Education + Advocacy = Change

Click a topic below for an index of articles:

New Material


Help us Win the Fight!

Alternative Treatments

Financial or Socio-Economic Issues

Health Insurance

Help us Win the Fight



Institutional Issues

International Reports

Legal Concerns

Math Models or Methods to Predict Trends

Medical Issues

Our Sponsors

Occupational Concerns

Our Board


Religion and infectious diseases

State Governments

Stigma or Discrimination Issues

If you would like to submit an article to this website, email us your paper to



any words all words
Results per page:

“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”


General Information



Main topics can be found within the left column; sub-topics and/or research reports can be found near the bottom of this page.  Thank you


We offer a monthly newsletter dealing with the various issues surrounding infectious diseases.  To find out more click HERE.

Document Name & Link to Document


File Size /pdf

Macroeconomic research issues - AIDS impact 1999

A forthcoming study described by Keith Jefferis and Robert Greener about the impact of HIV/AIDS in Botswana incorporated some of the above concerns, including an examination of issues in rural areas, and a consideration of the impact of prevailing capital/labor ratios on future economic performance. The study will also examine the impact of HIV/AIDS on household-level issues of poverty and economic inequality.


Madison Ave. Has Growing Role In the Business of Drug Research

Article on how Madison Avenue, whose television ads have helped turn some prescription drugs into billion-dollar products, is expanding role in drug development;


Measuring impacts of HIV/AIDS on rural livelihoods and food security

The HIV/AIDS epidemic is affecting all spheres of human activity and behaviour. Because most of the hardest-hit countries are still overwhelmingly rural, the epidemic represents an enormous threat to rural development. The implications of HIV/AIDS for the demography of rural populations (age and sex composition of rural households, life expectancy of rural inhabitants, etc.) are well known. However, the epidemic's effects on food and livelihood security of rural residents are still inadequately understood. Part of the problem is that comprehensive tools to measure such effects of the epidemic have not been fully developed.


Medicaid Program Policy Trends: Financing and Quality of HIV Care

Many state Medicaid programs have adopted managed care as well as a variety of other measures to ensure that MCOs caring for high-cost enrollees can continue to provide quality care and are protected from financial risk. This article describes several strategies that state programs have implemented to protect quality HIV/AIDS care.


Meeting the HIV/AIDS Challenge to Food Security

The role of labour saving technologies in farm-households

461 kb pdf

Next Wave of HIV/AIDS: Nigeria, Ethiopia, Russia, India, and China

(Large report-increased down-load time)

This paper builds on the December 1999 unclassified National Intelligence Estimate, The Global Infectious Disease Threat and Its Implications for the United States, which focused on the spread of AIDS in the context of other growing infectious diseases.  Excerpts from the 1999 Estimate presage the expansion of the HIV/AIDS epidemic beyond the geographic focal point of southern Africa:

Although infection and death rates for HIV/AIDS have slowed considerably in developed countries…the pandemic continues to spread in much of the developing world.  Sub-Saharan Africa currently has the biggest regional burden, but the disease is spreading quickly in India, Russia, China, and much of the rest of Asia.


Patients, not Employers or Insurers, Paying Larger Percentage of Prescription Medication Costs

Faced with "rapidly rising" prescription drug spending, which is climbing at about 15% per year, employers and insurers have increasingly shifted the costs to patients, who "may soon pay even more,"


Poor to get Aids drugs first

The impoverished community of KwaDabeka in Durban will be one of the first pilot sites to receive antiretroviral drugs at its clinic for HIV-infected patients when KwaZulu- Natal receives its R720-million grant from the UN Global Fund to Fight Aids, TB and Malaria.


Population Council Annual Report 1999

An international, nonprofit, nongovernmental organization that seeks to improve the wellbeing and reproductive health of current and future generations around the world

1,969 kb pdf

Portugal Debates setting up Heroin injecting rooms-prison

A recently released government report recommends Portugal set up heroin injection rooms in prisons, where widespread drug use is leading to rising HIV rates among the nation's 14,000 inmates. Nearly one in two Portuguese prisoners uses drugs and of those who do, 26.8 percent use injecting drugs like heroin, said the report.


Portugal-HIV medicine 2003

HIV Medicine is an ever-changing field.  The authors have made every effort to provide information that is accurate and complete as of the data of publication


Protecting Children from Sexual Abuse and Exploitation Protecting children from sexual abuse and exploitation is an important area of work for the member organizations of Save the Children.  They believe that sexual abuse of children is one of the worst forms of violations of the rights of the child.  It can lead to irreversible physical and psychological damage. 70 kb pdf
Provisions for Victims of Trafficking in Bonded Sexual Labour, i.e. Prostitution Traffickers are filling the gap between the demand for migrant labour on the one hand, and the diminishing legal channels of migration in most countries on the other hand.  The economic instability and malaise in countries of origin is the push factor for many women to leave and search for better economic opportunities 443 kb pdf

Rampant Aids Epidemic Confirmed in New Study

The first national household survey on HIV/Aids prevalence and behavioral risk in South Africa has brought welcome new data to reflect on.



The PHS system for HIV/AIDS infection developed in parallel with increased possibilities of clinical confirmation at country and national reference laboratories

Pdf 1,440 kb

Sectoral Impact: what we know, don’t know and need to know: the true cost of AIDS


295 kb pdf

Sex Slave Trade in Iran A measure of Islamic fundamentalists’ success in controlling society is the depth and totality with which they suppress the freedom and rights of women…The head of Iran’s Interpol bureau believes that the sex slave trade is one of the most profitable activities in Iran today. 16 kb pdf
Sex trafficking of women in the United States The US government estimates that 50,000 women and children are trafficked each year into the United States, primarily from Latin America, countries of the former Soviet Union and Southeast Asia. 587 kb pdf
Sexuality and Public Policy While there are obvious civil liberty issues concerning social and governmental oversight of personal sexual behavior, human sexuality is in fact an activity which is highly regulated by society through custom, religion and legislation.  Even those who adopt a libertarian attitude toward sexuality tend to respect modern social prohibitions regarding certain behaviors, e.g. incest, rape, and sex involving children.   By contrast, historically some these practices have been tolerated to varying degrees in certain cultures while many other practices currently considered acceptable have been prohibited.  In general, prevailing sexual behaviors are consistent with and governed by prevailing social attitudes. (Report contains several graphs and charts concerning sexual behavior)  
Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Sexually transmitted diseases affect industrialized as well as developing countries. The 20-24 age group is the most exposed to risk.  Annual incidence of curable STDs (which excludes AIDS) is 333 million cases


Situation analysis of discrimination and stigmatization against people living with HIV/AIDS in West and Central Africa

Ethical and legal considerations

1,437 kb pdf

Skills Development for Multicultural Rehabilitation Counseling Frequently, the general population affixes action-engendering stigmas and stereotypes on entire groups of minority members with disabilities.  
Stigma and Global Health: Developing a Research Agenda To explore the relationship between stigma and public health, examine the social and cultural determinants of stigma, explore how stigma prevents people from seeking or getting treatment for disease, and determine future research opportunities  

Social Capital and coping with economic shocks: an analysis of stunting of South African Children

Using household panel data that include directly solicited information on economic shocks and employing household fixed-effects estimation, we explore how well households cope with shocks by examining the effects of shocks on child nutritional status

294 kb pdf

Strengthening Public Safety Nets: Can the informal sector show the way?

Helping to reduce vulnerability poses a new set of challenges for public policy. The most immediate challenge is to determine the appropriate role for public actions

137 kb pdf

Structural Collapse Sets the Scene for the Rapid Spread of HIV/AIDS Among Young People in Eastern Europe

Children and young people in Eastern Europe and Central Asia are increasingly sharing drug-injecting equipment and engaging in unprotected commercial sex as early as 12 years of age. With the economy in many countries continuing to crumble and with unemployment rates soaring, the young are increasingly relying on alternative sources of economic and emotional sustenance.


The Future Demographic Impact of AIDS: What Do We Know?

Ever since AIDS was recognized as a critical global health problem that would lead to increased adult and child mortality there have been debates about the demographic impact of AIDS. There has been speculation that the impact of AIDS might be so large as to cause negative population growth rates in some countries. Much of this debate centered on Africa, where HIV prevalence rates are the highest.


The Global HIV/AIDS Pandemic, Structural Inequalities, and the Politics of International Health

In spite of recent advances in treatment and care available in most developed countries, the HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to spread throughout the developing world

81 kb pdf

The Global Infectious Disease Threat and Its Implications for the United States

From the CIA: This report represents an important initiative on the part of the Intelligence Community to consider the national security dimension of a nontraditional threat. It responds to a growing concern by senior US leaders about the implications--in terms of health, economics, and national security--of the growing global infectious disease threat. The dramatic increase in drug-resistant microbes, combined with the lag in development of new antibiotics, the rise of megacities with severe health care deficiencies, environmental degradation, and the growing ease and frequency of cross-border movements of people and produce have greatly facilitated the spread of infectious diseases.


The High cost of Healthcare gets Higher

A new survey by the Kaiser Family Foundation and the Health Research and Educational Trust finds that premiums for employer-sponsored health insurance, which covers two of three Americans, increased an average of 11 percent in 2001, the largest increase since 1992. Overall inflation during the same period was only 3.3 percent.


The impact of HIV/AID on Community-based resource management: a Case study of an indigenous irrigation system in Northern Thailand

In case of Northern Thailand, the response to the epidemic is quite unique and different from other parts of Thailand. This occurred as a response to the rapid expansion of HIV/AIDS

191 kb pdf

The Next Wave of HIV/AIDS: Nigeria, Ethiopia, Russia, India, and China The number of people with HIV/AIDS will grow significantly by the end of the decade.  The increase will be driven by the spread of the disease in five populous countries—Nigeria, Ethiopia, Russia, India, and China—where the number of infected people will grow from around 14 to 23 million currently to an estimated 50 to 75 million by 2010.[1]  This estimate eclipses the projected 30 to 35 million cases by the end of the decade in central and southern Africa, the current focal point of the pandemic.  

The Private Sector Response to the Epidemic

Botswana has the worst HIV/AIDS epidemic in the world.—this report deals with Debswanna, the diamond-mining company and their response

785 kb pdf

The Status and trends of the HIV/AIDS Epidemics in the World

The importance of data concerning the trends and determinants of the HIV/AIDS pandemic cannot be denied. For people living with the virus it impacts us in many ways. Data can help improve the level and scope of care and treatment services which we receive and it can contribute to mitigating at least some of the impact of the stigma and discrimination which we face on a daily basis.


The Status and Trends of the HIV/AIDS/STD Epidemics in Asia and the Pacific

Because a large percentage of the world's population resides in the Asia-Pacific region, the symposium held in Manila was important in enabling MAP to focus strategically on the evolving HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted disease (STD) epidemics in the Asian and Pacific countries, fuse current knowledge, identify gaps therein and determine topical and geographical areas for action.


Travel Plans: Border Crossings and the Rights of Transnational Migrants Anti-trafficking initiatives also tend to criminalize women and their families by regarding families as part of the trafficking chain, failing to recognize that women move in part to seek better economic opportunities to support their families. Although the women migrating on the behalf of their family can still be subject to subtle and forceful coercion from their family members, the anti-trafficking initiatives assume criminality indiscriminately for all female migrants. Furthermore, by invariably associating trafficking with sexual exploitation, women who move are implicitly suspected of crossing borders for the purposes of sex, which stigmatizes their movement. As such, women and their movement are viewed through the lenses of criminality and stigma, and the woman herself is rendered both a victim as well as an immoral subject  
US AIDS CZAR UNDERMINES WHO INITIATIVE Previous excuses used to deny patients in poor countries access to antiretrovirals centred around two common arguments: that poor persons could not adhere to complex medication regimens and would therefore improperly take the drugs leading to drug-resistant forms of HIV, and that the infrastructure in poor countries is insufficient to support complex HIV care  
US Doctor linked to South Africa A California doctor who committed suicide after being accused in a murder plot gave deadly germs to apartheid South Africa's secret chemical and biological weapons programme  
US Grant for fight against AIDS   The Mozambican government on Friday received a grant of around 900,000 dollars from the United States to support actions in workplaces against the spread of HIV/AIDS  

Values and social representations of HIV/AIDS in Central and Eastern Europe: A multi-method investigation in five nations-part 1

(Large report-increased download time)

In the research reported here, we focus on samples taken from five Central and Eastern European countries. These countries have had very different experiences of HIV infection and have employed different policies for HIV treatment and testing (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS,


Values and social representations of HIV/AIDS in Central and Eastern Europe: A multi-method investigation in five nations-part 2

(Large report-increased download time)

In the research reported here, we focus on samples taken from five Central and Eastern European countries. These countries have had very different experiences of HIV infection and have employed different policies for HIV treatment and testing (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS,   

'We have no food, no work and no money' 

"We have no food, no work and no money. How are we supposed to feed our families now?" asked Mathews Sibanda. "If you walk around here, you will see that the stomachs of children are growing bigger and swollen by malnutrition.


What we can learn from the HIV/AIDS epidemic?

In every possible way the essential public health trusts between authorities, science, medicine and the global populace were violated during the 1994 plague outbreak

74 kb pdf

Where women are sold as sex slaves for $500 In its report this year, Eradication of Trafficking in Persons, by the Ministry of Co-ordination of People's Welfare, the Government openly admits its own officials help traffickers by issuing fake identity cards and simply turning a blind eye. No government official has been imprisoned and the worst they can expect if caught is a delay in promotion or in the next increase in salary.  

Which is the
Scourge? The Debt or HIV/AIDS?

Understanding the twin challenges of globalisation and HIV/AIDs is becoming an imperative for YMCA people in each of the 127 countries where the YMCA is present around the world. As we increase our knowledge and experience of the pandemic and its effects on young people, the YMCA must add its voice to the ethical and
moral issues which are raised.



Of the estimated 333 million new STDs that occur in the world every year, at least 111 million occur in young people under 25 years of age.



Sexually transmitted diseases affect industrialized as well as developing countries. The 20-24 age group is the most exposed to risk.


Worldwide-Hepatitis Map

Map of the world

3,797 kb pdf


** In order to view PDF files, you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader installed on your computer. Many computers already have this software; however, if you need it, a free copy is available for download at this site: Click here to get Adobe Acrobat Reader.