries are likely to intensify the struggle for political power to control scarce state resources. This will hamper the development of a civil society and other underpinnings of democracy and will increase pressure on democratic transitions in regions such as the FSU and Sub-Saharan Africa where the infectious disease burden will add to economic misery and political polarization.

·         Family Structure. The degradation of nuclear and extended families across all classes will produce severe social and economic dislocations with political consequences.

·         Microeconomic Impact-The impact of infectious diseases at the sector and firm level already appears to be substantial and growing and will be reflected eventually in higher GDP losses, especially in the more advanced developing countries with specialized work force needs.

·         Threats to Deployed Military Forces--Deployed US military forces have historically experienced higher rates of hospital admission from infectious diseases than from battlefield combat and noncombatant injuries. In addition to disease transmission between deployed troops and indigenous populations, warfare-related social disruption often creates refugees and internally displaced persons that can pass infections along to US military forces. Allied coalition forces may themselves bring infectious diseases into an area for the first time and transmit them to US forces and the indigenous population.



Document Name & Link to Document


File Size/pdf

Macroeconomic Impact of HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia

In this paper, a small macroeconomietric model of Ethiopia is used to simulate the macroeconomic impact of HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia.  The model is set up in aggregate demand and supply framework and the individual equations in the model are estimated in an ECM format using the Jobansen approach in view of the time series properties of the macro-time series variables.  The simulation result shows that the prevalence of HIV/AIDS has a negative impact on the overall economy through lowering the active labour force.  The decline in the labour force has a direct negative impact on both the  output of the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors that would lead to the fall in private consumption, investment, exports and government tax revenue.  The slow down of the economy would also be strengthened with the fall in imports due to the decline in exports and hence the shrinking down of the importing capacity.

200 kb pdf

Macroeconomic Models of the Impact of HIV/AIDS Major differences of opinion are emerging in assessments of the socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDS in heavily affected countries between the experiences of those who are devising practical responses to the pandemic, and forecasts based on macroeconomic modeling. 176 kb pdf

Measuring Capacity Building

Capacity building has become central to USAID health sector assistance strategies.  Experience suggest that achieving better health outcomes requires both an injection of resources and adequate local capacity to use those resources effectively

Pdf 135 kb

Measuring Economic Impact of AIDS

the epidemic's effects on food and livelihood security of rural residents are still inadequately understood. Part of the problem is that comprehensive tools to measure such effects of the epidemic have not been fully developed.


Meeting-The Challenge

The acute labour shortage created by HIV/AIDS and its severe consequences for agriculture production and food security of rural households has been well documents. This study tries to show measures to reduce this problem.

461 kb PDF

Meeting-The Global Challenge of HIV/AIDS

More people have dies from HIV/AIDS over the last twenty years than from any other disease in human history.  The devastation caused by the epidemic poses a clear and direct challenge to long-term US economic and security interests AIDS is devastating whole societies and economies, depriving countries of the educated and skilled individuals required to build democratic governments, professional militaries, and free market economies

594 kb pdf

METHODS FOR MODELING THE HIV/AIDS EPIDEMIC IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA An understanding of the magnitude and trajectory of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, as well as the uncertainty around these parameters, is critically important both for planning and evaluating control strategies and for preparing for vaccine efficacy trials. Particularly as efforts mount to make new technologies more widely available in the developing world, tradeoffs among different potential interventions and other critical policy decisions must be based on the best possible information on the current levels and trends in the epidemic. Unfortunately, population-based epidemiological data are extremely limited in sub- Saharan Africa. Incidence data in representative study samples are rare due to the difficulty of direct measurement of population incidence and the high costs and long follow-up periods required for cohort studies. AIDS notification data represent only a fraction of new cases of AIDS and are subject to the problems of reporting delays. Information on HIV/AIDS-attributable mortality is also essential to assessments of the impact of the epidemic, but vital registration systems have extremely limited coverage in most of sub-Saharan Africa; other population-based information on mortality, while increasingly available for children through the Demographic and Health Surveys, for example, are relatively uncommon for adults. Pdf 57 kb

Millions of AIDS Orphans Strain Southern Africa

The United Nations Children's Fund estimates in a new report that 11 million children under 15 in sub-Saharan Africa have lost at least one parent to AIDS. About a third of them have lost both parents. By 2010, Unicef predicts, AIDS will have claimed at least one of the parents of 15 percent of the region's children - 20 million in all.


Money makes the...?

It is difficult to have a discussion with people in international development without the refrain of 'if only we had more money we would be a lot more effective' being sung - loudly on most occasions. It is a song that communication for development folks sing with particular gusto. For some reason we are [or think we are] the bottom of the funding fund chain.


Money matters-financing the global epidemic

Presentation—The sectoral Impact: what we know, don’t know and need to know: the true cost of AIDS

Pdf 295 kb

Negotiating Power and Profitability of HIV/AIDS in South Africa For many South Africans affected with HIV/AIDS, the decision to contest and resist their institutionalization has led to direct conflict with state elites and an array of public and private organizations who seek to represent them inside a neo-liberal framework Pdf 562 kb

Overview of the Impact & best responses.

Impact and best practice response in favour of children in a world affected by HIV/AIDS

261 kb pdf


Medieval society never recovered from the results of the plague. So many people had died that there were serious labor shortages all over Europe. This led workers to demand higher wages, but landlords refused those demands. By the end of the 1300s peasant revolts broke out in England, France, Belgium and Italy.

The disease took its toll on the church as well. People throughout Christendom had prayed devoutly for deliverance from the plague. Why hadn't those prayers been answered? A new period of political turmoil and philosophical questioning lay ahead.

Poor State of Finance in East Africa

In developed market economies, a financial intermediary system takes primary care of channelling savings to those who need loans and can use the funds most effectively. In our region, despite the improvements over the last decade, this intermediation process has not worked to the levels necessary for sustainable growth


Poor to get Aids drugs first

The impoverished community of KwaDabeka in Durban will be one of the first pilot sites to receive antiretroviral drugs at its clinic for HIV-infected patients when KwaZulu- Natal receives its R720-million grant from the UN Global Fund to Fight Aids, TB and Malaria.


Potential Costs and Benefits of Responding to the Mobility Aspect of the HIV Epidemic in South East Asia This paper presents a methodology to estimate the costs and potential benefits of responding to the mobility aspects of the HIV epidemic in South East Asia.  One of the steps in strengthening the countries’ capabilities for appropriate policy and programmatic decisions in resource allocation for HIV/AIDS programmes to reduce mobility related HIV vulnerability, it is important to have costing information on responses, or lack thereof, to mobility related factors in HIV prevention & mitigation of the impact of AIDS 1098 kb pdf

Potomac Statement on Investment

There is little doubt that access to and use of timely and reliable health information from all sources is essential for ensuring adequate health system performance in developing countries

Pdf 117 kb

Poverty and AIDS.

Looks at the relation between HIV/AIDS and poverty and tries to say something about the relationship.

128 kb pdf

Poverty and Labour Market Markers of HIV+ Households: An Exploratory Methodological Analysis This study, through an exploratory but promising methodology, provides a tentative analysis of the relationship between HIV, poverty and labour markets.  The paper illustrates that the relationship between poverty, labour markets and HIV is not homogenous but multi-dimensional in character.  The analysis examines these inter-relationships at both the household and individual level.  The key findings from the analysis suggest that imputed HIV positive women come from poorer households than imputed negative women Pdf 959 kb
Principles for technical support Recognize that requests for technical support are not an admission of failure or poor performance but rather that technical support is a valuable and measurable investment in countries’ national, regional and local HIV responses, bringing added value to programme implementation. Pdf 288 kb

Private Sector Response

"The Botswana HIV epidemic is still on the increase, based on the trend analysis in all sites which seem to have maintained the same prevalence over the last 2-4 years. This indicates that the epidemic is still growing and is bound to wipe out all the current economic achievements and also change the demographic profile of the country."

785 kb PDF

Private Sector Response to AIDS

This report presents a detailed analysis of the impact of HIV/AIDS on the private sector, by focusing on costs imposed on the private sector as a result of increased illness and deaths from AIDS. The report also discusses the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of businesses in the area of HIV/AIDS at the workplace.

279 kb PDF

Public Safety Nets

Helping to reduce vulnerability poses a new set of challenges for public policy. The most immediate challenge is to determine the appropriate role for public action.

PDF / 137KB


Ramatex On Rack Again

Filipino workers feel so strongly about their working conditions that they have sent an appeal to their government through its South African embassy.

A petition signed by nearly 700 employees cites poor wages, cramped living conditions and health concerns as their most pressing grievances.

Their concerns peaked last week, when at least two employees were forced to return to the Philippines after being declared sick and unfit to work, assertions they dispute.

A group of about five were told by the company nurse that they had contracted hepatitis C - a viral infection of the liver.


Relationships between work and HIV/AIDS status During the past decade HIV infection has become a pandemic, affecting millions of workers. HIV/AIDS in the workplace has made a decided impact on business and will continue to do so for years. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the impact of HIV/AIDS on work and to assess the reasons behind cessation of occupational activities among HIV-infected persons. Pdf 193

Religious Leaders

As religious people there is a call to respond with love to everyone, especially those who are suffering. People living with HIV/AIDS have many physical, emotional and spiritual needs. However, these people are frequently afraid to approach their religious leaders for fear of facing condemnation, rejection and judgement, with the result that many lack the spiritual care and support they need and deserve.

PDF / 410KB

Researchers fear ultimate toll of hepatitis C may surpass AIDS

Between 8,000 and 10,000 people in the U.S. die each year from hepatitis C-related disease and liver cancer, and another 5,000 are listed for liver transplants. About 4,000 liver transplants are performed each year because of hepatitis C, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. But those numbers may double or even triple over the next decade, Jensen said.


Researchers Project Lifetime Cost and Life Expectancy for Current HIV Care in the United States The authors estimated the monthly medical cost for people with HIV, from the time of beginning appropriate care until death, to be $2,100 on average. The projected life expectancy for these individuals, if they remain in optimal HIV care, has now increased to 24.2 years, and the lifetime per person HIV care cost is now $618,900 per person. This amount is comparable to the estimated lifetime medical cost for women under age 65 in the U.S. with cardiovascular disease, who can also have long life expectancies with appropriate medical management. When HIV care costs are discounted to reflect the fact that they will be incurred in the future, the projected lifetime cost per person at the time of entering optimal HIV care is $385,200, and the treatment expense that can be avoided by preventing each HIV infection is $303,100.  
Results: HIV/AIDS The UNGASS Declaration called for a fundamental shift in our response to HIV/AIDS.  No longer perceived as only a health sector concern, the epidemic is now accepted by the world’s leaders as a global development challenge of highest priority.  The implications of this shift for the UN system are profound and far-reaching.  Effective support to national HIV/AIDS responses demands that we fundamentally re-think current plans and programmes; find the courage to take risks, innovate and expand interventions on a scale never before achieved; and forthrightly address issues such as stigma. Discrimination, gender inequality and inequitable access to prevention, care and treatment 118 kb pdf

Rethinking AIDS as Social Responsibility

AIDS control efforts reflect the best and the worst face of globalization.  How are the dual sides manifest in relation to AIDS and how can we capitalize on the positive and counter the negative implications?  These are the central concerns while conceptualizing the workshop.  Discussions will be focused on the issue of creating a conducive macro-environment for:


sacred lives

Previous studies have shown sexually exploited Aboriginal children and youth form a disproportionately high percentage of the sex trade.  In some communities in Canada, commercial sexual exploitation of Aboriginal children and youth forms more than 90 percent of the visible sex trade in areas where the Aboriginal population is less than 10 percent

Pdf 818 kb

Satan Triumphant: The Black Death Imagine, that a mere five days after having read this that all of your best friends have succumbed to an illness which cannot be explained. Imagine also, that all the residents who live on your street have died under similar circumstances in the same amount of time. If you can conceive of such a dreaded act occurring within your experience than you may have some glimpse into the mindset of the mid-14th century European who was unfortunate enough to have experienced the BLACK DEATH.  
Social and Economic Impacts of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, with Specific Reference to Aging Knowledge about HIV and AIDS has increase at a great rate since the first significant appearance of the disease at the beginning of the 1980s.  But complicating factors have also affected distribution across populations, the way the disease manifests in certain places, and which groups are at risk.  These factors include migration/mobility, stigma, socio-cultural practices, human behavioral changes, prostitution, the absence or presence of education and awareness interventions undertaken by health, non-governmental and governmental organizations, and the prevalence rate Pdf 189 kb
Social Costs of Occupational Disease and Injury “These huge financial costs are being borne by – and impacting upon – employers, employees and society,” says Pearce. “And of course the effects are much more than financial – there are often significant and long-term social consequences for the injured and sick people and for their families, workplaces and communities – and further down the track, the health system, the Government and the economy. “We must address these costs, and soon. Every year between 700 and 1,000 people die from occupational disease and 100 people die from occupational injury. We also see up to 20,000 cases of new work-related diseases, and about 200,000 work-related injuries that result in claims to ACC. This is a huge and unacceptable burden for New Zealand to bear.”  

Social Capital

South African households live in an environment characterized by risks, and many face a significant probability of experiencing economic losses that threaten their daily subsistence.

PDF / 294KB


As the world enters the third decade of the AIDS epidemic, it has spread with great speed. The epidemic has claimed more than three million lives in 2003, and an estimated five million people acquired HIV, bringing to 40 million the number of people globally living with the virus (United Nations Joint Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS, 2003). According to UNAIDS and the World Health Organization (WHO) report (2002:16), the annual number of new infections has remained steady, but it hides dynamic trends in the economy and population. Pdf 237 kb

Social cohesion in relationship to child

An understanding of the genetic and biological underpinnings of child development, while necessary, is an insufficient framework for understanding the complexity of human development.

PDF / 242KB

Socio-economic effects of HIV/AIDS in African countries This study considers the impact on enterprises.  The most notable negative effect has been the decline in labour supply and loss in productivity because of absenteeism, while the effect on capital appears less certain.  Many of these effects are greater for small businesses that are dependent on a few key persons and therefore will be particularly vulnerable.  Foreign direct investment is likely to decline because of the economic uncertainties created by the epidemic.  Declining economic growth will mean that the demand for domestic goods will be hit. 374 kb pdf

Social Inequalities & infectious diseases

Although many who study emerging infections subscribe to social-production-of-disease theories, few have examined the contribution of social inequalities to disease emergence.  Yet such inequalities have powerfully sculpted not only the distribution of infectious diseases, but also the course of disease in those affected.

Pdf 217 kb

Social movements: 'ultra-left' or 'global citizens'

Recently, Napwa began a campaign of protests and civil disobedience over the price of AIDS drugs and discrimination against HIV/AIDS sufferers, beginning with a fast outside the Midrand offices of Glaxo Smith Kline and an attempted sit-in at the Pharmaceutical Manufacturer's Association's offices, which resulted in arrests.


Social sector

Although the broad definition of the ‘social sector’ is the provision of any public goods, including education, health, and housing, for the purposes of this AIDS Brief the concept will be limited to the delivery of welfare.  “Welfare” is commonly understood to include the provision of personal social services, institutional care, and state social assistance in the form of a variety of pensions and grants

Pdf 405 kb

Social Workers

The HIV/AIDS epidemic is having a major impact at all levels of society, from the individual to the macro-economic. At the micro-level the impact is particularly devastating, not only for the the individual who is infected, but also for his or her family and the wider community.

PDF / 440KB

Socio-Economic Causes and Consequences of HIV/AIDS: A Focus on South Asia

HIV/AIDS is a major development challenge with implications beyond the health sector. Socio-economic factors such as gender inequality, poverty and livelihood issues, which are key causes of high mobility and migration of people and trafficking of women and children, also contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS, and are, in turn exacerbated by it. These factors operate within the legal and ethical environment, which also influences responses to the HIV-affected.


Socio-economic Impact of HIV/AIDS on People Living with HIV/AIDS and their Families The deteriorating economic impact on the PLWHA is also shocking…The number is increasing and now we are about 10% of the global HIV population…We shall make mistake if we don’t take these findings seriously and strengthen out responses to HIV/AIDS 339 kb pdf

Socio-economic Impact of HIV/AIDS on children in a Low Prevalence Context

HIV/AIDS appeared to have a strong impact on self-perception, emotional stability and the construction of individual and family identities, among adults as well as among children.

92 kb PDF

The AIDS Pandemic in the 21st Century

(Large report-increase download time)
Although the full demographic impact is not expected to be felt for several more years, and perhaps will not be completely measured at the pandemic’s epicenter in Sub-Saharan Africa, the emerging downward trends in life expectancy and population growth, the distortions in age structures, and the breakdowns in support systems are already being seen in some countries. Pdf 2123 kb


The Black Death of 1346 - 1348 and its relation to historical change is not one of direct cause but of contributory effect.  The disease helped cause historic and social change, but the change (especially in economic systems) was not initiated by the historical event known as the Black Death but accelerated by it.


The Black Death Different parts of the oriental world have been mentioned as the probable locality of the first appearance of the plague or pestilence known as the "black death," but its origin is most generally referred to China, where, at all events, it raged violently about 1333, when it was accompanied at its outbreak by terrestrial and atmospheric phenomena of a destructive character, such as are said to have attended the first appearance of Asiatic cholera and other spreading and deadly diseases; from which it has been conjectured that through these convulsions deleterious foreign substances may have been projected into the atmosphere.  

The Black Death's lasting impact on British society

The long term effects of the Black Death (1348-50) were devastating and far reaching. Agriculture, religion, economics and even social class were affected. Professor Tom James examines the impact of the plague from contemporary accounts and asks, would things ever be the same again?


The Black Death Transformed: Disease and Culture in Early Renaissance Europe. Histories of the disease of the past led to an unprecedented international scientific response on the one hand, but on the other, it led to a delay in the discovery of the modern plague’s epidemiology. Cohn cites case after case where scientists were aware of the distinctions in the diseases’ microbiology but went to almost ridiculous links to ‘square the circle’, maintaining the fallacy. Time and again scientists such as Manson, Hankin and Hirst confronted the difficult issues of speed of transmission and viability of contagion, but allowed the historical past to accompany them into the laboratory.   
The Bubonic Plague (AKA "Black Death") The global epidemic, or "Black Death," that most associate with medieval Europe actually began in central Asia in the early 14th century, probably near China's Gobi Desert.  It then spread through China, killing approximately 35 million people.  For reasons unknown (perhaps global cooling allowed it to thrive), the plague began a massive outbreak in all directions that eventually affected most of the world.  It spread along Chinese trade routes and reached Europe in October 1347 when a fleet of Genoese merchant ships from Caffa landed in Sicily.  
The Co-infection of HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis B and C: The Socio-Economic Impact - State of Florida This paper seeks to ascertain the rate of co-infection that exists in Florida, gaps in treatment, a projection of future costs for how this is effecting HIV prevention and care activities throughout Florida, and a projection of future financial impact.  A short history, epidemiological information, treatment theories, and associated costs are presented for HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, and co-infections between them.  A survey was administered to providers from both the public and private sector to achieve a realistic perspective on hepatitis outreach, testing, and treatment.   
The Economic Costs of Infectious Diseases The economic cost of infectious disease outbreaks are increasingly becoming a global concern. Estimates on the cost of the SARS outbreak range from US$10 billion to US$30 billion. This can be compared to the 1994 locally-contained outbreak of plague in Surat, India, estimated to cost of US$2 billion and the 1997 Avian Flu in Hong Kong estimated to have cost hundreds of millions of dollars in lost poultry production, commerce and tourism.  
The Economic Impact of AIDS in Nigeria AIDS has the potential to create severe economic impacts in many African countries.  It is different from most other disease because it strikes people in the most productive are groups and is essentially 100 percent fatal.  The effects will vary according to the severity of the AIDS epidemic and the structure of the national economies.  The two major economic effects are a reduction in the labor supply and increased costs 187 kb pdf
The Economic Impact of AIDS in South Africa AIDS has the potential to create severe economic impacts in many African countries.  It is different from most other diseases because it strikes people in the most productive age groups and is essentially 100 percent fatal.  The effects will vary according to the severity of the AIDS epidemic and the structure of the national economies. Pdf 251 kb
THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF AIDS IN THE United States Because of the virulence and deadliness of the disease, which has generally required acute hospital care, serious concerns about its impact on health care costs were raised almost from the beginning. Yet only in the past three or four years have some data on its costs become available from a number of studies that have estimated the economic impact of AIDS. Even now, serious data gaps remain. Because we appear to have reached the end of the first phase of the medical management of AIDS, with its heavy reliance on inpatient hospital care, it is timely now to review the studies and estimates relating to the costs of the epidemic and its economic impact that have been made to date. Pdf 137 kb

The Effects of the Black Death on the Economic and Social Life of Europe

The Black Death is the name later given to the epidemic of plague that ravaged Europe between 1347 and 1351. The disaster affected all aspects of life. Depopulation and shortage of labor hastened changes already inherent in the rural economy; the substitution of wages for labor services was accelerated, and social stratification became less rigid. Psychological morbidity affected the arts; in religion, the lack of educated personnel among the clergy gravely reduced the intellectual vigor of the church.  

The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Retailers


A scan of press releases and research reports relating to HIV/AIDS and the retail sector reveals one simple truth… Retailers have done very little to protect themselves against the harmful effects of the epidemic. The business community and general population typically have the same attitude towards the threat of HIV/AIDS. There is denial amongst those most at risk, refusal to talk openly about the issues and safeguards. Most individuals prefer not to know the full extent of the problem and there is a general failure to change behaviour and recognise that each institution is as vulnerable as the next. It is important that retailers identify the impact that HIV/AIDS will have on an individual business. An effective response to the epidemic can only be achieved by convincing all stakeholders of the severity of the problem. A greater understanding of the impact is also required in developing an appropriate response to the epidemic. Pdf 306 kb
The Impact of HIV/AIDS on the Health System and Child Health This study finds that HIV/AIDS has generated a substantial increase in the overall burden of disease, crowded out the health resources assigned to the care of traditional sicknesses,  directed most of the additional demand for care at the secondary and tertiary levels thus causing a congestion at these levels while weakening primary health care, including the programs targeted at children and mothers,  caused a substantial increase in health expenditure that was financed by the households in poor countries and by the public sector in the middle income ones and eroded the delivery capacity of the whole health sector due to mounting infection rates among the staff and falling expenditure on fixed investment and maintenance. As for the impact on U5MR, the evidence shows that countries with high HIV prevalence rates, a high coverage of child health services and low U5MR in the pre-AIDS era, there was a marked reversal of the declining trend in child mortality. Pdf 153 kb


The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Health Service Personnel at Two Public Hospitals in Johannesburg

It is general knowledge that the HIV/AIDS epidemic is adversely affecting the South-African population.  Public servants are responsible for providing services to all sectors of society. In the same way that educators are critical to the schooling of South Africa’s youth, health workers are critical to the implementation of a successful public health response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa, and yet they may be as susceptible to this epidemic as the general population.

In the wake of health care staff shortages in the public sector and increased levels of morbidity and mortality within the general population due to AIDS. Concern over the readiness of the public health sector to deal with the increasing patient burden has prompted stakeholders to want to ascertain the impact of HIV/AIDS on public healthcare personnel in order to formulate a proper response and anticipate the future demand for this segment of the workforce.  For this reason, our research team carried out an HIV sero-prevalence study among voluntary participants at Helen Joseph and Coronation Hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa. Additionally, blood samples found to be HIV positive were further tested to measure the CD4 cell count.  Knowledge of the CD4 cell distribution provides an indication of what percentage of workers are at increased risk of opportunistic infections, such as tuberculosis, and what percentage of workers have AIDS and would likely need to receive antiretroviral therapy. 
The Impact of HIV and AIDS on Children, Families and Communities: While recent scientific efforts have resulted in a series of discoveries and advances in understanding and controlling the virus that causes AIDS, this progress has had limited impact on the majority of HIV infected people and populations living in developing countries. The social and economic conditions that nurture the spread of the virus have to be confronted as essential elements in local and global efforts to stem its spread and create effective solutions to halt the epidemic. The current demographics of the epidemic illustrate that this is particularly true of the conditions of human life during childhood  
The Effects of The Black Death on the Economic and Social Life of Europe The Black Death is the name later given to the epidemic of plague that ravaged Europe between 1347 and 1351. The disaster affected all aspects of life. Depopulation and shortage of labor hastened changes already inherent in the rural economy; the substitution of wages for labor services was accelerated, and social stratification became less rigid. Psychological morbidity affected the arts; in religion, the lack of educated personnel among the clergy gravely reduced the intellectual vigor of the church.  
The Impact of HIV/AIDS in Zambia: Industry and the Public Sectors The author notes that the impact of HIV infection on a primary industry such as mining in Zambia will be shaped by numerous factors that are different from what is known in the industrialised countries that have mining industries. He discusses the possible impact of HIV infection and AIDS on mining on the Copperbelt Province of Zambia. The findings show that the impact of HIV/AIDS on the Zambian economy is difficult to quantify. However, the mining industry will have more expenses to take care of in terms of health and social services for its miners. It was also noted that the only way to avoid this would be to recruit only those who are free from HIV and to routinely screen all miners at frequent intervals and terminate the services of all who are infected  

The impact of HIV/AIDS on Business in China


The well-documented increase in labor costs brought on by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa and Southeast Asia indicate what companies operating in China may face in the future. Many people who contract HIV are unaware that they are ill and work for several years before their health begins to decline. The impact of HIV/AIDS first hits businesses when a worker's absenteeism increases and may be particularly severe for companies that employ skilled workers. A study in Beijing conducted between 1994 and 1999 found that HIV-infected people spent an average of 89.6 days per year in the hospital and made an additional 2.7 outpatient visits per year. Because of the highly personal nature of Chinese business relationships, moreover, the absence of key workers may amplify the impact of HIV/AIDS. Compounding matters, healthy employees often contribute to worker absenteeism rates when they take time off to care for HIV-infected family members. When workers are absent, remaining employees take on extra work, which results in higher overtime costs and workplace stress. Workers and their families may also demand death benefits, funeral expenses, and bereavement leave, further raising the costs of business for employers.  
The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Land Issues in Kwazulu-Natal Province South Africa This report presents the findings of a preliminary study into the link between HIV/AIDS and land issues in customary tenure areas of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.  The term ‘land issues’ is understood broadly to include three main dimensions, namely land use, land rights, and land administration. 1125 kb pdf
The Impact of HIV/AIDS on the Education Sector in Southern Africa Since the onset of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa the virus has killed approximately 15 million people, and it is estimated that another 25 million people are infected, representing almost three-fourths of the world's HIV infections. AIDS morbidity and mortality is concentrated among working-age individuals, resulting in a devastating impact on human capital resources in the world's most affected countries. The education system, which is the primary mechanism for the development of the future human resources, has not been spared the effects of the epidemic. Not only are enrollments declining as AIDS orphans can no longer afford to attend school, but the loss of teachers and even education administrators to the illness is undermining the very structure of education systems in sub- Saharan Africa.  

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The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Population Growth in Africa

When it was first recognized that AIDS would be a critical global health problem and that many nations in Africa would be particularly hard hit by the disease, there was speculation that AIDS might ultimately lead to population decline in many countries.


The Impact on Economic Growth in Africa of Rising Costs and Labor Productivity Losses Associated with HIV/AIDS This paper analyzes the impact of HIV/AIDS using a model of economic retrogression. Derived from reversing direction in an endogenous growth framework, the model provides a fresh perspective of the impact of HIV/AIDS on economic growth. Many analysts have now recognized that their best estimates of the effect of the epidemic have been systematically understated. What they have failed to fully account for is that the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been having a non-linear effect on economic growth. Our model incorporates this element by including the feedback to the rate of economic growth of declining savings and investment due to rising costs and falling productivity associated with HIV/AIDS.  
The Macroeconomic Impact The macro economic impact of HIV/AIDS has two dimensions, namely direct and indirect costs. The latter is much more difficult to estimate, whilst its effect is also much more profound. This situation is aggravated by the fact that the portion of the population most affected by HIV/AIDS is the most economically active. The result of this is reduced economic growth and hence pressures on income. This could translate into changes in expenditure patterns that would definitely have an impact on the demand for food. Although the per capita income is expected to increase, it is projected that total expenditure on food will decrease in 2004 and 2009 in the "With HIV/AIDS" scenario. In constant 1995 terms, AIDS will cause a reduction in food expenditure in 2004 from 265,6 million to 258,8 million, while in 2009 the pandemic will result in a 6,52 per cent reduction from 294,5 million to 275,3 million  
The Macroeconomic Impact of HIV/AIDS on the KZN and South African Economies: Estimates Using Workplace Testing Programme Data Power Point Presentation 269 kb

The National Security Implications of HIV/AIDS


Despite the high-pro. le linking of HIV/AIDS and security, including four United Nations Security Council (UNSC) meetings and prominent mention within the United States national security strategy, critical debate about the ways in which public health interacts with the security interests of states are scarce in public health journals. Journals have examined the ways national security issues, including the recent war in Iraq and the Israeli–Palestinian con. Ict [3,4], have negatively affected public health. However, the ways public health affects national security interests have rarely been considered. It is essential to examine this debate, including evidence for the links between HIV/AIDS and national security, from a public health perspective because of the implications this linkage has for the direction and funding of global HIV/AIDS efforts. Pdf 927 kb

The Other Drug War-Public citizen

This report shows how the pharmaceutical industry fought last year, like never before, against the looming threat that Congress and President Clinton would provide senior citizens with drug coverage under Medicare.

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The Plague of Our Time: Societal Responses to AIDS


Nearly every major infectious disease has created not one but two epidemics: the illness itself and society's reaction to it. Following initial denial there is hysteria and a search for a scapegoat. The fear of infection and the ignorance of its cause have often led to uncaring and even barbaric practices.  
The Private Sector and HIV/AIDS These guidelines contain a short general introduction followed by a set of checklists to be used in contacts with private sector institutions and actors, such as chambers of commerce, and national or regional business organisations. The aim is to integrate HIV/AIDS aspects in private sector development co-operation and identify possible responses to the epidemic.  
The Scope of Injuries as Public Health and Research Problems It is interesting that notions of fault and negligence of individuals immediately involved in damaging transfers of mechanical, thermal, chemical, and radiation energy have seldom been applied to interpersonal transfers of harmful biologic organisms. In medieval times, persons thought to be carriers of the plague, but who actually were not, were persecuted and in some instances murdered.(2) But in modern times people seldom if ever think of suing someone who conveys bacteria or viruses that result in disease. Surely the person who knowingly has a disease that is transmitted by sneezing in crowds, kissing, sexual intercourse, or whatever and who then infects others by engaging in those activities is no less negligent than the alcoholic who drives while intoxicated and injures someone. Why do we believe that the latter is somehow more subject to control by legalistic fault finding and punishment than the former? Infectious-disease epidemiologists seldom if ever concern themselves with blame assignment, although carriers of the more serious diseases may be pursued by public-health physicians for the purpose of treating the disease and stopping the chain of transmission. Yet the primary purpose of police and often of expert investigation of car crashes is to assign fault in reports or to testify in lawsuits for damages.  

The Status and Trends of HIV Epidemic

a team of internationally recognized technical specialists in epidemiology, modelling, economics, demography, public health, and international development was formed to monitor the dynamics of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and various regional epidemics.


To What Extent the Socio-economic Changes Affect the Health Status of Children? This study aims to investigate the causal-effect relationships, which could potentially explain the changes in the health status of children as a consequence of the economic crisis. In order to broaden the perspectives in which to look at these inherent characteristics, two types of outcome indicators representing the health status of children are employed in this study. They include self-reported child morbidity indicator, which is represented by the occurrence of child illness during the time span of the study, and a measured anthropometric indicator related to the prevalence cases of wasting in children. The inclusions of both indicators are deliberate, so as to highlight and discuss any differences that might arise due to the issues of reliability and systematic bias involved in the data being utilised. Pdf 316 kb
Viewing HIV/AIDS from a development perspective One of the major development challenges we face is that of tackling the growing HIV/AIDS pandemic. The pandemic is not just a public health issue but has implications far beyond the health sector. This makes it necessary – more than ever before – to adopt a participatory and holistic approach towards halting the spread of the pandemic. Promoting partnerships and collaboration among different State and non-State actors will have to be an important element of this approach.  

Ukraine-socio-economic impact

The research reported here was undertaken in 1997-8 and describes the potential medium to long-term social and economic impact of an HIV/AIDS epidemic in Ukraine.

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UN Facts and Figures

According to estimates by UNAIDS, the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/ AIDS, more than 3 million children and young people worldwide became infected with HIV in 1998. This included almost 590 000 children under 15 and over 2.5 million 15-24 year olds. During 1998, more than 8500 children and young people became infected with HIV each day - six every minute.


Unhealthy People are Poor People…and vice versa

Poverty has adverse consequences on health through many different channels.  First, and most obviously, poor people (and poor countries) do not have the material resources, the money necessary to buy health care: they cannot afford prevention before the disease appears and they cannot afford doctors and medicines once the disease has appeared.

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UNICEF report on Africa's orphaned generations


Today, over 11 million children under the age of 15 living in sub- Saharan Africa have been robbed of one or both parents by HIV/Aids. Seven years from now, the number is expected to have grown to 20 million. At that point, anywhere from 15 per cent to over 25 per cent of the children in a dozen sub-Saharan African countries will be orphans - the vast majority of them will have been orphaned by HIV/AIDS.


UN's envoy to convey Enormity of Food/AIDS Crisis

UN Secretary General's special envoy for Humanitarian Needs in Southern Africa, James Morris, completed a tour of four countries in the region and said the HIV/Aids pandemic was threatening the very future of nations. One president told him: "My country is on the verge of extinction."


We have AIDS-

Access to Medication and care



AIDS and the Marketplace






Choking the seeds of learning



Compassion in the Midst of crisis




Food Security Spiral







The Role of Gender





Youth…part of the Solution


How can a country that cannot afford to feed its own people and assure them of food security, spend money on medication and care?

Most of the 40 million people infected with HIV are in the prime of their working lives.  The effects are momentous—not just on workers and their families, but on enterprises and entire national and regional economies.  AIDS has become a crucial workplace issue and a massive development challenge.”

In the most affected countries, the loss of teachers due to AIDS is expected to outstrip the ability of training colleges to provide new qualified teachers.

Many of us don’t even know someone personally who is infected with HIV or AIDS, even though there are a lot of people suffering with the disease in out neighborhoods and even in our churches

Food security, described as your-round access to sufficient food of appropriate nutritional value, is a basic human need.  It is dependent on availability, stability, and accessibility of food supplies.  All of these are diminished when HIV/AIDS enters a community

The relative lack of power that women experience and conditions of poverty go hand in hand with behaviors to create the conditions ripe for a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS in women.

Tanzanian girls are taught to submit to men, so if a man asks them for sex they feel that they cannot refuse or even insist on protecting themselves.


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We have no food, no work and no money

"We have no food, no work and no money. How are we supposed to feed our families now?" asked Mathews Sibanda. "If you walk around here, you will see that the stomachs of children are growing bigger and swollen by malnutrition.


Wealth Alone does not Buy Health-State Capacity, Democracy, and the Spread of AIDS In this paper- it considers how a variety of domestic factors influence HIV infection rates across countries.  We argue that states with higher state capacity lend to slow down the spread of HIV/AIDS epidemic.  Moreover, we argue that democracies tend to be more responsive to the needs of the population and can be more efficient in curtailing the spread of HIV/AIDS. Pdf 443 kb

Welfare implications

The paper examines the changes and welfare implications of income diversification in Zimbabwe following macroeconomic policy changes

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What have we learned-HIV

In every possible way the essential public health trusts between authorities, science, medicine and the global populace were violated during the 1994 plague outbreak in India


When Family Members just can't Understand

There are probably few things in life that are more hurtful than being rejected by family members when we need them most. Unfortunately, many patients find that a diagnosis of hepatitis C not only causes friends to scatter, but also contributes to some families literally splitting apart. Hep C is a disease that no one truly understands, nor do we have much control over what it does to us. Sure, we can learn to live with it and alleviate some of its symptoms, but we still have no control over how others see us or how they'll act towards us. Hepatitis C is a disease with so much misleading information that it leaves us wide open to criticism from family members who either can't or won't try to understand. Because we "don't look sick" it's easy for them to forget that we are. Pain and discomfort aren't always obvious on the surface, but this sure doesn't mean that they aren't real.


WHO-classification of disability

ICF describes how people live with their health conditions. ICF is a classification of health and health-related domains that describe body functions and structures, activities and participation.


Women and Girls Bear the Burden in ZIMBABWE

“I first knew of my HIV status when my husband got ill. We both went for HIV testing and we were counseled and given our results. We were both found HIV positive,” recalls the 35-year-old mother of three. “My husband got worse and finally died late last year. His relatives insisted that I should be inherited by one of his brothers. This is when I decided to tell them that I was HIV positive and that my husband had died of AIDS.”


World Bank accelerating Response to AIDS in the Caribbean

Partnerships are needed to stem the epidemic, as individual countries do not have the financial means. The population in the region is highly mobile, travelling extensively within the region, which exacerbates the epidemic's risks.


World Bank Pledges $50 Million for AIDS

many organisations were willing to donate funds to fight the spread of the pandemic and assisting the affected and infected "but we do not have the capacity to spend the money".


World Bank says AIDS worst Economic Evil

"The irony of AIDS is that it is striking the middle age group which constitutes the majority of the productive workforce. This is bringing a lot of pressure to economies at national and household level,"


World Bank supports Pakistanis Effort in AIDS Prevention

Currently, the HIV prevalence rate in Pakistan is less than 0.1 percent. While the numbers remain relatively low, a failure to actively prevent HIV/AIDS in Pakistan could lead to a widespread epidemic.


Worse Than the World Bank

Bankers are always very secretive about the precise structuring of their deals, but essentially the strategy is simple. The key is to get as high a return as possible, while palming the risk off on somebody else. That is why you should never listen when people tell you that export credit agencies are...dinosaurs. What could be nicer in times of turmoil than having the risk picked up by the taxpayer?



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