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“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”


HIV/AIDS Issues:

We offer a monthly newsletter dealing with the various issues surrounding infectious diseases.  To find out more click HERE.

Main topics can be found within the left column; sub-topics and/or research reports can be found near the bottom of this page.  Thank you


"We live in an uncertain world though science and technology have achieved more control over the forces of the nature. We live in a Society that does not work and often appears to be meaningless and empty and seems to be heading towards disasters. We claim that a lot of development has taken place. But we have to look at this process from a different angle, and whether our developmental process have led to less of uncertainty and insecurity are more of this. Are we correct in claiming - that this is true development? Do our developmental process Political, Social or Economic, more of inequality is less? We know fully well that 'development' is uneven and unequal, dividing the world as a whole, and societies and even communities within it, into haves and have-nots. This, surely creates greater uncertainty and will result in greater insecurity. The uncertainty is more obvious for the have-nots, for there is not even certainty of life itself across the country for them. Thousands of people die of hunger.

The uncertainties born-out of uneven and unequal development are less obvious for the haves. Until recently the haves could avoid the uncertainties of inequality by locking their doors, avoiding unsafe environments, shutting of their gaze from what they do not wish to see, and withdraw their hands and hearts from things they regard as of not their concern." Civil Society, Social Accountability and Governance

"Among adolescents newly infected with HIV, females outnumber males, with a disproportionate representation from members of minority or economically disadvantaged groups. Earlier studies have found that adolescent girls tend to hold common misconceptions about HIV transmission and to engage in unprotected sexual activity. Researchers surveyed 129 sexually active women, aged 15 to 19 years, on their sexual behaviors and their awareness of safe sex practices. The sample was 56% white, 36% African American, 6% Hispanic, and 2% Asian, with 34% from economically disadvantaged families and 55% working at least part-time. The results revealed several areas of gaps in HIV knowledge: 55% thought that a Pap smear tested for HIV, 30% were not aware that HIV could be transmitted through oral sex, 19% were not aware of transmission through anal sex, 77% believed oil-based lubricants improved condom effectiveness, and significant percentages thought that douching, withdrawal during intercourse, or taking vitamins or antibiotics helped prevent HIV transmission. More than 40% recognized that they did not routinely practice safe sex and needed to change their sexual behavior. While most reported that condoms could help prevent pregnancy, and protect both themselves and their partners from sexually transmitted disease, 11% thought the condoms were too much trouble, 16% thought that condoms made sex feel unnatural, and 5% thought that their partner would get angry if asked to use a condom. Those girls identified as highest risk for HIV infection were more often white, older, and with good knowledge about HIV but little motivation to reduce their risk. These findings indicate that HIV prevention interventions for girls need to involve all who are sexually active and to address motivation to change"

—HIV Knowledge and Sexual Behavior of Adolescent Girls


Document Name & Link to Document


File Size /Type

A REVIEW OF SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH ON HIV/AIDS In studying economic and political settings connected with high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, social scientists have come to the conclusion that there is a clear link between levels of HIV/AIDS and poverty throughout the world. Whilst an impressive amount of research has been undertaken to study the impact of the epidemic, less has been achieved in mitigating its effects of deepening poverty and the rolling back of development gains.  



Counselling in HIV and AIDS has become a core element in a holistic model of health care, in which psychological issues are recognised as integral to patient management. HIV and AIDS counselling has two general aims: (1) the prevention of HIV transmission and (2) the support of those affected directly and indirectly by HIV. It is vital that HIV counselling should have these dual aims because the spread of HIV can be prevented by changes in behaviour  
Acute HIV Syndrome HIV syndrome is a name for the early stage of HIV infection, when you first get infected with the HIV virus. HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. These are some of the symptoms of acute HIV syndrome  
Adoption Agency Admits HIV Discrimination In the first known case in the country challenging a private adoption agency’s refusal to provide services to a couple because one of them is HIV-positive, a new York couple has settled a lawsuit charging Children of the World, an adoption agency licensed in new Jersey and new York, with violating federal and state laws prohibiting discrimination against people with disabilities, including HIV/AIDS. 103 kb pdf
Agent Summary Statement for Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIVs) These Guidelines are based on combinations of standard and special practices, equipment, and facilities recommended for use in working with infectious agents in various laboratory settings. The recommendations are advisory; they provide a general code for operating microbiologic and biomedical laboratories.  

AIDS & development in Education sector

HIV/AIDS, an issue not considered in these well intentioned declarations—it has not been adequately considered in such development thinking is perhaps not surprising

25 kb pdf

AIDS & Hepatitis Digest This paper is based on a talk given at the meeting of the British HIV Association and the Medical Society for the Study of Venereal Diseases in London Pdf 461 kb

Aids activists lose patience with allies

The National Association of People Living with HIV/Aids’s (Napwa) turned its guns on its allies as the hunger strike by several of its members ended dramatically this week. They were arrested after they allegedly forced entry into the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers’ Association’s offices in Midrand outside Johannesburg.


AIDS battle reaches new climax in Asia with aggressive condom policy

In an aggressive policy to stem the growing HIV/AIDS problem, the World Health Organisation (WHO) wants sex workers in Asia to adopt this
 uncompromising stand when facing clients.


A compilation of articles and books concerning legal issues 
surrounding the AIDS Epidemic published before June 11, 1998
AIDS War now enters church Rev. Heath, an Anglican Priest since 1994 and who became a father in 1995 and tested HIV+ in 2000 discouraged religious leaders who still clung to the old myths in the churches that AIDS was God's punishment for sin.  
Alan Cantwell, MD On The Man Made Origin Of AIDS There is NO PROOF that AIDS, which first appeared EXCLUSIVELY in young (primarily white) gay men in Manhattan, came from Africa. This is yet another myth about AIDS. How could a supposed black heterosexual African epidemic transform itself into an EXCLUSIVELY WHITE YOUNG GAY MENS' DISEASE IN MANHATTAN? In my opinion this is biologically impossible. Furthermore, there was no "incubation period" for HIV in America. As soon as the government-sponsored gay hepatitis B experiment (1978-1981) ended in Manhattan in 1981 the epidemic became official.  
Analysis of Social Aspects of Migrant Labourers Living with HIV/AIDS Migrant workers are more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS than the local population because of their poverty, lack of power, lack of health awareness and unstable life-style.  The main reason for taking up this study is that in the state of Tamil Nadu, migrant labourers constitute the major portion of this affected with HIV/AIDS.  (Rural Taminadu, India) 1539 kb pdf
Barriers to access and effective use of anti-discrimination remedies for people living with HIV and HCV-Australia This paper identifies and analyses the barriers to access and use of anti-discrimination remedies for people living with HIV and hepatitis C virus.  It focuses particularly on the recent changes and proposed changes to remedies in the Commonwealth jurisdiction, and any impact these changes many have on the demand for or use of State remedies. Pdf 227 kb
Beijing warns of harsh punishments for hospitals rejecting AIDS patients China issued earlier last month its first official guidelines on how to prevent and control the spread of HIV, promising to protect HIV carriers and AIDS patients from discrimination and to ensure their marriage, employment, medical care and education rights.  
Big Issues-Scaling up responses to HIV/AIDS Stigma looms large and ominous, shadowing the HIV/AIDS pandemic.  It relates to every HIV intervention, including general prevention, the prevention of mother-to-child transmission, anti-retroviral treatment, and care and support for the patient and family, including children Pdf 206 kb
Breaking Down Barriers-Lessons on Providing HIV Treatment to Injection Drug Users Throughout its 25-year history the HIV pandemic has inflicted its worst damage on disenfranchised and marginalized populations—such as injection drug users, sex workers, refugees, asylum seekers, prisoners, and men who have sex with men. Pdf 811 kb

Care Givers

HIV disease presents profound challenges to primary caregivers including adjusting to the care recipient's disease progression, having increasing responsibilities for decision making as the disease progresses, responding to unexpected improvement, having to deal with a virtually uncontrollable disease, and managing role conflict and fatigue. Caregivers who are themselves infected with HIV face additional challenges


Caregivers' Experiences Of Informal Support In The Context Of HIV/AIDS Social support is an important buffer for family caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHIV/AIDS). With limited formal support options, these caregivers have to rely increasingly on informal networks. Yet, accessing this avenue is also fraught with difficulty due to the stigmatising nature of HIV infection. Research in this area is not just not sparse, but focuses largely on sources of support and the circumscribing effects of stigma. To further our understanding, a qualitative study was conducted using various concepts from social support theory.  

Children in Need and Blood-borne Viruses: HIV and Hepatitis

The emphasis within this guidance is on ensuring that the particular circumstances of children and their families at risk of or affected by blood-borne viruses should be addressed sensitively and positively. The aim is to encourage professionals involved with children and their families to work in partnership with them sharing information and sharing the implications for them. Pdf 286 kb

Civil Society, Social Accountability and Governance

We live in an uncertain world though science and technology have achieved more control over the forces of the nature. We live in a Society that does not work and often appears to be meaningless and empty and seems to be heading towards disasters. We claim that a lot of development has taken place.


Comment: The Link between HIV Infection and Marriage With 80 percent of HIV cases worldwide transmitted by sexual contact, promoting marriage and sexual fidelity would seem to make sense as a way to limit the spread of AIDS. Yet this politically popular approach to public health among conservative policymakers in the United States promotes the false assumption that within marriage, sex is always safe-and consequently puts unknowing men and women at increased risk of infection. This fidelity fallacy holds enormous implications for the effectiveness of our government's global AIDS prevention program, where almost $400 million was spent last year in 15 focus countries for the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, or PEPFAR.  
Committing to Results: Improving the Effectiveness of HIV/AIDS In 1981, only a year after the World Bank began direct lending for the health sector, the first cases of AIDS were detected, and by 1985 it was clear that HIV/AIDS had already spread widely in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. In the two decades since, knowledge of HIV/AIDS has grown, but the epidemic continues to spread and erode development gains, not just in Africa, but in many parts of the world. Through the end of fiscal year 2004, the Bank had committed $2.5 billion in lending (of which about $1 billion had disbursed) and sponsored more than 200 pieces of analytic work to advance knowledge about the disease in developing countries. OED has reviewed the Bank’s response to this major threat from the early days to the present and assessed the effectiveness of the Bank’s country-level assistance. Pdf 1373 kb

Comparative Welfare States Data Set

List of resources

36 kb pdf

Complications After Liver Transplantation in Children Power Point Presentation Pdf 336 kb
Components of Successful HIV/AIDS Case Management in Alaska Native Villages HIV and AIDS may have a potentially devastating impact in Alaska Native villages and it is critical that effective social service and medical responses be developed that are both culturally and geographically responsive to this vulnerable populations 407 kb pdf

Curtailing the HIV Epidemic: The Power of Prevention

Since 1990, the total number of HIV infections increased tenfold - from 6 million to nearly 60 million – and it is nowhere near its peak. We all know how severely Africa has been affected. Across the African continent, there are now 25 million persons living with HIV and AIDS, the health care system has become an AIDS care system, and more than ten million orphans are looking for a home. In the countries of Southern Africa, 20% of the adult population are infected, and in less than a decade, life expectancy has dropped 15 to 20 years.


Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) for Individuals With HIV: Successes and Challenges

Many HIV-infected individuals have not reaped the benefits of combination antiretroviral therapy due to inability either to adhere to medications or to access care. It is now recognized that innovative approaches are needed to increase access and adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), especially among these hard-to-reach populations.


Dirty Needles research rejected

The United Nations has disputed the findings of United States researchers which says most HIV infections in Africa result from dirty medical needles.


Discrepancies Between Men and Women in Reporting Number of Sexual Partners


This paper examines the reliability of one key type of sexual behavior by 
comparing reports of the number of opposite gender sex partners reported 
by men and women. Within a closed population, the number of female 
sexual partners reported by men must equal the number of male sexual 
partners reported by women. Thus, agreement between men and women 
validates the aggregate reports and suggests that the reports are reliable. 
Discrepancies on the other hand indicate either a deviation from the 
closed population assumption or some inaccuracy in the data for one 
or both genders (Gorman,1989).
Do not wait to manage hepatitis C virus in HIV-positive patients Some coinfected patients will die from liver failure before succumbing to AIDS-related opportunistic infections.  
Does circumcision influence sexually transmitted diseases? Despite the wide availability of condoms and the fear of HIV infection, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) continue to be a serious public health concern. In the medical literature about preventive measures, circumcision is rarely if ever mentioned as an effective preventive measure: however, articles promoting the routine practice of circumcision invariably mention the surgery's benefit of reducing STDs. One author refers to over 100 medical articles supporting this thesis. In the present review, the medical literature is examined to determine what influence, if any, circumcision has on STDs  
EFA vs. HIV-AIDS Power Point Presentation Pdf 95 kb
Emerging Reproductive health issues Among Adolescents in Asia The study examined the existing research findings on adolescent reproductive health issues and their policy implications in the Asian nations.  As a result of significant delays in age at marriage, among both girls and boys, and falling age at menarche, the period during which premarital sex can take place is getting longer.  Although the mean age at marriage is increasing, the mean ate at first intercourse is declining. 91 kb pdf
Empowering Communities to Reduce the Impact of Infectious Diseases Infectious diseases continue to cause ill health and deaths to millions worldwide, despite advances in public health over the last 100 years — advances that include the development of vaccines and antibiotics and improvements in sanitation. In many developing countries, women face particular difficulties in warding off infection because of social and economic obstacles to accessing health information and services. To reduce the impact of disease on women, some infectious-disease prevention programs are employing community-based approaches conducted by women  
Estimating the Numbers of Heroin Users in the Act Knowing the  number of heroin users in the ACT is essential for planning, monitoring and evaluating a trial to provide opioids to dependent users in a controlled fashion 117 kb pdf
EVERYBODY HAS AN HIV STATUS! Has stigma kept you from knowing yours? Stigma keeps people who are HIV- infected from getting the care they need, and from feeling safe in their own communities. At the same time, stigma allows others to deny that they personally are likely to be infected or affected by HIV. This denial makes people who are infected seem abnormal, and it becomes easier to believe that they are "different," that HIV only happens someplace else. Not true, at all.  
Factors Associated to the Occurrence of the First Intercourse in Adolescents Power Point Presentation- Today’s adolescent are affected by a disproportionately high prevalence of unplanned pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS, and other serious problems that affect their reproductive health.  
Five Myths about the HIV Epidemic in Asia It is widely recognised that the huge population sizes of many Asian countries mean that although national HIV prevalence levels are still very low, very large absolute numbers of people are being infected each year with HIV. Urgent responses are required; the effective responses by countries such as Thailand and Cambodia have shown how much can be done. As implementers who have worked with HIV/AIDS programmes in several countries in the region, we recognise the public health and welfare costs of the epidemic in Asia, and we respond to the need to “act now”. We are concerned, however, about a number of misinformed beliefs, or myths, about the epidemic—myths that are widely circulating in Asia, disseminated in both public and professional discourse, and often dominating policy and political debate. We believe that these myths, if allowed to underpin and influence policy and programming and guide immediate action, have the potential to seriously jeopardise exactly the kind of focused, coherent, evidence-based programme being called for in Asia and the Pacific  
Frontline: Realities of stigma in health care settings While the majority of health care professionals comply with ethical guidelines and do not deny care or treatment to people living with HIV (PLHIV), a disturbing number of health care professionals engage in stigmatising and discriminatory behaviour, according to studies presented at the recent XVI International AIDS Conference in Toronto. Health care workers are also reported to engage in practices that contravene codes of professional ethics, including HIV testing without consent and disclosure of confidential medical information without prior permission. This was revealed by Takawira Moses, who works with Medicin Sans Frontiers (MSF) in rural Zambia.  

Global AIDS Myths and Facts

Myth: The best way to control AIDS in the developing world is by putting all available resources into stronger prevention programs. In developing countries, costly treatment for people already infected with HIV should wait until prevention programs have been fully funded and deployed.


Glossary of HIV/AIDS-related Terms

Terms and resources available

602 kb pdf

Guideline for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems

Recommendation from the CDC

281 kb pdf

Health Emergency 1999: The Spread of Drug-Related AIDS and Other Deadly Diseases Among African Americans and Latinos This powerful report brings home the severity of the problem of AIDS spread through dirty needles. It makes me angry! We have got to be about preventing disease! We have better drugs, but we still donít have a vaccine or a cure for this disease. We have watched people die from this disease; now they must learn how to live with HIV/AIDS. But why canít we help prevent this disease by providing clean needles? We do not allow people to get the clean needles that would reduce the spread of HIV disease, yet we spend $155,000 or more for each person who develops AIDS to take care of them, to watch them die. That makes no sense! We have got to be about preventing problems, not fixing things after they are broken.  
Healthcare workers fare poorly on AIDS quiz A quiz among health care workers at a Durban hospital had exposed "substantial gaps" in their knowledge of HIV/Aids, delegates to a conference on the disease heard on Monday.  
Hepatitis C & HIV Co-Infection: an update-Sept. 2003 More than 3 percent of the world’s population, about 2 percent of the US population, and up to 10 percent of US health care workers are currently infected with the Hepatitis C virus. 327 kb pdf
Hepatitis C in HIV-infected Individuals The presence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increases morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected patients and increases the risk of hepatotoxicity secondary to anti-retroviral medications. HCV, the newest opportunistic infection, should be treated with the hope of decreasing these adverse outcomes. As in immunocompetent patients, interferon-α monotherapy appears to be less effective than combination therapy in achieving a complete virologic response and should be abandoned for newer modalities. At present, though data is scarce, combination therapy using -interferon-α with ribavirin appears to be the most efficacious approach to treat this population. Patients are usually treated for 12 months with interferon/ribavirin combination therapy, though 18 months of therapy may be given to patients at greater risk of treatment failure. Pdf 161 kb



Currently, HIV/AIDS has been reported in virtually every racial and ethnic population, every age group, and every socioeconomic group in every State and most large cities in the United States. Initially identified among men who have sex with men on the East and West Coasts, the AIDS epidemic is composed of diverse multiple subepidemics that vary by region and community. By the end of 1998, more than 680,000 cases of AIDS had been reported, and nearly 410,800 people had died from HIV disease or AIDS.  
HIV/AIDS AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Acquired means you are not born with it, but get it from someone. As the name implies, this disease involves a deficiency (destruction) of the the immune system, which is the system that protects us from infections and cancers. Because of this breakdown in the immune system, HIV/AIDS can present with any manifestation of immune deficiency, from sinusitis to cancer. AIDS was first identified in 1981 among homosexual men in California and New York City, and was at one time called the "Gay Epidemic". We know now that HIV can effects anyone, irregardless of sexual orientation. World wide HIV/AIDS is spread most commonly through heterosexual contact. AIDS is still considered lethal infection. Through December 1995, 513,486 people in the United States had been reported with AIDS to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (CDC). Of the 513,486 cases of AIDS reported 318,361, (62%) had died.  

HIV & AIDS Discrimination and Stigma


From the moment scientists identified HIV and AIDS, social responses of fear, denial, stigma and discrimination have accompanied the epidemic. Discrimination has spread rapidly, fuelling anxiety and prejudice against the groups most affected, as well as those living with HIV or AIDS. It goes without saying that HIV and AIDS are as much about social phenomena as they are about biological and medical concerns. Across the world the global epidemic of HIV/AIDS has shown itself capable of triggering responses of compassion, solidarity and support, bringing out the best in people, their families and communities. But the disease is also associated with stigma, repression and discrimination, as individuals affected (or believed to be affected) by HIV have been rejected by their families, their loved ones and their communities.  
HIV/AIDS among Hispanics The HIV/AIDS epidemic is a serious threat to the Hispanic community. In addition to being a population seriously affected by HIV, Hispanics continue to face challenges in accessing health care, prevention services, and treatment. In 2002, HIV/AIDS was the third leading cause of death among Hispanic men aged 35 to 44 and the fourth leading cause of death among Hispanic women in the same age group  
HIV/AIDS EMPLOYMENT POLICY AND PROCEDURE The NHS in Wales recognises that as an employer and a public health body it has a duty to counter discrimination and stigma against people who are or may become HIV positive or who have AIDS. This duty includes employees of Local Health Boards. It recognises the need to protect patients, to retain public confidence, and to provide safeguards for the confidentiality and employment rights of HIV infected health care workers. Pdf 23 kb
HIV and AIDS from UNAIDS/WHO Presentation in adobe concerning HIV/AIDS

(Large file-increase download time)

1505 kb pdf
HIV Denial in the Internet Era

It may seem remarkable that, 23 years after the identification of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), there is still denial that the virus is the cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). This denial was highlighted on an international level in 2000, when South African president Thabo Mbeki convened a group of panelists to discuss the cause of AIDS, acknowledging that he remained unconvinced that HIV was the cause. His ideas were derived at least partly from material he found on the Internet. Though Mbeki agreed later that year to step back from the debate, he subsequently suggested a re-analysis of health spending with a decreased emphasis on HIV/AIDS


HIV Disclosure by Men Who have Sex with Men to Immediate Family over Time

Previous researchers have comprehensively documented rates of HIV disclosure to family at discrete time periods yet none have taken a dynamic approach to this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to address the trajectory of HIV serostatus disclosure to family members. Time to disclosure was analyzed from data provided by 135 HIV-positive men who have sex with men  
HIV Disease in Individuals Ages Fifty and Above Ten percent of AIDS cases reported in the United States have been among individuals ages 50 and above…A study from the National Institute on Aging substantiates concerns that HIV/AIDS education programs are overlooking older people 272 kb pdf
HIV in Asia: Act now or pay later, groups warn One report, by the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB), entitled “Asia Pacific’s Opportunity: Investing to Avert an HIV/AIDS Crisis,” found that if prompt action is not taken in Asia by the end of the decade, 10 million additional people could acquire HIV, according to a statement.  
HIV Found To Be No Disability A federal district judge dismissed a workplace discrimination claim brought by an HIV-positive man on the ground that the man's HIV infection did not meet the statutory definition for disability because he had no interest in having children. This is the latest of several recent rulings suggesting that the federal American With Disabilities Act (ADA) is unlikely to provide much protection against workplace bias to HIV-positive gay men who are staying healthy through medical treatment.  
HIV in central and eastern Europe We describe recent trends in the HIV epidemic and the differences between eastern and central Europe, using surveillance data, and published and unpublished reports. During the past 5 years, most countries of the former Soviet Union have been severely affected by HIV epidemics that continue to spread as a result of injecting drug use. With an estimated 1 million individuals already infected—mostly injecting drug users—and high rates of syphilis, the region may soon also face a large-scale epidemic of sexually-transmitted HIV infection. Indeed, data indicate that an HIV epidemic, fuelled by heterosexual transmission, is emerging; its expansion will depend on the size of so-called bridge populations that link high-risk groups with the general population. The lack of evidence to indicate increased rates of HIV as a result of homosexual transmission could indicate the social vulnerability of homosexual and bisexual men in the region rather than the true epidemiological picture. In view of the current levels of HIV prevalence, eastern Europe will soon be confronted with a major AIDS epidemic. By contrast, rates of HIV in central Europe remain low at present, but behaviours that promote HIV transmission are present in all countries. Improved measures to prevent further HIV spread are urgently needed. Pdf 196 kb

HIV Knowledge and Sexual Behavior of Adolescent Girls

Among adolescents newly infected with HIV, females outnumber males, with a disproportionate representation from members of minority or economically disadvantaged groups.


HIV prevalence in the Blood Supply-Europe

Power Point Presentation  
HIV prevalence surveys and routine diagnostic testing among pregnant women Power Point Presentation  
HIV/AIDS and Cross-National Convergence in Life Expectancy There are two fundamental reasons why HIV/AIDS is responsible for global divergence or a slowdown in convergence in levels of life expectancy.  First, the highest prevalence rates are found in countries faced with widespread poverty, low-income levels, and deficient health care systems.  This implies higher mortality than would result if economically and socially developed countries experienced similar HIV/AIDS prevalence rates.  Second, the epidemic is concentrated in countries that are low performers in life expectancy and infant and child survival rates.  It thus prevents them from catching up with the high performers, or at least from catching up as fast as they would otherwise do Pdf 111 kb
HIV/AIDS and Homelessness HIV is found in epidemic proportions among the homeless.  HIV prevalence is estimated at 3.1 percent and above in homeless populations that have been studied compared to .3 percent in the general population. 299 kb pdf

HIV/AIDS Beyond Africa: Managing the Financial Impacts


The spread of the HIV/AIDS4 epidemic has been an ever-present feature of world news since the first case of the disease was reported in the US in the early 1980s. Over the past twenty years, extensive research has been undertaken to understand the dynamics of the disease, its impact on society and, increasingly, its potential implications for economic growth. However, while a great deal has been written on a macro level (for example, itspotential impact on GDP), less attention has been focused on the ways in which HIV/AIDS can affect global financial markets or specific company performance.  
HIV/AIDS Blood Donors May Be Jailed The government proposes to impose mandatory jail sentence besides a fine on HIV/AIDS sufferers who falsify information on their condition to donate blood. Deputy Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak said the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases Act 1988 would be amended to provide for this. "There have been several cases of HIV and AIDS sufferers who donated blood. We want to make it a crime,"  

HIV/AIDS disclosure can help in management of risks

With one of the major requirements of good corporate governance being adequate disclosure to stakeholders, HIV/AIDS disclosure and its effect on business has recently been a topical and controversial subject of discussion.



Experiences in the region have shown that intervention activities can successfully bring about reductions in HIV prevalence, provided they are combined with highlevel political commitment and leadership. The priority is to implement HIV interventions among those sections of the population with high-risk behaviour, such as sex workers and their clients, injecting drug users, and migrant workers. In Thailand and Cambodia, condom promotion activities have brought about behavioural changes and a subsequent reduction in HIV prevalence and incidence – a major achievement. There are, however, still many areas of concern. Interventions are needed urgently to prevent HIV caused by injecting drug use and high-risk sexual behaviour and to scale up the coverage of these interventions in all countries so that they have a nationwide impact on HIV prevalence. Pdf 1433 kb


The focus of workplace policy has moved beyond issues of incidence to the impact of HIV/AIDS in the work environment. Impact in the workplace is experienced in various ways. In the most extreme case, there is the loss of productive employees and the cost of replacement and training. With advanced HIV infection, there is increased absenteeism and the concomitant loss of productivity. In a broader context, employees with family members infected with the disease will lose time at work to attend funerals, and will carry a higher financial burden as family members die and they undertake the care of orphaned nieces and nephews. Other areas of impact include the breakup of research teams as a result of illness and death, and the isolation and withdrawal of the HIV-infected employee. Human Resources (HR) must address these realities when developing compassionate HIV/AIDS policies and programs. Pdf 103 kb
HIV/AIDS in the Deaf and Hard of Hearing The Prevalence of HIV disease among the deaf and hard of hearing in the United States is greater than among the general population…the deaf and hard of hearing are at risk for poor access to society’s educational, religious, and social institutions. 295 kb pdf
HIV/AIDS Stigma A number of studies have provided evidence that stigma is associated with delays in HIV testing by people who are at high risk of being infected with HIV 275 kb pdf
INCREASED LEVEL OF UNDERSTANDING OF HIV/AIDS AMONG JOURNALISTS AND MEDIA PROFESSIONALS-“THE IMPACT OF CULTURE AND RELIGION ON HIV/AIDS REPORTING” An even higher proportion of the children living with HIV in the world is in Africa – an estimated 87%.  There are a number of reasons for this.  First, more women of childbearing age are HIV-infected in Africa than elsewhere.  Secondly, Africa women have more children on average than those in other continents, so one infected woman may pass the virus on to a higher than average number of children.  Thirdly, nearly all children in Africa are breast-fed.  Breast-feeding is thought to account for between a third and half of all HIV transmission from mother-to-child.  Finally, new drugs, which help reduce transmission from mother-to-child before and around childbirth, are far less readily available in developing countries, including those in Africa, than in the industrialized world.  
Legal and Ethical Dimensions of Willful Exposure to HIV
Behavioral research indicates that a substantial proportion of people 
who know they are infected with HIV sometimes engage in unsafe 
sexual or needle sharing behavior without informing their partners of 
their infection
10 kb pdf
Legislative Survey of State Confidentiality Laws, with Specific Emphasis on HIV and Immunization This report examines current state and federal law protecting the confidentiality of health information. It focuses on four specific areas: public health information held by government, privately held health care information, HIV and AIDS-related information, and immunization information.  
Male circumcision: a role in HIV prevention? It has been suggested that following circumcision, the surface epithelium of the glans develops a protective keratin layer, a form of natural condom. Thus, circumcision could reduce the HIV incidence by directly decreasing the susceptibility of uninfected men to HIV. Circumcision could also reduce the incidence of HIV by directly decreasing the infectivity of men with HIV, as suggested by the studies of tissue samples collected from macaques infected with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), which showed infected mononuclear cells in the dermis and epidermis of the penile foreskin  
Managing HIV in the Aging Patient PowerPoint Presentation 433 kb
Mounting anomalies in the epidemiology of HIV There is substantial dissonance between much of the epidemiologic evidence and the current orthodoxy that nearly all of the HIV burden in sub-Saharan Africa can be accounted for by heterosexual transmission and the sexual behaviour of Africans. The mounting toll of HIV infection in Africa is paralleled by a mounting number of anomalies in the many studies seeking to account for it.  
New estimates show increasing numbers of people living with HIV/AIDS The latest UNAIDS and WHO estimates published in this AIDS epidemic update are lower than those published in 2002. But the number of people living with HIV/AIDS is not actually lower, nor is there a decline in the epidemic. Better data and understanding have enabled the UNAIDS Secretariat and WHO to arrive at more accurate estimates  

Percentage of adults who reported ever being tested for HIV

Graphs and tables

113 kb pdf

People Who Pass On AIDS Virus May be Sued People infected with the virus that causes AIDS may sue the sexual partner who transmitted the virus to them even if the partner did not do so knowingly, the California Supreme Court ruled yesterday.  

PLHA-Friendly Achievement Checklist

The objective of the study is to assess factors that affect the quality and type of care received by the general patient population, with special emphasis on patients with HIV. An additional objective is to assess and address factors that affect staff safety with respect to infectious diseases


Polio vaccines and the origin of AIDS: some key writings If this theory is correct, it has serious ethical, health and policy implications. In particular, it points to the danger of interspecies transfer of material through vaccinations, organ transplants, etc., which could lead to new variants of AIDS as well as other new diseases. As well, studying the theory may lead to insights about responding to AIDS and preventing new diseases. On several occasions, critics have claimed that the theory has been refuted. The Wistar Committee in 1992 said the death of a British sailor in 1959, whose tissues later tested positive for HIV, made the theory implausible. However, several years later, more sensitive tests showed no HIV in the tissues.  
Position paper-HIV infection and AIDS in adolescents As of December 31,2003, almost 38,500 cases of AIDS had been reported in adolescents and young adults 13-24 years old in the United States of America.  Pdf 48 kb
PSYCHOSOCIAL ASPECTS OF HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS has many physical effects, but perhaps some of its most profound effects are on the psychological, social, and economic health of the HIV-positive person, his or her loved ones, and the community. Since the beginning of the epidemic, stigma and fear have surrounded many of those who live with and die from HIV/AIDS, as well as those who love and care for them. The magnitude of these psychosocial effects makes them central to HIV prevention efforts, care for people with HIV, and the response of communities to the massive losses of people in their most productive years of life. This lecture will examine the effects of stigma on care for people with HIV; the effects of HIV on the individual, family, group, community, and society; and potential interventions on each of these levels. Pdf 797 kb

Reagan's AIDS Legacy Silence equals death

  As America remembers the life of Ronald Reagan, it must never forget his shameful abdication of leadership in the fight against AIDS. History may ultimately judge his presidency by the thousands who have and will die of AIDS. ..Following discovery of the first cases in 1981, it soon became clear a national health crisis was developing. But President Reagan's response was "halting and ineffective," according to his biographer Lou Cannon. Those infected initially with this mysterious disease -- all gay men -- found themselves targeted with an unprecedented level of mean-spirited hostility.  
Relationships between work and HIV/AIDS status During the past decade HIV infection has become a pandemic, affecting millions of workers. HIV/AIDS in the workplace has made a decided impact on business and will continue to do so for years. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the impact of HIV/AIDS on work and to assess the reasons behind cessation of occupational activities among HIV-infected persons. Pdf 193
Researchers trace first HIV case to 1959 in the Belgian Congo HIV probably originated in the late 1940s or early 1950s, and showed up in people 10 to 20 years earlier than has previously been estimated, researchers said Tuesday.  
Ryan White Title I Standards of Care for Legal Services Standards of Care CATEGORY: LEGAL SERVICES  

Scientific Evidence on Condom Effectiveness for STDS

What is the scientific evidence on the effectiveness of latex male condom-use to prevent STD transmission during vaginal intercourse

600 kb pdf

Secret War on Condoms

Nicholas D Kristof Op-Ed column says conservative groups in Pres Bush's support base have launched disinformation campaign about effectiveness of condoms that, if successful, could lead to millions of deaths from AIDS around world


Self-Incrimination, Partner Notification, and the Criminal Law: Negatives for the CDC’s “Prevention for Positives” Initiative On 18 April 2003, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced a new HIV prevention initiative, “Prevention for Positives,” which emphasizes partner-notification activities for individuals who have already been diagnosed with HIV. The CDC failed, however, to address significant criminal law issues that are presented by this initiative. The proposed partner notification activities involve patients’ voluntary identification of contacts at risk for HIV transmission. But because all states have laws that make it a crime to knowingly expose another person to HIV, information provided by patients for partner-notification purposes is in most cases evidence of a crime. Little if any confidentiality protections prevent law enforcement officials from obtaining test results, records of counseling sessions, or similar information from the records of health or social service providers. Prevention for Positives thus exposes patients to an unacknowledged risk of criminal prosecution, which may severely inhibit future cooperation among those infected.  
Semper Fit-HIV and STD Prevention Power Point Presentation 414 kb
Silence about AIDS is death We must keep AIDS at the top of our political and practical agenda. That is why we must continue to speak up openly about AIDS. No progress will be achieved by being timid, refusing to face unpleasant facts, or prejudging our fellow human beings -- still less by stigmatising people living with HIV/AIDS. Let no one imagine that we can protect ourselves by building barriers between ‘us’ and ‘them’. In the ruthless world of AIDS, there is no us and them. And in that world, silence is death  
State HIV Testing Laws

(Large file-increase download time)

Provided by the National HIV/AIDS Clinicians’ Consultation Center Pdf 9253 kb

Studies Suggest Hepatitis G Virus Slows Down the AIDS Virus

Two studies in Thursday's New England Journal of Medicine (Vol. 345; No. 10; P 707-714 and 715-724) indicate that infection with a newly recognized virus seems to interfere with HIV, slowing its progression and prolonging survival of AIDS patients


Suicidal Ideation, Suicide Attempts, and HIV Infection


Factors associated with suicidal ideation included being HIV-positive, the presence of current psychiatric disorder, higher neuroticism scores, external locus of control, and current unemployment. In the HIV-positive group analyzed separately, higher suicidal ideation was discriminated by the adjustment to HIV diagnosis (greater hopelessness and lower fighting spirit), disease factors (greater number of current acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]-related conditions), and background variables (neuroticism). Significant predictors of a past attempted suicide were a positive lifetime history of psychiatric disorder (particularly depression diagnoses), a lifetime history of injection drug use, and a family history of suicide attempts. The findings indicate increased levels of suicidal ideation in symptomatic HIV-positive men and highlight the role that multiple psychosocial factors associated with suicidal ideation and attempted suicide play in this population  

The ABCs of HIV Prevention

Abstaining from sexual activity, mutual monogamy, and condom use are three key behaviors that can prevent or reduce the likelihood of sexual transmission of the AIDS virus. These behaviors are often included together under a comprehensive "ABC" approach


The Deadly Fallacy of the HIV-AIDS-Death Hypothesis-Exposing the Epidemic that is Not Since the HIV-AIDS was discovered in the 1980s, the information about the deadly disease has been spread far and wide in the whole world…The controversy about the possible serious flaws in the diagnosis of the disease has been largely kept out of the mainstream scientific debate and the public.  It is hoped that this paper has not given the impression that readers should deny the possible existence of HIV-AIDS or killer disease.  But rather that people might be dying of a new disease or a group of old diseases and that all the possible explanations and hypothesis should be open to investigation in line with logic and genuine scientific procedure. Pdf 199 kb
The Effectiveness of Condoms in Reducing Heterosexual Transmission of HIV Consistent use of condoms provides protection from HIV. The level of protection approximates 87%, with a range depending upon the incidence among condom nonusers. Thus, the condom's efficacy at reducing heterosexual transmission may be comparable to or slightly lower than its effectiveness at preventing pregnancy  
The Election and the Epidemic PowerPoint Presentation 2697 kb

The face of global AIDS


Asia has become a critical front in the battle against HIV. An estimated 7.4 million people are infected - the equivalent of a mortal disease striking the entire population of Arizona and Nevada. Spread through unprotected sex, contaminated needles and tainted blood supplies, the infection is largely confined to high-risk groups: prostitutes, drug addicts and men who have sex with other men  
The HIV/AIDS Hour More treatment and preventive health care options are available with early detection of the disease, but a person may be HIV positive and in the communicative state for years prior to showing any obvious signs or symptoms.  Public fears and state medical costs have both been raised, secondary to the unique methods of transmission of HIV and its inevitably fatal course.  
Trends in under-5 mortality rates and the HIV/AIDS epidemic Although HIV and AIDS originally emerged as adult health problems, they have become a major killer of under-5-year-old children, especially in developing countries.  Children of HIV-seropositive mothers can acquire the virus directly through vertical transmission; about 25-30% of children born to infected mothers become infected with HIV and almost all of them die before 5 years of age in most developing countries with high HIV prevalence 240 kb pdf
Top Russian Official Says One In 25 Could Have HIV In Five Years The top Russian government HIV/AIDS expert, Vadim Pokrovsky of the Russian Center for AIDS Prevention and Treatment, said in a new report yesterday that at least 500,000 Russians have HIV and that as many as 1.5 million of the country's 147 million people may be infected.  

Who is right?

AIDS reviews published annuallyby the University of Pretoria concerning AIDS

946 kb pdf

Who is right? The rights-based approach applied

AIDS issues

892 kb pdf

WHOSE ANTIBODIES ARE THEY ANYWAY? The AIDS establishment has managed to convince many people that the HIV antibody tests (ELISA, IFA and Western blot) are "99.5% accurate". In this article Christine Johnson from HEAL Los Angeles, lists conditions documented in the scientific literature known to cause positives on these tests, and gives her references  

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