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“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”

    

Approximate Time line for Hepatitis

From: hbv_research-list-owner@mail-list.com

 

Greece, Late 5th Century, B.C. - Jaundice: described by Hippocrates.

8th Century - Infectious nature: suggested.

17th ~ 19th centuries - Outbreaks of epidemics of jaundice: occurred in

military and civilian populations during the war. (i.e. viral hepatitis A).

1883 - Lurman reported outbreaks of serum hepatitis following vaccination

of dockers.

1900's - Walter Reed dies 2 years after work in Panama on Yellow Fever

1908 - McDonald postulated that the infectious jaundice is caused by virus.

1910's - Experiments on vector transmission with Yellow fever, Diphtheria,

Polio, etc..

1920's - Unsafe testing with X-ray and Gamma Radiation. Madame Currie

succumbs in 1934 from radiation posioning.

1920's - Diphtheria Vaccination programs go awry and harm many here and in

Europe.

1930's - Radiation and irradiated blood used in Germany and Russia. HBV

emerges.

1930 - Max Theiler begins work on Yellow Fever vaccination

1932 - Brazil has outbreak of 'Hepatitis' - blamed on vectors from Gambia

1935 - Max Theiler (from S. Africa) begins work on Yellow Fever vaccination

at The Rockefeller Medical Institute

1936 - Theiler uses Pasteur's Process to pass Yellow Fever through Mice

brains, rather than rabbits.(rearrangements in RNA genomes PMID: 7596811)

1937 - Japan's Ishii begins Unit 731 south of Harbin, Heilongjiang

(Manchuria)

1938 - 1 Million Brazilians now infected with Rockefeller's/Theiler's Yellow

Fever/HBV vaccination. Programme was funded by Rockefeller foundation and a

very interesting book

reporting this was published. The mosquitoes were thought to have been

introduced by a ship traveling from

the West Coast of Africa.

1939 - Japan's General Ishii's Aide comes to NY and Rockefeller to obtain

"sample" of Yellow Fever/HBV virus. Japanese Army doctor, Dr. Ryoichi

Naito, visited the laboratory with credentials from the Japanese military

attached in Washington to obtain a sample of that strain of the Yellow Fever

virus.

1939 ~ 1945 WWII - A series of outbreaks after vaccination for measles and

yellow fever.

1940 - Rockefeller funding Medical experiments with humans in both Germany

and Japan, involved with Russians.

1941- Dec. 7th, Pearl Harbor attacked. Allied Troops to be deployed in high

Yellow Fever areas- S. Pacific, N. Africa, etc..

1942 - US begins "Defensive Biological Warfare Program".

1942 - Rockefeller's Yellow Fever/ HBV vaccine given to US Army Soldiers and

Allied Troops. 330,000 infected.

1942 - Ft. Detrick's 'Defensive' Biological Warfare Program begins.

1942 - Schering taken over by the US Government.

1943 - Acute Hepatitis causes a few deaths in the Military

1943- Through sophisticated testing, the researchers pinpointed 1943 to 1949

as the years in which Hepatitis C Virus initially spread in Japan

1944 - E.J. Cohn begins to develop first generation 'Immune Serum Globulin',

ISG. More are contaminated.

1945 - Nuclear Testing conducted in areas now high in HBV rates.

1945 - WWII Ends in Europe and Asia. Veterans go home and donate blood in

all 50 States.

1945 - Thorotrast used as a treatment for TB in England. (alpha particles

cause cancers decades later) Same trail that has the hep infected blood

also has the Thorotrast trail.

1940's - "A containment effort would seek to prevent outbreaks" (hence:

immunizations of the population..like with Yellow fever vaccination

contaminated with HBV) "successful Brazilian Anopheles gambiae effort of the

1930s...was repeated around Aswan during the 1940s" Note: Aswan is in

Egypt.....highest Hepatitis C Virus rates in the World today. Want to bet what vaccination

they used in Egypt during the 40's and in Italy to fight Yellow Fever?

    

1940's - A similarly intensive post-WWII effort against endemic An.

labranchiae on Sardinia (Italy) "almost eradicated" the target insect on

that island, but did eliminate malaria. Although that extraordinary effort

did not attain its goal, it influenced anti-malaria policy profoundly. I

know of no other elimination effort that attained

its stated goal and none against an endemic vector or pest.

1946 - German War Crimes Trial

1947 - Rockefeller Manufactures 28 Million Doses of the Yellow Fever/HBV

vaccine by this date. No record of any destroyed. All used?

1947 - Mac Callum (1947): classified viral hepatitis into two types, Viral

hepatitis A - Infectious hepatitis, Viral hepatitis B - Seum hepatitis

1948 - Japan's War Crimes Trials

1949 - Japan's Ishii shares work with US and German George Merck

1950 - Korean War begins- massive blood drives in the US.

1951- Polio push. Thorotrast used as a radioactive injectable dye- cancers.

1951 - Max Theiler wins Nobel Prize in Medicine for his work on a Yellow

Fever Vaccination at the Rockefeller Institute.

1951 - German George Merck appointed to head US's, Ft. Detrick's,

'Offensive' Bio-Warfare Program.

1952 - Occupation of Japan ends.

1952 - Adenovirus magically appears only in Military basic training

recruits from the mid west- meet the "new" 1918 Spanish Flu. Half mamilian

and half avairian- or bird.

1955 ~ 1956 - Massive epidemic of water-borne hepatitis occurred in Delhi,

India.

1958 - Interferons first used in cell research.

1959 - Test developed to measure elevated liver enzymes.

1962 - Cancer research begins with Adenovirus on mouse cell

1960's - Variants that cause 'serum jaundice' emerge in the research

1963 - Mass smallpox vaccinations in Poland in 1963 and the epidemic

situation of

viral hepatitis (PMID: 5858724)

1964 - Treatment of Chronic Hep (Germany) in literature.

1965 - International collaborative assay of the international reference

preparation

of anti-yellow-fever serum. (PMID: 5294595)

1965 - Blumberg discovered Australia antigen (later known to be HBsAg) in

aborigines and showed that the antigen was present at high frequency in

patients with leukemia and in children with Down's syndrome.

1965 - Blumberg reported "Australia antigen" in Australian aborigines.

1965 - "chronic hepatitis caused by serum hepatitis" - Japan Symposium on

Serum Hepatitis, PMID: 5894570

1966 - Treatments for Chronic Hep discussed (German)

- looking at ways to reduce incidence of serum hep

(Serbo-Croatian)

- Literature on Iron levels with Chronic Hep (Soviet)

1966 - Mass inoculation with Yellow fever vaccination from the Rockefeller

Institute and given by pet-o-jets.

1969 - Literature looking at Lymph involvement (Italy)

1970 - Dane discovered Dane particle (complete HBV particle).

1970 - Krugman and co-workers reported on the Willowbrook hepatitis studies

in

which live hepatitis virus injected was injected into mentally retarded

children in order to study the course of the disease process (Krugman, 1971;

Krugman & Giles, 1970).

1971 - Literature looking at Chronic Hep in Hemodialysis (Eng)

1971 - Literature looking at the pathogenesis of arthritis associated with

viral hepatitis.

Complement-component studies.

1972 - Magnius discovered HBeAg

1972 - Viral hepatitis abroad. Incidence in Catholic missionaries. PMID:

5066870

1973 - Feinstone, Purcell identified HAV.

1974 - CDC claims to have determined a Non-A, Non-B, hepatitis exists.

Begins to track it as a "non specific" hepatitis.

1975 - Antibody to the hepatitis B surface antigen in immune serum globulin.

A collection of 1,278 lots of immune serum globulin (ISG) prepared by 19

United States manufacturers between 1962 and 1974 were tested for the

hepatitis B surface antigen (HBSAg) and antibody (anti-HBS). Ten lots

(0.8%), all of which were produced between 1962 and 1965 by two different

manufacturers, were weakly positive for HBSAg (by radioimmunoassay). Seven

hundred and seven lots (55.3%) were positive for anti-HBS (by passive

hemagglutination). PMID: 1198681

1975 - Vietnam War officially ends in March- Siagon falls by May.

1975 Jul-Aug - Literature about Antibody to hepatitis B core antigen.

1975 Sep-Oct - Va cooperative study of post-transfusion hepatitis,

1969-1974: incidence and

characteristics of hepatitis and responsible risk factors. PMID: 1235478

1975 - Literature about Dental infection with hepatitis B.

1975 - Literature about severe viral hepatitis type B in infancy;.

1975 - Stated: "Unlikely that immunization against HBV will ever provide

absolute immunity" (Sierra Leone = has one of the highest Hepatitis C Virus rates today in

the World today) Some considerations regarding active immunization with

HBsAg. Krugman has demonstrated that injection of heated serum containing

HBsAg

conferred some protection against subsequent challenge with live hepatitis B

virus (HBV). Thus newly imported animals may be incubating HB infection, and

could give rise to false positive results in inactivation trials, unless

quarantined for a four to six month period prior to use. We have therefore

established a laboratory for chimpanzee trials in West Africa, and plan to

utilize only animals captured by trapping and held in strict isolation from

the time of capture. Three chimpanzees who received a massive transfusion of

infective

plasma one year after resisting challenge with aliquots of the same plasma

inoculated intraperitoneally, all developed severe hepatitis, accompanied in

two cases by HBs antigenemia, despite strong anamnestic anti-HBs responses

in all three animals. PMID: 1204972

1975 - Ten with HBV e antibodies were blood donors- 95 units of blood. PMID:

45864

Mid

1970's - Liver Cancer rates begin to skyrocket in the US

1976 - Blumberg reported "Australia antigen" in Australian aborigines in

1965. Awarded Nobel prize in 1976.

1977 - HDV Discovered in 1977 by Rizetto, in nuclei of hepatocytes from

patients with

chronic HBV infection, and originally was thought to be HBcAg.

Superinfection: HDV infection occurs in persons with chronic HBV infection.

1977 - Rizzetto described delta antigen (HDV).

1977 - Application of a screening test for antibody the hepatitis B core

antigen.

1979 - GRID, or AIDS first described in National Media

1980's, HBV vaccinations given some attention because of AIDS

1980 - 1984, Dr. Koop Surgeon General- never speaks on hep

1981 - Literature discribes patients who developed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

1982 - 500 with AIDS in NY and San Fran.

1982 - PPSB = pooled human clotting preparation. "cardiac surgery (56%)

developed hepatitis"

"all cases were of the non-A, non-B type." "frequency of carriers of the

causative virus is apparently not different from that with B virus."

(because TTV = HBV lite.)PMID: 6816565

1983 - Balayan recovery of HEV.

1983 - Cutler and Baxter settle out of court in 1988 for contaminated blood

1980's - HBV vaccination contaminated with HIV here and in France. Wolf

Smuzness (Ft. Detrick) involved- now there is the Smuzness NY Blood Center.

Coiincidence? Not likely.

1984 - Nation-wide vaccination on newborn babies launched in Taiwan.

1988 - Hepatitis C Virus Discovered, Chiron group (Choo, Kuo, Houghton) cloned and

identified Hepatitis C Virus.

1988 - HDV discovered (found only with HBV)

1988 - Cutler and Baxter settle out of court for 1983 contaminated blood

products

1988-1992 A. Novella Surgeon General (now NY Health Commissioner). Never

speaks on hep.

1989 - Literature about the prevalence of serological markers for hepatitis

B virus infection in

Australian Naval personnel.

Before 1989 - Hepatitis C Virus diagnosis was made only by "exclusion diagnosis" ---

non-A, non-B hepatitis. Over 90 % of post-transfusion hepatitis in Taiwan

was Hepatitis C Virus hepatitis.

1989 - Hepatitis C Virus isolated

1989 - 1989 - First Hepatitis C Virus generation reagent for detection of anti-Hepatitis C Virus was

developed, containig recombinant and synthetic antigens --- C100-3 (NS3 and

NS4, NS:

non-structure)

1990 - Enomoto: Hepatitis C Virus-K1-PT, Hepatitis C Virus-K2a, Hepatitis C Virus-K2b

1990 - 1st Test developed for Hepatitis C Virus detection

1991 - Second Hepatitis C Virus generation reagent --- C22(core), C33c(NS3), and

C200(NS3+NS4)

1991 - Reliable test developed for Hepatitis C Virus detection in Commercial Blood

1991 ~ 1992 - Investigators in Japan reported the discovery of a new

hepatitis virus and called it as hepatitis virus F, but failed to be

substantiated in the subsequent research.

1992 - Reliable test in place to test blood supply and other blood products

1992 - Rockefeller Foundation's campaign against yellow fever in Mexico

sought "to advance the economic and political interests of U.S. capitalism"

1992 - Early 90's...AIDS Community wants Ribaviran. FDA says no.

1992 - 1993 Jocelyn Elders Surgeon General

1992 - Houghton (1992): Hepatitis C Virus-I, Hepatitis C Virus-II, Hepatitis C Virus-III

1992 - Okamoto (1992): I, II, III, IV 9 major groups, and 30+ subtypes

Implications of viral factors: (genotypes, level of viremia, quasispecies

nature) controversial severity of liver damages, response to interferon

therapy, transmission from mother to infant

1993 - Uchida of Japan reported by PCR study that the so-called hepatitis

virus F might be a mutant of HBV, just could not be verified by commercially

available reagents because of the defect pre-C gene, mutation of core gene

and S gene, which come to be HBsAg (-) and anti-HBc (-) in serological

tests. (Uchida T: Microbiol Immunol 37: 425 ~ 439, 1993; J Hepatol 18: 369 ~

372, 1993)

1994 - Simmonds suggested classification system: major groupings (Arabic

numericals in order

of discovery), subtypes designated by lower-case letters previopus

classification:

Enomoto (1990): Hepatitis C Virus-K1-PT, Hepatitis C Virus-K2a, Hepatitis C Virus-K2b, Houghton (1992): Hepatitis C Virus-I, Hepatitis C Virus-II,

Hepatitis C Virus-III, Okamoto (1992): I, II, III, IV, 9 major groups, and 30+ subtypes,

Implications of viral factors: (genotypes, level of viremia, quasispecies

nature) controversial severity of liver damages, response to interferon

therapy, transmission from mother to infant

1994 - 1998 No Surgeon General. CDC, NIH, FDA, HHS, all left to guide

themselves. AIDS funding dominates and all large Academic Institutions get

a piece of the funding prize.

1994 - Deka reported an isolation of a virus named HFV (Hepatitis

French[origin] Virus) on intravenous innoculation of stool extract from

sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis, in New Delhi, India,however, no follow-up

report was noted. (Deka N; et al.:J. Virol; 68:7810~5, 1994)

1995 - A model for rearrangements in RNA genomes. Theiler's (mice) murine

encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV). PMID: 2436048

1995 - Third Hepatitis C Virus generation reagent --- C22(core), C33c(NS3), C200(NS3+NS4),

and NS5.

    

1995 - Genotype I (1a) found in China near Unit 731 activities and 98% in

Moldova, Russia.

1995 - Simons (Abbott) identified new novel virus termed GBV-C.

1996 - Linnen (Genelab) identified another novel virus termed HGV.

1996 - GBV-C and HGV are identified to have the same/or very similar

structure and contain two flavivirus sequences related to, but far distinct

from the Hepatitis C Virus.

1996 - Chang's group at NTUH reported (JAMA) successful prevention of HBV

infection by nation-wide vaccination on newborn babies launched in 1984 in

Taiwan.

1997 - Chang's group at NTUH (1997): reported (NEJM) decrease in annual

incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma in children ascribed to

nation-wide

vaccination against HBV on newborn babies lauched in 1984 in Taiwan.

1997 - Dr. Foster withdraws nomination after bruising battle for Surgeon

General Nomination

1997 - TTV--Transfusion Transmitted Virus is a new virus first reported in

Japan in 1997 by T. Nishizawa in patients with fulminant hepatitis and

chronic liver

disease of unknown etiology.

1997 - Dec. No awareness or info about Hepatitis C Virus anywhere but on Internet.

1998 - Merck and Company earns $900 Million in HBV Vaccine sales. School

Boards and State Legislatures begin to practice Medicine and mandate HBV

shots by statutory requirement. No long term studies available. Research

says "caution" may be nervous system involvement.

1998 - Dr. Sadler appointed and confirmed Surgeon General- 1st one in 5

years.

1998 - March House VA Congressional Hepatitis C Virus hearings with ALF, VA-Roselle,

NIH-Seeff, Koop, and Surgeon General Sadler - about a week into the job as

SGOUS. Dr. Koop not asked how many children he infected as a Surgeon in

Philly, or their health status today. Also not asked why he never spoke up

when he was

Surgeon General and instead focused on a much lesser issue- AIDS.

Deliberate?

1998 - Dr. Seeff (from S. Africa) appointed by Congress to oversee Hepatitis C Virus

Internationally. Spends his career studying the 1942 Yellow Fever and HBV

'accident'- now will advise all on matters of Hepatitis C Virus.

1998 - Schering granted unprecedented monopoly by FDA over only current Hepatitis C Virus

therapy that still has only a 30% overall rate of slowing the virus'

progression in the liver: Bundling Ribavirin and Intron-A. Surprise! AIDS

Community now has the drug they wanted but FDA would not let them have years

earlier. Cooincidence or a real treatment for Hepatitis C Virus? AIDS Community will

convieniently supply Riba through their Drug Network, beginning with

Fisher's in Penn.

1998 - Proposed Veterans with Hepatitis Laws first introduced into the 105th

Congress

1998 - Naoumov, N. detected TTV-DDN in 18 (25 %) of the 72 patients with

chronic liver disease. The majority of TTV-positive cases had no biochemical

or histological evidence of significant liver damage. TTV-DNA sequencing of

nine isolates showed the same genotypic groups as in Japan: three patients

were infected with genotype 1, which showed 4 % nucleotide divergence, and

six patients were infected with genotype 2 with 15-27% divergence.Naoumov

suggests that TTV, similar to HGV, may be an example of a human virus with

no clear disease association according to the results -- the high prevalence

of active TTV infection in the general population, both in the UK and in

Japan, and the lack of significant liver damage.

1998 - FDA says only Riba (AIDS Drug) with Interferon can be used. AIDS

activists (ACT UP) rename themselves HAAC- (Hep advocacy and Awareness

Coalition) but do all they can to still the Hep message and the result is

that Hepatitis C Virus leaders are lead to believe the combo is the way to go- with less

than 30% sucess rates the Hepatitis C Virus Commuinty is chargedup to $20,000 a year for

treatments that do not work and genetically harm. AIDS Community is now

funded by Hepatitis C Virus Community.

1998 - Superinfection of hepatitis viruses --- (Vento et al.) --- Although

most patients with chronic hepatitis B who acquired HAV infection had an

uncomplicated course, patients with chronic hepatitis C had a substantial

risk of fulminant hepatitis and death associated with HAV superinfection.

Our data suggest that patients with chronic hepatitis C should be vaccinated

against hepatitis A. (N Engl J Med 1998;338:286-90.)

1999 - Rockefeller Health Grants - not a penny for Hepatitis C Virus.

1999 - Proposed Veterans with Hepatitis Laws reintroduced into the 106th

Congress

1999 - Animal Serum, advised not to use in testing.

1999 - HGV, HGV-GB, Silent HBV, TTV, etc...all begin to emerge in the

research and around the Globe. Media only sees AIDS. 35 Million Worldwide

with AIDS, 3.5 Billion now, at least, with a hep virus- and growing more

rapidly as it branches.

1999 - Research emerges to show Hepatitis C Virus not so much as a Liver Disease but a

Lymphatic tissue and Bone Marrow/Blood disorder that has wreaked havoc on

all organs and organ systems of the body for decades- liver is the first to

show effects of tissue injury, and liver is the only thing we look at and

that we fund with our research when looking for a cure. Hepatitis C Virus is a slow

motion hemorrahgic.

1999 - less than 250,000 people with AIDS (700,000 with HIV) in the US

receive $7.11 Billion in fed NIH research funding involving every major

Academic Institution. Harvard, Rockefeller, Stanford, etc... all have AIDS

Institutes for Research.

1999- 11 Million Americans with HBV/Hepatitis C Virus/HGV, receive $30.9 Million for fed

research. NIH explains that continued massive AIDS funding will eventually

help Hepatitis C Virus.

1999 - Reported, 1 in 10 vets in the US have Hepatitis C Virus. (ALF Congressional test.

6/9/99). Veteran population = 26 Million. Therefore, 2.6 Million vets have

Hepatitis C Virus today - many are homeless.

1999 - The fix is in! CDC releases to media a 6 year old study conducted

from 1988-94 saying 2.7 Million in the US have Hepatitis C Virus, not including any

institutuins like vets or prisons... media runs with 2.7 number and only

that number. 3.9 has now been chisled into 2.7. Simply math by their own

numbers say at least 5 Million today with Hepatitis C Virus alone.

1999 - NEJM publishes that children with Hepatitis C Virus can be managed early on

(inturpreted as cured by the public) only if drug companies can be brought

in to profit. Koops, the AIDS poster boy, becomes our poster boy! For a

price of course.

1999 - FDA is blind deaf and dumb. No where in site. Front door left wide

open.

1999 - HHS last reported seen with Surgeon General and Red Cross- leaving

town at dusk! Driven By Rep. Chris Shays and Donna Shalala.

1999 - NIH has been bought and paid for by America's AIDS Institutes...which

needs NIH's support for continued massive funding. After all....careers are

only 10 to 15 years in the making, another 5 or 10 years of massive AIDS

Research ought to do it....... AIDS as a threat? Never was! Not a medical

issue either...political opportunity to make millions of dollars all in the

name of minority civil rights..... welcome to the year 2000! Where you now

place your life in the same hands that placed you there.

1999 - Insitute of Human Virology's head, Roboert Gallo, declares in mission

statement that AIDS is their top priority.

1999 Fall- ALF deliberately slashes Hepatitis C Virus numbers in half in NY and begins a

process to blame behaviors and Drug Abuse for Liver cancer rates. ALF NY

Medical Director (Dr. Di Biscaglle- St. Louis School of medicine) blames

liver cancer rates on drug abuse and behavior from last 30 years- not on

contaminated blood and blood products that their funders intiated over 60+

years ago - and now sit in positions to educate the population and

physicians. Both they have have not done.

1999 - WHO, UN, CBS, AP, CDC, all major medias, report that AIDS is a

growing threat at 33 Million worldwide with HIV (10 Million will have AIDS).

More than 3 Billion have hep......still no message from the media except

AIDS and needles and AIDS and liver problems are an issue.

1999 - Organ Transplant laws, Nationally, will soon be changed to help Liver

Centers, not sick people. Contributors come first- not common sense.

1999 - Reported that 100% of Commercial Pig Stock is infected with Hepatitis

E (HEV) a DNA virus.....but, as usual, no matter. We'll still use pig

organs- just do not educate Americans about it.

1999 - No where can the research be found to point to an AIDS threat- not

now, not a decade ago. Africa? 5-10% infected with AIDS in Africa.

200-300% infected with hepatitis. Focus will be AIDS.

1999 - Between 5.2 Million and 8 Million Veterans have Hepatitis C Virus- how many already

dead?

1999 End of Millennium - Patients left to educate themselves, families, and

communities, while those who are to help and are heavily funded- will not.

Hep patients are left to pay their physicians in order to educate them about

an illness they were not taught about in Medical School. Half the time hep

patients pay to educate their physicians and are told it is in their head.

Research has been public - yet the media and gov agencies have deliberately

ignored up to 155 Million American with a previous or past virus, so that

less than 250,000 with AIDS can obtain Civil Rights- or so it's claimed.

Every major Institution is being paid by the US Taxpayer for AIDS research.

People with hepatitis are now funding AIDS and the AIDS Community by means

like, Texas Prisons will now buy their Riba from Fischer's Pharm in Penn

(Aka The AIDS Community). People in Texas are paying people with HIV in New

York and San Fran. Texans with Hepatitis C Virus are now funding AIDS, thanks to their

Politicians.

2000 - The truth? Some assistance? A Cure? Don't bet your life on

it............

Up to 20% - 31% of 26 Million US Vets have Hepatitis C Virus. 5.2 - 8 Million that have

served have

been trashed, name called, and now the research emerges showing Hepatitis C Virus 1b was

in the blood products they were given. Their families shamed, all to hide

the past and advance civil rights for less than 250,000 with AIDS.

Only the Drug Companies and Koop have the answers, we are told by the ALF

and others, and the Transplant Centers have a greater right to make a

financial killing- than we do to live.

Welcome to Hepatitis 2000! 155 Million Americans today have, or have been

exposed, to a hep virus- but you are not to know!

More than half the planet is now infected. You know all about, AIDS, an

illness that you will most likely never get- HIV. However, you are already

affected by HBV shots, Hepatitis C Virus, HGV, TTV, HAV, HEV, GBV-B, GBV-C, etc...

History will be brutal.

By: Kevin Donnelly

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