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“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”


Approximate Time line for Hepatitis

hbv_research archives

Approximate Time Line for Hepatitis

 

     To: "HBV-R" <hbv_research@mail-list.com>

     Subject: Approximate Time Line for Hepatitis

     From: hbv_research-list-owner@mail-list.com

     Date: Wed, 1 Dec 1999 09:37:42 -0500

     Resent-From: hbv_research-request@mail-list.com

     Resent-To: The HBV Research List <hbv_research@mail-list.com>

Greece, Late 5th Century, B.C. - Jaundice: described by Hippocrates.

8th Century - Infectious nature: suggested.

17th ~ 19th centuries - Outbreaks of epidemics of jaundice: occurred in military and civilian populations during the war. (i.e. viral hepatitis A).

1883 - Lurman reported outbreaks of serum hepatitis following vaccination of dockers.

1900's - Walter Reed dies 2 years after work in Panama on Yellow Fever

1908 - McDonald postulated that the infectious jaundice is caused by virus.

1910's - Experiments on vector transmission with Yellow fever, Diphtheria, Polio, etc..

1920's - Unsafe testing with X-ray and Gamma Radiation.  Madame Currie succumbs in 1934 from radiation poisoning.

1920's - Diphtheria Vaccination programs go awry and harm many here and in Europe.

1930's - Radiation and irradiated blood used in Germany and Russia.  HBV emerges.

1930 -   Max Theiler begins work on Yellow Fever vaccination

1932 - Brazil has outbreak of 'Hepatitis' - blamed on vectors from Gambia

1935 - Max Theiler (from S. Africa) begins work on Yellow Fever vaccination at The Rockefeller Medical Institute

1936 - Theiler uses Pasteur's Process to pass Yellow Fever through Mice brains, rather than rabbits.(rearrangements in RNA genomes PMID: 7596811)

1937 -  Japan's Ishii begins Unit 731 south of Harbin, Heilongjiang (Manchuria)

1938 - 1 Million Brazilians now infected with Rockefeller's/Theiler's Yellow Fever/HBV vaccination. Programme was funded by Rockefeller foundation and a very interesting book reporting this was published. The mosquitoes were thought to have been introduced by a ship traveling from the West Coast of Africa.

1939 - Japan's General Ishii's Aide comes to NY and Rockefeller to obtain "sample" of Yellow Fever/HBV  virus.  Japanese  Army doctor, Dr. Ryoichi Naito, visited the laboratory with credentials from the Japanese military attached in Washington to obtain a sample of that strain of the Yellow Fever virus.

1939 ~ 1945 WWII - A series of outbreaks after vaccination for measles and yellow fever.

1940 - Rockefeller funding Medical experiments with humans in both Germany and Japan, involved with Russians.

1941-  Dec. 7th, Pearl Harbor attacked. Allied Troops to be deployed in high Yellow Fever areas- S. Pacific, N. Africa, etc..

1942 - US begins "Defensive Biological Warfare Program".

1942 - Rockefeller's Yellow Fever/ HBV vaccine given to US Army Soldiers and Allied Troops.  330,000 infected.

1942 - Ft. Detrick's 'Defensive' Biological Warfare Program begins.

1942 - Schering taken over by the US Government.

1943 - Acute Hepatitis causes a few deaths in the Military

1943- Through sophisticated testing, the researchers pinpointed 1943 to 1949 as the years in which Hepatitis C Virus initially spread in Japan

1944 - E.J. Cohn begins to develop first generation 'Immune Serum Globulin', ISG.  More are contaminated.

1945 - Nuclear Testing conducted in areas now high in HBV rates.

1945 - WWII Ends in Europe and Asia.  Veterans go home and donate blood in all 50 States.

1945 - Thorotrast used as a treatment for TB in England.  (alpha particles cause cancers decades later)  Same trail that has the hep infected blood also has the Thorotrast trail.

1940's - "A containment effort would seek to prevent outbreaks" (hence: immunizations of the population...like with Yellow fever vaccination contaminated with HBV) "successful Brazilian Anopheles gambiae effort of the

1930s...was repeated around Aswan during the 1940s" Note: Aswan is in Egypt.....highest Hepatitis C Virus rates in the World today. Want to bet what vaccination they used in Egypt during the 40's and in Italy to fight Yellow Fever?

1940's - A similarly intensive post-WWII effort against endemic An. labranchiae on Sardinia (Italy) "almost eradicated" the target insect on that island, but did eliminate malaria.  Although that extraordinary effort did not attain its goal, it influenced anti-malaria policy profoundly.  I know of no other elimination effort that attained its stated goal and none against an endemic vector or pest.

1946 - German War Crimes Trial

1947 - Rockefeller Manufactures 28 Million Doses of the Yellow Fever/HBV vaccine by this date.  No record of any destroyed.  All used?

1947 - Mac Callum (1947): classified viral hepatitis into two types, Viral hepatitis A - Infectious hepatitis, Viral hepatitis B - Seum hepatitis

1948 - Japan's War Crimes Trials

1949 - Japan's Ishii shares work with US and German George Merck

1950 - Korean War begins- massive blood drives in the US.

1951- Polio push.  Thorotrast used as a radioactive injectable dye- cancers 

1951 - Max Theiler wins Nobel Prize in Medicine for his work on a Yellow Fever Vaccination at the Rockefeller Institute.

1951 - German George Merck appointed to head US's, Ft. Detrick's, 'Offensive' Bio-Warfare Program.

1952 - Occupation of Japan ends.

1952 - Adenovirus magically appears only in Military basic training recruits from the mid west- meet the "new" 1918 Spanish Flu.  Half mamilian and half avairian- or bird.

1955 ~ 1956 - Massive epidemic of water-borne hepatitis occurred in Delhi, India.

1958 - Interferons first used in cell research.

1959 - Test developed to measure elevated liver enzymes.

1962 - Cancer research begins with Adenovirus on mouse cell

1960's - Variants that cause 'serum jaundice' emerge in the research

1963 - Mass smallpox vaccinations in Poland in 1963 and the epidemic situation of viral hepatitis (PMID: 5858724)

 


1964 - Treatment of Chronic Hep (Germany) in literature.

1965 - International collaborative assay of the international reference preparation of anti-yellow-fever serum. (PMID: 5294595)

1965 - Blumberg discovered Australia antigen (later known to be HBsAg) in aborigines and showed that the antigen was present at high frequency in patients with leukemia and in children with Down's syndrome.

1965 - Blumberg reported "Australia antigen" in Australian aborigines.

1965 - "chronic hepatitis caused by serum hepatitis" - Japan Symposium on Serum Hepatitis, PMID: 5894570

1966 - Treatments for Chronic Hep discussed (German)

           - looking at ways to reduce incidence of serum hep

(Serbo-Croatian)

           - Literature on Iron levels with Chronic Hep (Soviet)

 

1966 - Mass inoculation with Yellow fever vaccination from the Rockefeller Institute and given by pet-o-jets.

1969 - Literature looking at Lymph involvement (Italy)

1970 - Dane discovered Dane particle (complete HBV particle).

1970 - Krugman and co-workers reported on the Willowbrook hepatitis studies in which live hepatitis virus injected was injected into mentally retarded children in order to study the course of the disease process (Krugman, 1971; Krugman & Giles, 1970).

1971 - Literature looking at Chronic Hep in Hemodialysis (Eng)

1971 - Literature looking at the pathogenesis of arthritis associated with viral hepatitis. Complement-component studies.

1972 - Magnius discovered HBeAg

1972 - Viral hepatitis abroad. Incidence in Catholic missionaries. PMID: 5066870

1973 - Feinstone, Purcell identified HAV.

1974 - CDC claims to have determined a Non-A, Non-B, hepatitis exists. Begins to track it as a "non specific" hepatitis.

1975 - Antibody to the hepatitis B surface antigen in immune serum globulin. A collection of 1,278 lots of immune serum globulin (ISG) prepared by 19 United States manufacturers between 1962 and 1974 were tested for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBSAg) and antibody (anti-HBS). Ten lots (0.8%), all of which were produced between 1962 and 1965 by two different manufacturers, were weakly positive for HBSAg (by radioimmunoassay). Seven hundred and seven lots (55.3%) were positive for anti-HBS (by passive hemagglutination). PMID: 1198681

1975 - Vietnam War officially ends in March- Siagon falls by May.

1975 Jul-Aug - Literature about Antibody to hepatitis B core antigen.

1975 Sep-Oct - Va cooperative study of post-transfusion hepatitis,

1969-1974: incidence and characteristics of hepatitis and responsible risk factors. PMID: 1235478

1975 - Literature about Dental infection with hepatitis B.

1975 - Literature about severe viral hepatitis type B in infancy;.

1975 - Stated: "Unlikely that immunization against HBV will ever provide absolute immunity" (Sierra Leone = has one of the highest Hepatitis C Virus rates today in the World today) Some considerations regarding active immunization with HBsAg. Krugman has demonstrated that injection of heated serum containing HBsAg conferred some protection against subsequent challenge with live hepatitis B virus (HBV). Thus newly imported animals may be incubating HB infection, and could give rise to false positive results in inactivation trials, unless quarantined for a four to six month period prior to use. We have therefore established a laboratory for chimpanzee trials in West Africa, and plan to utilize only animals captured by trapping and held in strict isolation from the time of capture. Three chimpanzees who received a massive transfusion of infective plasma one year after resisting challenge with aliquots of the same plasma inoculated intraperitoneally, all developed severe hepatitis, accompanied in two cases by HBs antigenemia, despite strong anamnestic anti-HBs responses in all three animals. PMID: 1204972

1975 - Ten with HBV e antibodies were blood donors- 95 units of blood. PMID: 45864 Mid

1970's - Liver Cancer rates begin to skyrocket in the US

1976 - Blumberg reported "Australia antigen" in Australian aborigines in

1965. Awarded Nobel prize in 1976.

1977 - HDV Discovered in 1977 by Rizetto, in nuclei of hepatocytes from patients with chronic HBV infection, and originally was thought to be HBcAg. Superinfection: HDV infection occurs in persons with chronic HBV infection.

1977 - Rizzetto described delta antigen (HDV).

1977 - Application of a screening test for antibody the hepatitis B core antigen.

1979 - GRID, or AIDS first described in National Media

1980's, HBV vaccinations given some attention because of AIDS

1980 - 1984, Dr. Koop Surgeon General- never speaks on hep

1981 - Literature discribes patients who developed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

1982 - 500 with AIDS in NY and San Fran.

1982 - PPSB = pooled human clotting preparation.  "cardiac surgery (56%) developed hepatitis" "all cases were of the non-A, non-B type." "frequency of carriers of the causative virus is apparently not different from that with B virus." (because TTV = HBV lite.)PMID: 6816565

 


1983 - Balayan recovery of HEV.

1983 - Cutler and Baxter settle out of court in 1988 for contaminated blood

1980's - HBV vaccination contaminated with HIV here and in France.  Wolf Smuzness (Ft. Detrick) involved- now there is the Smuzness NY Blood Center. Coiincidence?  Not likely.

1984 - Nation-wide vaccination on newborn babies launched in Taiwan.

1988 - Hepatitis C Virus Discovered, Chiron group (Choo, Kuo, Houghton) cloned and identified Hepatitis C Virus.

1988 - HDV discovered (found only with HBV)

1988 - Cutler and Baxter settle out of court for 1983 contaminated blood products

1988-1992 A. Novella Surgeon General (now NY Health Commissioner). Never speaks on hep.

1989 - Literature about the prevalence of serological markers for hepatitis B virus infection in Australian Naval personnel.

Before 1989 - Hepatitis C Virus diagnosis was made only by "exclusion diagnosis" --- non-A, non-B hepatitis. Over 90 % of post-transfusion hepatitis in Taiwan was Hepatitis C Virus hepatitis.

1989 - Hepatitis C Virus isolated

1989 - 1989 - First Hepatitis C Virus generation reagent for detection of anti-Hepatitis C Virus was developed, containig recombinant and synthetic antigens --- C100-3 (NS3 and NS4, NS: non-structure)

1990 - Enomoto:  Hepatitis C Virus-K1-PT, Hepatitis C Virus-K2a, Hepatitis C Virus-K2b

1990 - 1st Test developed for Hepatitis C Virus detection

1991 - Second Hepatitis C Virus generation reagent --- C22(core), C33c(NS3), and C200(NS3+NS4)

1991 - Reliable test developed for Hepatitis C Virus detection in Commercial Blood

1991 ~ 1992 - Investigators in Japan reported the discovery of a new hepatitis virus and called it as hepatitis virus F, but failed to be substantiated in the subsequent research.

1992 - Reliable test in place to test blood supply and other blood products

1992 - Rockefeller Foundation's campaign against yellow fever in Mexico sought "to advance the economic and political interests of U.S. capitalism"

1992 - Early 90's...AIDS Community wants Ribaviran.  FDA says no.

1992 - 1993 Jocelyn Elders Surgeon General

1992 - Houghton (1992): Hepatitis C Virus-I, Hepatitis C Virus-II, Hepatitis C Virus-III

1992 - Okamoto (1992): I, II, III, IV 9 major groups, and 30+ subtypes Implications of viral factors: (genotypes, level of viremia, quasispecies nature) controversial severity of liver damages, response to interferon therapy, transmission from mother to infant

1993 - Uchida of Japan reported by PCR study that the so-called hepatitis virus F might be a mutant of HBV, just could not be verified by commercially available reagents because of the defect pre-C gene, mutation of core gene and S gene, which come to be HBsAg (-) and anti-HBc (-) in serological tests. (Uchida T: Microbiol Immunol 37: 425 ~ 439, 1993; J Hepatol 18: 369 ~ 372, 1993)

1994 - Simmonds suggested classification system: major groupings (Arabic numericals in order of discovery), subtypes designated by lower-case letters previopus classification: Enomoto (1990): Hepatitis C Virus-K1-PT, Hepatitis C Virus-K2a, Hepatitis C Virus-K2b, Houghton (1992): Hepatitis C Virus-I, Hepatitis C Virus-II, Hepatitis C Virus-III, Okamoto (1992): I, II, III, IV, 9 major groups, and 30+ subtypes, Implications of viral factors: (genotypes, level of viremia, quasispecies nature) controversial severity of liver damages, response to interferon therapy, transmission from mother to infant

1994 - 1998 No Surgeon General.  CDC, NIH, FDA, HHS, all left to guide themselves.  AIDS funding dominates and all large Academic Institutions get a piece of the funding prize.

1994 - Deka reported an isolation of a virus named HFV (Hepatitis French [origin] Virus) on intravenous innoculation of stool extract from sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis, in New Delhi, India,however, no follow-up report was noted. (Deka N; et al.:J. Virol; 68:7810~5, 1994)

1995 - A model for rearrangements in RNA genomes. Theiler's (mice) murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV).  PMID: 2436048

1995 - Third Hepatitis C Virus generation reagent --- C22(core), C33c(NS3), C200(NS3+NS4), and NS5.

1995 - Genotype I (1a) found in China near Unit 731 activities and 98% in Moldova, Russia.

1995 - Simons (Abbott) identified new novel virus termed GBV-C.

1996 - Linnen (Genelab) identified another novel virus termed HGV.

1996 - GBV-C and HGV are identified to have the same/or very similar structure and contain two flavivirus sequences related to, but far distinct from the Hepatitis C Virus.

1996 - Chang's group at NTUH reported (JAMA) successful prevention of HBV infection by nation-wide vaccination on newborn babies launched in 1984 in Taiwan.

1997 - Chang's group at NTUH (1997): reported (NEJM) decrease in annual incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma in children ascribed to nation-wide vaccination against HBV on newborn babies lauched in 1984 in Taiwan.

1997 - Dr. Foster withdraws nomination after bruising battle for Surgeon General Nomination

1997 - TTV--Transfusion Transmitted Virus is a new virus first reported in Japan in 1997 by T. Nishizawa in patients with fulminant hepatitis and chronic liver disease of unknown etiology.

1997 - Dec. No awareness or info about Hepatitis C Virus anywhere but on Internet.

1998 - Merck and Company earns $900 Million in HBV Vaccine sales.  School Boards and State Legislatures begin to practice Medicine and mandate HBV shots by statutory requirement.  No long term studies available.  Research says "caution"  may be nervous system involvement.

1998 - Dr. Sadler appointed and confirmed Surgeon General- 1st one in 5 years.

1998 - March House VA Congressional Hepatitis C Virus hearings with ALF, VA-Roselle, NIH-Seeff, Koop, and Surgeon General Sadler - about a week into the job as SGOUS. Dr. Koop not asked how many children he infected as a Surgeon in Philly, or their health status today.  Also not asked why he never spoke up when he was Surgeon General and instead focused on a much lesser issue- AIDS. Deliberate?

1998 - Dr. Seeff (from S. Africa) appointed by Congress to oversee Hepatitis C Virus Internationally.  Spends his career studying the 1942 Yellow Fever and HBV 'accident'- now will advise all on matters of Hepatitis C Virus.

1998 - Schering granted unprecedented monopoly by FDA over only current Hepatitis C Virus therapy that still has only a 30% overall rate of slowing the virus' progression in the liver:  Bundling Ribavirin and Intron-A.  Surprise!  AIDS Community now has the drug they wanted but FDA would not let them have years earlier.  Cooincidence or a real treatment for Hepatitis C Virus?  AIDS Community will convieniently supply Riba through their Drug Network, beginning with Fisher's in Penn.

1998 - Proposed Veterans with Hepatitis Laws first introduced into the 105th Congress

1998 - Naoumov, N. detected TTV-DDN in 18 (25 %) of the 72 patients with chronic liver disease. The majority of TTV-positive cases had no biochemical or histological evidence of significant liver damage. TTV-DNA sequencing of nine isolates showed the same genotypic groups as in Japan: three patients were infected with genotype 1, which showed 4 % nucleotide divergence, and six patients were infected with genotype 2 with 15-27% divergence. Naoumov suggests that TTV, similar to HGV, may be an example of a human virus with no clear disease association according to the results -- the high prevalence of active TTV infection in the general population, both in the UK and in Japan, and the lack of significant liver damage.

1998 - FDA says only Riba (AIDS Drug) with Interferon can be used.  AIDS activists (ACT UP) rename themselves HAAC- (Hep advocacy and Awareness Coalition) but do all they can to still the Hep message and the result is that Hepatitis C Virus leaders are lead to believe the combo is the way to go- with less than 30% success rates the Hepatitis C Virus Community is charged up to $20,000 a year for treatments that do not work and genetically harm.  AIDS Community is now funded by Hepatitis C Virus Community.

1998 - Superinfection of hepatitis viruses --- (Vento et al.) --- Although most patients with chronic hepatitis B who acquired HAV infection had an uncomplicated course, patients with chronic hepatitis C had a substantial risk of fulminant hepatitis and death associated with HAV superinfection. Our data suggest that patients with chronic hepatitis C should be vaccinated against hepatitis A. (N Engl J Med 1998;338:286-90.)

1999 - Rockefeller Health Grants - not a penny for Hepatitis C Virus.

1999 - Proposed Veterans with Hepatitis Laws reintroduced into the 106th Congress

1999 - Animal Serum, advised not to use in testing.

1999 - HGV,  HGV-GB, Silent HBV, TTV, etc...all begin to emerge in the research and around the Globe.  Media only sees AIDS.  35 Million Worldwide with AIDS, 3.5 Billion now, at least, with a hep virus- and growing more rapidly as it branches.

1999 - Research emerges to show Hepatitis C Virus not so much as a Liver Disease but a Lymphatic tissue and Bone Marrow/Blood disorder that has wreaked havoc on all organs and organ systems of the body for decades- liver is the first to show effects of tissue injury, and liver is the only thing we look at and that we fund with our research when looking for a cure.  Hepatitis C Virus is a slow motion hemorrahgic.

1999 - less than 250,000 people with AIDS (700,000 with HIV) in the US receive $7.11 Billion in fed NIH research funding involving every major Academic Institution.  Harvard, Rockefeller, Stanford, etc... all have AIDS Institutes for Research.

1999-  11 Million Americans with HBV/Hepatitis C Virus/HGV, receive $30.9 Million for fed research.  NIH explains that continued massive AIDS funding will eventually help Hepatitis C Virus.

1999 - Reported, 1 in 10 vets in the US have Hepatitis C Virus. (ALF Congressional test. 6/9/99).  Veteran population = 26 Million.  Therefore, 2.6 Million vets have Hepatitis C Virus today - many are homeless.

1999 - The fix is in!  CDC releases to media a 6 year old study conducted from 1988-94 saying 2.7 Million in the US have Hepatitis C Virus, not including any institutions like vets or prisons... media runs with 2.7 number and only that number.  3.9 has now been chiseled into 2.7.  Simply math by their own numbers say at least 5 Million today with Hepatitis C Virus alone.

1999 - NEJM publishes that children with Hepatitis C Virus can be managed early on (inturpreted as cured by the public) only if drug companies can be brought in to profit.  Koops, the AIDS poster boy, becomes our poster boy!  For a price of course.

1999 - FDA is blind deaf and dumb.  No where in site.  Front door left wide open

1999 - HHS last reported seen with Surgeon General and Red Cross- leaving town at dusk!  Driven By Rep. Chris Shays and Donna Shalala.

1999 - NIH has been bought and paid for by America's AIDS Institutes...which needs NIH's support for continued massive funding.  After all....careers are only 10 to 15 years in the making, another 5 or 10 years of massive AIDS Research ought to do it.......  AIDS as a threat?  Never was!  Not a medical issue either...political opportunity to make millions of dollars all in the name of minority civil rights.....  welcome to the year 2000!  Where you now place your life in the same hands that placed you there.

1999 - Insitute of Human Virology's head, Roboert Gallo, declares in mission statement that AIDS is their top priority.

1999 Fall- ALF deliberately slashes Hepatitis C Virus numbers in half in NY and begins a process to blame behaviors and Drug Abuse for Liver cancer rates. ALF NY Medical Director (Dr. Di Biscaglle- St. Louis School of medicine) blames liver cancer rates on drug abuse and behavior from last 30 years- not on contaminated blood and blood products that their funders initiated over 60+ years ago - and now sit in positions to educate the population and physicians.  Both they have have not done.

1999 - WHO, UN, CBS, AP, CDC, all major medias, report that AIDS is a growing threat at 33 Million worldwide with HIV (10 Million will have AIDS). More than 3 Billion have hep......still no message from the media except AIDS and needles and AIDS and liver problems are an issue.

1999 - Organ Transplant laws, Nationally, will soon be changed to help Liver Centers, not sick people.  Contributors come first- not common sense.

1999 - Reported that 100% of Commercial Pig Stock is infected with Hepatitis E (HEV) a DNA virus.....but, as usual, no matter.  We'll still use pig organs- just do not educate Americans about it.

1999 - No where can the research be found to point to an AIDS threat- not now, not a decade ago.  Africa?  5-10% infected with AIDS in Africa. 200-300% infected with hepatitis.  Focus will be AIDS.

1999 - Between 5.2 Million and 8 Million Veterans have Hepatitis C Virus- how many already dead?

1999 End of Millennium - Patients left to educate themselves, families, and communities, while those who are to help and are heavily funded- will not. Hep patients are left to pay their physicians in order to educate them about an illness they were not taught about in Medical School.  Half the time hep patients pay to educate their physicians and are told it is in their head.

Research has been public - yet the media and gov. agencies have deliberately ignored up to 155 Million American with a previous or past virus, so that less than 250,000 with AIDS can obtain Civil Rights- or so it's claimed. Every major Institution is being paid by the US Taxpayer for AIDS research. People with hepatitis are now funding AIDS and the AIDS Community by means like, Texas Prisons will now buy their Riba from Fischer's Pharm in Penn (Aka The AIDS Community).  People in Texas are paying people with HIV in New York and San Fran.  Texans with Hepatitis C Virus are now funding AIDS, thanks to their Politicians.

2000 - The truth?  Some assistance?  A Cure?  Don't bet your life on it............Up to 20% - 31% of 26 Million US Vets have Hepatitis C Virus.  5.2 - 8 Million that have served have been trashed, name called, and now the research emerges showing Hepatitis C Virus 1b was in the blood products they were given.  Their families shamed, all to hide the past and advance civil rights for less than 250,000 with AIDS. Only the Drug Companies and Koop have the answers, we are told by the ALF and others, and the Transplant Centers have a greater right to make a financial killing- than we do to live. Welcome to Hepatitis 2000!   155 Million Americans today have, or have been exposed, to a hep. virus- but you are not to know! More than half the planet is now infected.  You know all about, AIDS, an illness that you will most likely never get- HIV.  However, you are already affected by HBV shots, Hepatitis C Virus, HGV, TTV, HAV, HEV, GBV-B, GBV-C, etc...

History will be brutal.

By: Kevin Donnelly