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“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”

  


 

AIC

Australian Institute of Criminology

AIC


HIV/AIDS and Prisons:

Proceedings of a Conference held 19-21 November 1990

Edited by Jennifer Norberrry, Matt Gaughwin and Sally-Anne Gerull

Canberra : Australian Institute of Criminology, 1992
ISBN 0 642 16202 6 ; ISSN 1034-5086
(Conference proceedings (Australian Institute of Criminology); no.4)

The first national Conference on HIV/AIDS and Prisons was organised by the Australian Institute of Criminology and the National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health. It examined many issues deriving from the relationship between health care in the prison setting and the management of prisons. Topics covered included overseas management of AIDS in prisons; risk minimisation strategies including education, health services, testing and segregation; and the problems of special groups within the prison population.


Contents

Preface (PDF file size 12Kb)

Jennifer Norberry

Overview (PDF file size 20Kb)

Jennifer Norberry

WHO Global Commission, AIDS Recommendations and Prisons in Australia

Michael Kirby

AIDS in Australian Prisons What are the Challenges?

Robert Douglas

HIV/AIDS in US Prisons and Gaols: Epidemiology, Policy and Programs

Theodore M. Hammett

HIV in British Prisons: Problems Risk Behaviours and Prevention

Kate Dolan

HIV/AIDS and Australian Prisons

Sandra Egger and Hans Heilpern

National HIV/AIDS in Prisons Information Clearing House

Judi Fortuin

Behind Bars - Risk Behaviours for HIV Transmission in Prisons, A Review

Matt Gaughwin

Minimising the Spread of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus within the Australian Prison System

John Dwyer

A Pragmatic Approach to the Delivery of HIV Related Services to Prisoners

Stephen Kerr

Compulsory Testing and Integration

Michael Yabsley

HIV/AIDS in the Victorian Prison System

Peter Harmsworth

Managing HIV Seropositive Prisoners in South Australia: Some Successes and Failures

Ann Bloor

The Integrated Management of HIV Infection in South Australian Prisons: The Medical Perspective

Christopher Liew

Managing a Therapeutic Community: 'K' Division - A Case Study

Paul Hamilton

Management Issues - A Prison Officers Union Perspective

John Doyle

Rights, Duties, HIV/AIDS and Corrections

John Godwin

Prisoners' Rights: Treatment, Testing, Accommodation and Privacy of Documents

Beverley Schurr

Educational Strategies and Policy Development

Kim Mannion

HIV Education Strategies within Correctional Services - The South Australian Experience

Ollie Behrens-Peters

Prison AIDS Project: Prison Officer Education

Eileen Adamson

Perception of AIDS in Prisons: Relevance in Developing Educational Strategies

Helen Close

HIV Minimisation Strategies for Queensland Correctional Centres

Clive Begg

Behind Bars: HIV Risk-Taking Behaviour of Sydney Male Drug Injectors while in Prison

Alex Wodak

Methadone, Prisons and AIDS

Frank McLeod

Juveniles and HIV/AIDS Policy Development and Practice in Victoria

Lisa Ward and Gerard Jones

Women Prisoners and HIV/AIDS

Tracie Walsh

Management of HIV in Community Based Corrections

Tony Clunies-Ross

Aboriginals, HIV/AIDS and Prisons

Stanley Nangala


Abstracts

WHO Global Commission, AIDS Recommendations and Prisons in Australia (PDF file size 56Kb)

Michael Kirby

Kirby discusses: the nature of the HIV virus and modes of transmission; international data about AIDS in prisons; the responses of Australian correctional authorities; recommended guidelines from the World Health Organization, and other prisoner protection strategies. In particular, he deals with compulsory testing, condom provision, and intravenous drug users. (Adapted and updated version of the South Australian Justice Administration Foundation Annual Oration: "AIDS strategies and Australian prisons", 1990)

AIDS in Australian Prisons What are the Challenges? (PDF file size 29Kb)

Robert Douglas

After giving some background information about the first national HIV/AIDS and Prisons Conference, Douglas describes the communique which was issued by the participants. The communique dealt with: the influence of HIV/AIDS in prisons on the wider community; the realities of prison life; prison sexuality; drug use in prison; education; detection and management of HIV positive prisoners; ex offenders; occupational health and safety; collection of epidemiological information; and the legal obligations of prison authorities.

  


 

HIV/AIDS in US Prisons and Gaols: Epidemiology, Policy and Programs (PDF file size 59Kb)

Theodore M. Hammett

The authors summarise the 1990 update of AIDS in correctional settings, a report put out by the National Institute of Justice. The report covers HIV infection and AIDS statistics as well as correctional policy issues and options. The latter include education and training; HIV testing and counselling; medical care, psychosocial services, housing, and correctional management issues; and precautionary and preventive measures. Twelve tables of statistical data from the report, some comparing US and Canadian systems, are appended. They cover numbers of AIDS cases, data from mass screenings, and AIDS education programs in US correctional facilities.

HIV in British Prisons: Problems Risk Behaviours and Prevention (PDF file size 24Kb)

Kate Dolan

Dolan discusses HIV problems in British prisons in relation to risk behaviours such as syringe sharing, sex, and tattooing. She briefly recommends ways to prevent the spread of AIDS in prisons. Her data are drawn from an evaluation of syringe exchange schemes.

HIV/AIDS and Australian Prisons (PDF file size 57Kb)

Sandra Egger and Hans Heilpern

The authors believe that segregation of infected prisoners is no solution to the AIDS problem in prisons. They report on data about testing of prisoners in all Australian jurisdictions, and say that compulsory testing is the biggest issue facing prisons. They discuss a number of AIDS containment options, and strongly criticise the measures adopted in New South Wales so far. An appendix table provides a state by state comparison of HIV screening and management in Australian prisons.

National HIV/AIDS in Prisons Information Clearing House (PDF file size 21Kb)

Judi Fortuin

Fortuin describes the work of the recently established National HIV/AIDS in Prisons Information Clearing House. She includes: its aims; its identification of key individuals and institutions; the type of AIDS information it believes is needed in prisons; and its plans for future development. Fortuin applauds the work of the more established United States National AIDS Information Clearinghouse.

Behind Bars - Risk Behaviours for HIV Transmission in Prisons, A Review (PDF file size 50Kb)

Matt Gaughwin

Gaughwin focuses on how to determine the extent of risk behaviours in prisons; the behaviour of HIV infected prisoners; evidence for prison environments facilitating risk behaviour; and the possible future of HIV infection in prisons. The appendices contain a number of statistical summaries compiled from international research.

Minimising the Spread of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus within the Australian Prison System (PDF file size 28Kb)

John Dwyer

Dwyer argues that education and counselling are key components in minimising the spread of AIDS in prisons. He also comments on: dealing with sexual activity; problems associated with intravenous drug use; compulsory blood testing for HIV antibodies; and advance planning for release from gaol.

A Pragmatic Approach to the Delivery of HIV Related Services to Prisoners (PDF file size 22Kb)

Stephen Kerr

Many suggestions for managing AIDS in prisons have been based on fear and stereotyping, and the nature of prison administration often frustrates the provision of anything apart from basic and essential services. However Kerr points to the establishment of a Corrections Health Board in Victoria to overcome these problems, and also to its initiatives in the HIV prevention arena.

Compulsory Testing and Integration (PDF file size 17Kb)

Michael Yabsley

Yabsley, NSW Minister for Corrective Services, points to new restrictions on prisoners' property as a means of reducing the secreting of needles. He defends his government's refusal to supply condoms or needle exchange systems, and outlines his AIDS education and training initiatives as well as his new compulsory HIV testing program. He argues that his Government's stance against segregation of HIV positive prisoners demonstrates its ability to withstand political pressure.

HIV/AIDS in the Victorian Prison System (PDF file size 29Kb)

Peter Harmsworth

Harmsworth examines the history of dealing with AIDS infected prisoners; the current legal and correctional philosophy operating in prisons; and strategies for managing AIDS in Victorian prisons. The latter include: education; testing; counselling; accommodation; and infection control guidelines. He also looks at condom availability and confidentiality.

Managing HIV Seropositive Prisoners in South Australia: Some Successes and Failures (PDF file size 29Kb)

Ann Bloor

Bloor outlines the history of dealing with HIV and AIDS in South Australian prisons, as well as current policies and strategies. She believes that the South Australian approach has had mixed success and that more work needs to be done in the following areas: dealing with fear; communication; specific prisoner management; and education.

The Integrated Management of HIV Infection in South Australian Prisons: The Medical Perspective (PDF file size 33Kb)

Christopher Liew

Liew describes the development of policies to deal with HIV and AIDS in South Australian prisons, dwelling on the issues of testing and segregation. He then discusses a number of medical management issues involving the Prison Medical Service. These are the HBVAX program; tuberculosis screening; standard management of HIV infected prisoners; drug use; homosexuality; HIV, diets and vitamins; equitable access to health care; education and counselling; stress; industrial and occupational issues; and confidentiality.

Managing a Therapeutic Community: 'K' Division - A Case Study (PDF file size 29Kb)

Paul Hamilton

HIV seropositive prisoners are located in Unit 5 of K Division in Pentridge Prison. Hamilton describes the operations of K Division in some detail. He attributes the successful management of seropositive prisoners to the introduction of a unit management regime as well as to a reverse integration policy.

Management Issues - A Prison Officers Union Perspective (PDF file size 16Kb)

John Doyle

Following the introduction of the integration of HIV positive inmates into mainstream prison populations, Doyle implemented a safety and education package for NSW prison officers, on behalf of the NSW Prison Officers Union. Based on his experience, Doyle discusses: the fears of prison officers; incidents in which officers have been exposed to blood; government apathy; segregation versus integration; prisoners' property; trauma counselling; and AIDS testing.

  


 

Rights, Duties, HIV/AIDS and Corrections (PDF file size 42Kb)

John Godwin

Godwin discusses the legal duties of prisoner administrators in the context of AIDS management. These are: the duty of care to prisoners; the duty to comply with human rights obligations and non discrimination requirements; and the duty to provide a safe system of work for employees. He also deals briefly with some other legal and ethical dilemmas arising from AIDS testing in prisons.

Prisoners' Rights: Treatment, Testing, Accommodation and Privacy of Documents (PDF file size 40Kb)

Beverley Schurr

Schurr discusses prisoners' rights enshrined in international and domestic law. The main issues in relation to HIV/AIDS infected prisoners are: the right to treatment; the right to refuse treatment and testing; confidentiality of documents and information; segregated versus integrated accommodation; and the concept of civil prisoners.

 

Kim Mannion

Mannion identifies the major educational stages in the New South Wales policy development process, which have been significant in: responding to the AIDS issue; managing AIDS issues in prisons; and effecting lasting changes. The latter includes the breaking down of traditional departmental barriers. She uses the Prison AIDS Project to illustrate her points.

HIV Education Strategies within Correctional Services - The South Australian Experience (PDF file size 35Kb)

Ollie Behrens-Peters

The author outlines the beginning and progress of AIDS education programs in South Australian prisons, for staff and inmates. The program is based on the experiential learning model. He explains the processes which establishing such a model necessitates, for example, the negotiation of commitment from participants. The next step is the development of a prisoner peer educational model.

Prison AIDS Project: Prison Officer Education (PDF file size 28Kb)

Eileen Adamson

Adamson describes the education programs implemented by the Prisons AIDS Project, which were designed to help officers come to terms with AIDS related issues. These programs include: information sessions for current officers; primary training for new recruits; and in particular, the AIDS Management Course. The latter was based on the idea of training officers so that they could act as role models and resource persons.

Perception of AIDS in Prisons: Relevance in Developing Educational Strategies (PDF file size 94Kb)

Helen Close

Close presents findings from a study of prisoners, prison officers and staff within metropolitan prisons in Perth. The study not only explored individual knowledge and perceptions, but also investigated their perceptions of others' perceptions. If a coordinated and comprehensive educational program is to be developed, it is necessary to consider the perceptions of the target groups and to understand why groups perceive issues in different ways.

HIV Minimisation Strategies for Queensland Correctional Centres (PDF file size 22Kb)

Clive Begg

Begg reports on Project STIR (an acronym for Sexually Transmitted Intravenous Risks) which was established to develop an education strategy for containing AIDS in prisons, and to investigate existing HIV management practices. The appendix contains the Project's recommendations. Begg highlights the issues of sexual activity, intravenous drug use, and the need for more research.

Behind Bars: HIV Risk-Taking Behaviour of Sydney Male Drug Injectors while in Prison (PDF file size 19Kb)

Alex Wodak

The authors give preliminary results of a continuing study of drug injectors and their drug taking and sexual behaviour while in prison. They conclude that a disturbingly high level of HIV risk behaviour occurs, although the data also suggests that this may be declining. The implications for policy makers are unclear, but the authors advocate condom and bleach provision.

Methadone, Prisons and AIDS (PDF file size 38Kb)

Frank McLeod

McLeod gives an account of the development and operation of the methadone prison program in New South Wales, which is mainly supported as an anti-AIDS strategy. He looks at its benefits, costs, opponents and proponents. McLeod then discusses other AIDS related strategies: Milton tablets; condoms; compulsory testing; and education.

Juveniles and HIV/AIDS Policy Development and Practice in Victoria (PDF file size 41Kb)

Lisa Ward and Gerard Jones

The paper outlines the response of Community Services Victoria (CSV) to AIDS issues, in particular within Youth Training Centres. The authors trace the HIV policy development process, examine issues which have been especially hard to deal with, and look at what needs to happen next. CSV's approach is in accordance with "new public health" principles, which highlight the importance of advocacy and education.

Women Prisoners and HIV/AIDS (PDF file size 12Kb)

Tracie Walsh

Walsh addresses women prisoners' issues in regard to HIV infection. She covers: sexual activity, including woman to woman sex risks as well as possible contamination from male partners; needle sharing; and support groups.

Management of HIV in Community Based Corrections (PDF file size 24Kb)

Tony Clunies-Ross

Clunies-Ross discusses Victorian policy for the management of HIV infected people in community based corrections. The policy includes: education and training; confidentiality; supervision and counselling; the role of community organisations; and infection control. He also covers the AIDS manual used by staff, the incidence of AIDS in community based corrections, and problems faced by staff especially in the country.

Aboriginals, HIV/AIDS and Prisons (PDF file size 21Kb)

Stanley Nangala

AIDS is a major issue for Aborigines in prison, particularly given their over representation as exposed in the Royal Commission's Interim report. Nangala calls for: alternatives to Aboriginal imprisonment; culturally sensitive health and education services; improving prisoners' access to items such as condoms and clean needles; and confidential and voluntary only testing.

© 2000 Australian Institute of Criminology
Last modified: 21 August 2000

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