Click a topic below for an index of articles:

 

New Material

Home

Donate

Alternative Treatments

Financial or Socio-Economic Issues

Forum

Health Insurance

Hepatitis

HIV/AIDS

Institutional Issues

International Reports

Legal Concerns

Math Models or Methods to Predict Trends

Medical Issues

Our Sponsors

Occupational Concerns

Our Board

Projects

Religion and infectious diseases

State Governments

Stigma or Discrimination Issues

If you would like to submit an article to this website, email us at info@heart-intl.net for a review of this paper
info@heart-intl.net

 

any words all words
Results per page:

“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”


Dental instrument and device sterilization and disinfection practices.

Author: Gurevich I; Dubin R; Cunha BA; Source: J Hosp Infect Date of Pub: 1996 Apr Issue: 4 Volume: 32 Pagination: 295-304

Abstract: Dental instruments and devices require sterilization or high-level disinfection. An evaluation of the implementation of such processes was undertaken. Eleven thousand questionnaires on methods used to sterilize and disinfect dental instruments were sent to dental practices and 1391 (13%) were returned for evaluation. Sixty-eight percent of respondents believed they were sterilizing their instruments, however, some of the liquid chemical products used were not suitable for sterilizing instruments, and 12% of respondents used incorrect contact times. Forty-nine percent of respondents did not challenge autoclaves with biological spores to check their function at an acceptable frequency. There were similar product and timing problems when a high-level liquid chemical disinfection was attempted. Although the return sample was small, problems were identified that can and should be corrected. This study demonstrates that the potential for person-to-person transmission of infectious agents such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B and C viruses via inadequately sterilized dental instrument exists depending on the prevalence of HIV in the dental practice area.

Abstract By: Author Address: Infection Control Section, Winthrop-University Hospital, Mineola, New York, USA.

 

Transmission TOC

HepC BC

Study: Only heat can kill HIV on dental tools.

By the Associated Press

A chemical disinfectant used on some medical and dental devices can fail to kill the AIDS virus, posing a potential risk of infecting patients, a study suggests.

Researchers found that in the laboratory, the disinfectant did not kill the AIDS virus in blood lodged in lubricants commonly used in dental equipment and in medical devices called endoscopes, which are inserted into the body to allow an interior view.

None of the devices has ever been shown to be the cause of HIV transmission from patient to patient, said researcher David Lewis, a microbiologist at the University of Georgia in Athens.

HIV survived in germ killer In the study, published by Lewis and another researcher in the September issue of the journal Nature Medicine, the AIDS virus survived after the contaminated lubricants were soaked for two hours in a powerful germ killer called glutaraldehyde.

Lewis said the study amphasizes the need to sterilize dental equipment at extremely high temperatures, as recommended by the federal government and the American Dental Association. He also said the standards for decontaminating endoscopes should be raised.

But Dr. David Fleisher, past president of the American Dental Association said current decontaminating procedurs are "extremely effective".

And, he said, the experiment failed to mimic all the steps of the decontamination procedure used on gastrointestinal endoscopes.

More than 90 percent of American dentists use heat sterilization, said Chris Martin, a spokesman for the American Dental Association.

Transmission TOC

HepC BC

Title: Continuing Investigation and Controversy Regarding Risk of Transmission of Infection Via Dental Handpieces

Title Abreviation: J Can Dent Assoc Author: Epstein JB; Rea G; Sherlock CH; Mathias RG; Department of Dentistry, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre, B.C., Canada. Date of Pub: 1996 Jun Issue: 6 Volume: 62 Pagination: 485-91

Abstract: Current epidemiologic evidence indicates that infectious diseases, specifically blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV, are not transmitted from patient to patient via dental instruments. However, ongoing laboratory investigations suggest that potential pathogens may be retained within dental handpieces, creating a theoretical risk of cross infection. Controversy regarding certain laboratory study results and the clinical implications of these studies continues. Guidelines and regulations for infection control should be rational, and based on a realistic response to a documented risk. Dental professionals should be aware of continuing research focusing on these issues.

Abstract By: Author

 

Transmission TOC

HepC BC

Detection of hepatitis C virus-RNA by polymerase chain reaction in dental surgeries.

Piazza M; Borgia G; Picciotto L; Nappa S; Cicciarello S; Orlando R Institute of Infectious Diseases, University of Naples Federico II, Italy. J Med Virol 45: 40-2 (1995)

Abstract

The mean prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus) in Italy is 0.87%. It reaches 2% in Campania, Southern Italy. Approximately 50% of community acquired non-A, non-B (NANB) hepatitis cannot be associated with known parenteral exposure. A recent Italian study has shown that the only demonstrable risk factor in 9% of acute C/NANB hepatitis is dental treatment. There are no data on direct contamination by Hepatitis C Virus of dental surgeries. Possible environmental contamination by Hepatitis C Virus-RNA was investigated in dental surgeries after treatment of anti-Hepatitis C Virus and Hepatitis C Virus-RNA positive patients. Thirty-five anti-Hepatitis C Virus and Hepatitis C Virus-RNA positive patients with chronic hepatitis underwent dental treatment and were enrolled in this study. Eight had chronic persistent hepatitis (CPH), 23 chronic active hepatitis (CAH), and 4 cirrhosis. A total of 328 samples collected from instruments and surfaces were tested after dental treatment of 35 anti-Hepatitis C Virus positive patients. The presence of Hepatitis C Virus-RNA was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to evaluate contamination of instruments and surfaces in dental surgeries. Twenty (6.1%) out of 328 collected samples were positive for Hepatitis C Virus-RNA. The positive samples were from work benches (two), air turbine handpieces (one), holders (four), suction units (one), forceps (four), dental mirrors (two), and burs (six). Our data indicate that there is extensive contamination by Hepatitis C Virus of dental surgeries after treatment of anti-Hepatitis C Virus patients and that if sterilisation and disinfection are inadequate there is the possible risk of transmission to susceptible individuals.

Transmission TOC

HepC BC

Donna Kloppenburg
CEO
Awareness + Education = Change

Title: Dental instrument and device sterilization and disinfection practices.

Author: Gurevich I; Dubin R; Cunha BA; Source: J Hosp Infect Date of Pub: 1996 Apr Issue: 4 Volume: 32 Pagination: 295-304

Abstract: Dental instruments and devices require sterilization or high-level disinfection. An evaluation of the implementation of such processes was undertaken. Eleven thousand questionnaires on methods used to sterilize and disinfect dental instruments were sent to dental practices and 1391 (13%) were returned for evaluation. Sixty-eight percent of respondents believed they were sterilizing their instruments, however, some of the liquid chemical products used were not suitable for sterilizing instruments, and 12% of respondents used incorrect contact times. Forty-nine percent of respondents did not challenge autoclaves with biological spores to check their function at an acceptable frequency. There were similar product and timing problems when a high-level liquid chemical disinfection was attempted. Although the return sample was small, problems were identified that can and should be corrected. This study demonstrates that the potential for person-to-person transmission of infectious agents such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B and C viruses via inadequately sterilized dental instrument exists depending on the prevalence of HIV in the dental practice area.

Abstract By: Author Address: Infection Control Section, Winthrop-University Hospital, Mineola, New York, USA.

Transmission TOC

HepC BC

Detection of hepatitis C virus-RNA by polymerase chain reaction in dental surgeries.

Piazza M; Borgia G; Picciotto L; Nappa S; Cicciarello S; Orlando R Institute of Infectious Diseases, University of Naples Federico II, Italy. J Med Virol 45: 40-2 (1995)

Abstract

The mean prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus) in Italy is 0.87%. It reaches 2% in Campania, Southern Italy. Approximately 50% of community acquired non-A, non-B (NANB) hepatitis cannot be associated with known parenteral exposure. A recent Italian study has shown that the only demonstrable risk factor in 9% of acute C/NANB hepatitis is dental treatment. There are no data on direct contamination by Hepatitis C Virus of dental surgeries. Possible environmental contamination by Hepatitis C Virus-RNA was investigated in dental surgeries after treatment of anti-Hepatitis C Virus and Hepatitis C Virus-RNA positive patients. Thirty-five anti-Hepatitis C Virus and Hepatitis C Virus-RNA positive patients with chronic hepatitis underwent dental treatment and were enrolled in this study. Eight had chronic persistent hepatitis (CPH), 23 chronic active hepatitis (CAH), and 4 cirrhosis. A total of 328 samples collected from instruments and surfaces were tested after dental treatment of 35 anti-Hepatitis C Virus positive patients. The presence of Hepatitis C Virus-RNA was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to evaluate contamination of instruments and surfaces in dental surgeries. Twenty (6.1%) out of 328 collected samples were positive for Hepatitis C Virus-RNA. The positive samples were from work benches (two), air turbine handpieces (one), holders (four), suction units (one), forceps (four), dental mirrors (two), and burs (six). Our data indicate that there is extensive contamination by Hepatitis C Virus of dental surgeries after treatment of anti-Hepatitis C Virus patients and that if sterilisation and disinfection are inadequate there is the possible risk of transmission to susceptible individuals.

Transmission TOC

HepC BC