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“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”


HIV/AIDS Issues:
Armed Forces

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"The combat readiness of members of the Armed Forces in any country is of paramount importance and must not be jeopardized. HIV/AIDS presents a great threat to the well being of our personnel with grave economic and security implications if left unchecked. The Defence Headquarters is therefore fully committed to eliminate all factors that could affect the combat readiness of our troops including HIV/AIDS. Towards the realization of this, we will continue to support and promote all meaningful programmes aimed at checking the HIV/AIDS scourge in all Military Barracks".

"Visible achievements have been made in the area of awareness, production of basic information, education and communication, routine surveillance and screening of troops, and the adoption of an approved Policy Guidelines on AIDS control within the Armed Forces of Nigeria. Studies have shown that the level of awareness among the troops is quite high but the behaviour they engage in are not in line with the level of knowledge. Hence, emphasis in HIV/AIDS control in the Armed Forces is now in the area of behaviour-change interventions." HIV/AIDS in the military

"The armed forces, police, and other uniformed services around the world face a serious risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and can serve as a core transmission group for these infections to the general population. HIV prevalence rates among the services are significantly higher than among the general population. To understand this situation, one must consider the circumstances of those who serve in uniform. Often they are posted or required to travel for extended periods away from home, or must await proper housing before sending for their families. Confronting risk daily inspires other risky behaviors, and the sense of invincibility the services promote sometimes carries over into personal behavior. These groups also tend to have more frequent contact with sex workers.

Because of their command and control hierarchical structures, uniformed services permit sustainable integration of HIV/AIDS/STI/Tuberculosis (TB) prevention and care into the systems already in place." Developing a Comprehensive HIV/AIDS/STIs Program for Uniformed Services.


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Many fans of movie musicals can recall Joan Blondell belting out “Remember My Forgotten Man” against a moving tableau of World War I doughboys in Busby Berkeley’s film, Golddiggers of 1933.  In one of Hollywood’s rare early forays into social issues, the song and dance number called for better treatment of the World War I veterans who’d just been spurned by President Hoover, the lame-duck GOP Congress and even future World War II hero General Douglas MacArthur, who used tanks to disperse thousands of unemployed and disabled veterans demonstrating peacefully for benefits in Washington the year before.

But over 70 years later, Blondell’s torch-song lament still rings true:  Most of us aren’t aware of benefits which are available to all veterans – and especially disabled veterans  -- and they and the benefits due them too often remain “forgotten.”  (For just one example, in 2000 Lawrence Deyton, MD, the VA’s national coordinator of  HIV care, estimated that only 18,000 of an estimated 85,000 to 130,000 eligible HIV-positive veterans had signed up for the VA health care to which they’re entitled.) Here’s a brief survey of income and health coverage programs for veterans of active duty with general or honorable discharges.
AIDS and the military Military personnel have a high risk of exposure to sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV…infection rates among armed forces are generally 2 to 5 times higher than in comparable civilian populations 109 kb pdf

AIDS and Violent Conflict in Africa


No where is the picture as bleak as in sub-Saharan Africa: mo re than 25 million Africa ns infected with HIV/AIDS (70 percent of the world’s cases) and 17 million dead; on its current trajectory, by 2010 the disease will decrease life expectancy on the continent to levels found at the beginning of the last cent u r y. These most recent data far surpass the most pessimistic predictions about the effects of the disease in Africa made just five years ago  

AIDS and Violent Conflict in Africa


New reports are beginning to describe the full extent of this African tragedy. One study ("AIDS Poverty Reduction and Debt Relief: Implications for Poverty Reduction" by UNAIDS and the World Bank, March 2001) has found that HIV-induced declines in gross domestic product (GDP) levels in sub-Saharan Africa are severely undermining poverty reduction efforts in developing countries. According to the report, the pandemic is shaving off up to two percent of annual economic growth in the worst affected countries. Some countries will see their gross national product (GNP) shrink by up to 40 percent within 20 years. On the whole, the study suggests, Africa's income growth per capita is being reduced by about 0.7 percent per year because of HIV/AIDS. Another study concludes that by 2010, per capita income in South Africa, Africa's most robust economy, will drop by 7-10 percent while the GDP will be 17 percent lower than it would have been without AIDS pdf 139 kb

Army rate of AIDS Infection

The combat readiness of members of the Armed Forces in any country is of paramount importance and must not be jeopardized. HIV/AIDS presents a great threat to the well being of our personnel with grave economic and security implications if left unchecked.


BLOODBORNE PATHOGENS EXPOSURE CONTROL PLAN Department of the Army control plan- To prescribe policies, responsibilities and procedures for implementation of the Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Control Plan (BBPECP) to meet the letter and intent of the OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standard (29 CFR 1910.1030). OSHA has enacted this standard to "reduce occupational exposure to Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and other bloodborne pathogens". This plan details measures WRAMC and its employees will take to decrease the risk of transmission of bloodborne pathogens and provide appropriate treatment and counseling should an employee be exposed to bloodborne pathogens.  

Developing a Comprehensive AIDS Program for the Military

The armed forces, police, and other uniformed services around the world face a serious risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and can serve as a core transmission group for these infections to the general population. HIV prevalence rates among the services are significantly higher than among the general population.


HIV Prevalence in 72,000 Urban and Rural Male Army Recruits, Ethiopia The current study described HIV prevalence in relation to socio-demographic characteristics among nearly 72,000 men recruited in 1999 and 2000.  
HIV Prevention and Behavior Change in International Military Populations HIV poses a real threat to both uniformed service and civilian populations, especially during complex humanitarian emergencies including the descent into and emergence from crises involving armed confrontations.  However, HIV prevention is not always the first thing on a service person’s mind in a conflict or crisis situation because the “guns are going” and they are preparing to be deployed into difficult, dangerous and stressful situations.  Nevertheless, learning about HIV/STIs and prevention strategies is critical for every uniformed service member before being sent into a conflict or crisis situation.  
HIV Prevention and Behavior Change in International Military Populations-HIV Prevention in Crisis Settings Despite a multitude of prevention activities people continue to be infected by HIV.  The epidemic which initially emerged among middle class gay men seems to have shifted toward working class people.  Subsequently, people with lower socio-economic background seem to be more at risk of HIV infection and to have fewer possibilities to cope with the risk of HIV infection.  
INCARCERATED VETERANS ARE ELIGIBLE FOR VA MEDICAL CARE AT VA HOSPITALS AND CLINICS It is important to note that the VA doesn’t permit armed guards at its medical facilities. While there is no bar to unarmed escorts accompanying persons in correctional custody into VA waiting areas, escorts may well have to negotiate physicians’ consents to accompany inmates into examination and treatment rooms. And there would be even more problems with 24-hour-a-day escorts for hospitalized inmates.  
Knowledge of AIDS and HIV Risk-Related Sexual Behavior Among Nigerian Naval Personnel
Nigeria's HIV epidemic continues to grow, and Nigerian military 
personnel are at increased HIV risk. While the sexual risk-related
 behavior of Nigerian police has been studied, less is known about 
their naval counterparts. The current study describes the knowledge 
of AIDS and sexual risk behavior of naval personnel stationed in 
Lagos, Nigeria.
Modern-Day Comfort Women: The US Military, Transnational Crime, and the Trafficking of Women This paper will examine three types of trafficking that are connected to US military bases in South Korea: Domestic trafficking of Korean women to clubs around the military bases in South Korea, transnational trafficking of women to clubs around military bases in South Korea, and the transnational trafficking of women from South Korea to massage parlors in the United States 71 kb pdf
Presumptive Service Connection in VBA Power Point Presentation 86 kb
Prevalence of Hepatitis C and Coinfection with HIV Among United States Veterans in the New York Metropolitan Area US veterans who are receiving medical care at VA medical centers in the New York City metropolitan area have a much higher rate of chronic hepatitis C than the general population…coinfection with HIV is very common in patients with confirmed HCV infection, and these patients should routinely be offered HIV testing 206 kb pdf

Rape in War: Challenging the Tradition of Impunity

Reports of rape in the former Yugoslavia have brought much deserved and long overdue international attention to the issue of rape in war. This attention has highlighted the abusive character of wartime rape, but it also has revealed the persistent misunderstandings regarding rape's prevalence, function, and motivation in war. Moreover, efforts to ensure that rape is prosecuted effectively by the International Tribunal established to try war crimes committed in the former Yugoslavia have underscored the difficulties in applying international human rights and humanitarian law to rape. In order to overcome these difficulties and to end the appalling history of impunity for this abuse, rape in conflict must be understood as an abuse that targets women for political and strategic reasons.   
RUSSIA: "Growing Number of Army Draftees Have HIV" The UNAIDS report said 0.8 percent of Russia's military, or 96,000 out of 1.2 million, have HIV/AIDS.  

The Impact of Armed Conflict in Child Development 

The wounds inflicted by armed conflict on children - physical injury, gender-based violence, psychosocial distress, are affronts to every impulse that inspired the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Armed conflict affects all aspects of child development - physical, mental and emotional. Such effects accumulate and interact with each other.


The normalization of violence-conflict, rape and HIV/AIDS Conflict and HIV are entwined as twin evils.  War is the instrument of AIUDS and rape is an instrument of war. 93 kb pdf
Obtaining VA benefits From the Code of Federal Regulation  
Prostitution in Thailand: A North South dialogue on neocolonialism, militarism, and consumerism Sinit began by disclosing the staggering numbers of prostitutes in Thailand and the places where they work. The Vietnam War was mentioned as a contributing factor in the growth of prostitution in Thailand during the 1960s. Instead of being collapsed by the withdrawal of the American forces from Vietnam in mid-1970s as expected, the sex and service industries in Thailand were sustained by tourist 'troops' and local clientele who adopted the Gl pattern of recreations and maintained the Thai permissive code of conduct for males. To justify their business, some sex tour operators regarded their operation as a new kind of development aid to the Third World poor women.  
Use of Rape as a Weapon of War Rape as a weapon of war has a long history and only recently has been expressly punished under codified international law…it is disquieting for governments and civil society throughout the world to have witness the extensive application of rape as a weapon of war in the current ongoing conflict in Darfur, Sudan. 758 kb pdf

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