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"There is a tendency to look on AIDS and HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases as issues largely of the developing world, particularly sub-Saharan Africa and Southern and South East Asia. However, some rich industrialized countries, particularly the United States, have an epidemic of sexually transmitted diseases (about 12 million new cases annually, of which 3 million occur in teenagers), and no national coordinated control programme of education and clinical services.

The Hidden Epidemic is the report of a 16 member committee on prevention and control of sexually transmitted diseases set up by the Institute of Medicine to assess the current impact of such diseases and to "provide direction for future public health programmes, policy and research in STD prevention and control."

The report stresses the need to prevent sexually transmitted diseases, and that this means that interventions should focus on adolescents before sexual activity is started. It states that all school districts in the United States should see that schools provide appropriate services, including health education, access to condoms, and readily available clinical services, which could be school based.

The report finally addresses the issue of how to ensure access to and quality of essential clinical services for sexually transmitted diseases. Unlike in Britain, no network of clinic based specialist service exists. The report does not recommend this particular system and, interestingly, calls for a mixed model of integrated and specialist services which is more akin to that used in the developing world. The committee members therefore recommend that comprehensive services for sexually transmitted diseases should be incorporated into primary care and reproductive health services. To complement this, they call for improvement in dedicated public clinics for sexually transmitted diseases.

Finally, the issue of who pays is crucial to any control programme. Ideally, when dealing with a major public health problem with associated stigma, it is best that services are open access and free. In the United States this is largely not so, and the report examines ways in which health plans and managed care organizations could tackle this financial issue, but it does not go so far as to suggest that all services should be free and centrally funded." The Hidden Epidemic: Confronting Sexually Transmitted Diseases


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20 Viral Infections Compared with primary care physicians, such as internists, family physicians, and pediatricians, surgeons are seldom called on to treat viral infections. Viral infections nonetheless deserve the attention of surgeons because these infections can cause illness in patients after operation, albeit infrequently, and can spread to the hospital staff. Some viral infections (e.g., infections with the hepatitis viruses, HIV, and cytomegalovirus [CMV]) can result from administration of blood or blood products or can be transmitted to hospital personnel through needle-stick injury.  
A QUALITATIVE INQUIRY INTO DOCTOR’S EXPERIENCE AFTER A NEEDLE STICK INJURY The aim of this research was to explore the lived experience of three medical doctors after experiencing a needle stick injury. Needle stick injuries were defined as injuries, self-inflicted or by colleagues, where a needle punctures or lacerates the skin. There is an associated risk of HIV transmission via a needle stick injury, which prompted the exploration of the psychological aspects of the injury. The research was contextualised in terms of South Africa’s spiralling rate of HIV infection, as a result of which, it is reasonable to expect that doctors will increasingly be treating HIV positive patients. The research explored an area that has largely been untouched by researchers. The literature study showed that as regards needle stick injuries, the focus tends to be on the injury itself, the risk of HIV transmission and the causal patterns surrounding it, rather than on the psychological consequences. Pdf 342 kb
Acute Respiratory Disease Associated with Adenovirus Serotype 14 Adenovirus serotype 14 (Ad14) is a rarely reported but emerging serotype of adenovirus that can cause severe and sometimes fatal respiratory illness in patients of all ages, including healthy young adults. In May 2006, an infant in New York aged 12 days died from respiratory illness caused by Ad14. During March--June 2007, a total of 140 additional cases of confirmed Ad14 respiratory illness were identified in clusters of patients in Oregon, Washington, and Texas. Fifty-three (38%) of these patients were hospitalized, including 24 (17%) who were admitted to intensive care units (ICUs); nine (5%) patients died. Ad14 isolates from all four states were identical by sequence data from the full hexon and fiber genes  
AIDS-HIV in the eyes As the incidence of AIDS increases, so does the incidence of AIDS-related blindness and eye diseases.  
AIDS Transmission Through Blood Supply is Discussed at Internews Nigeria Roundtable “HIV/AIDS is not a sinners’ affliction,” declared Evangelist Peter Ikiti to journalists attending an educational roundtable organized by Internews’ Local Voices Project in Abuja about the safety of Nigeria’s blood supply.  

Power Point Presentation concerning bio-hazards

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Blood Safety Transcripts

And this is what we have tried to do with the hepatitis C lookback. This is the same approach we've taken to the other challenges, I think, to blood safety and availability that we've encountered, and we hope to continue to do so.

But I do want to mention the latest effort in this regard because we have had discussions about sending a letter from the Surgeon General to every household in America about hepatitis C because of the magnitude of this silent epidemic affecting four million people. And the struggle, of course, has been that there's only one model for doing that, I guess, in the past and that was when Surgeon General C. Everett Koop sent a letter about the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

There have been some major changes since that time. At that time the Surgeon General's office had what we call franking privileges, and there was no problem in sending mail to all of the families in America

Carefree Nurse Frustrates Health Delivery System

Botswana health officials have been testing 170 primary school children for HIV, after a nurse on February 20, threw the country's health delivery system into despair, by using the same syringe to immunise the children against childhood diseases.


College Students Engage in 'Risky Business,' Exposing Themselves to the Dangers of Sexually Transmitted Diseases College students across the country are engaging in activities that may put them at risk for contracting serious infectious diseases, according to a national survey released today by the Society for Adolescent Medicine  

Condom is Mainstay of Fight

The condom has been the mainstay of the fight against HIV/AIDS and widespread distribution of free condoms by local family planning clinics has succeeded in a massive reduction in the spread of the virus.


Dental Health Information HIV/AIDS All dental health care workers should understand HIV/AIDS issues related to dental health care. 62 kb pdf
Dental-Parenteral inoculation with patient material: Risk of viral hepatitis Abode presentation for Dentist on the various methods of transmission of Hepatitis 1720 kb pdf
Disease spread as blood test was delayed In the 1970s, about 1,500 hospital patients participated in the Transfusion-Transmitted Viruses Study. Researchers concluded that ALT testing could slow the spread of hepatitis C. However, the blood testing was delayed for years  

Disturbing News of AIDS 'Superinfection'

Doctors once assumed that after initial HIV exposure and infection, the body's immunity response would prevent a second reinfection should the patient be exposed to another strain of the deadly virus. Swiss researchers have proven this assumption false.


Drug-related AIDS & Hepatitis C Virus among African Americans and Latinos

We have got to be about preventing disease!  We have better drugs, but we still don’t have a vaccine or a cure for this disease.  We have watched people die from this disease; now they must learn how to live with HIV/AIDS

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Drug Use and Risk Behaviours among Injecting Drug Users


This study focused primarily on patterns of drug use, injecting practices, risk behaviours for infectious disease, and experiences with treatment and health services among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Northern Ireland. The data for the study were collected through semi-structured interviews conducted between December 2003 and September 2004. Sample criteria included 1) 18 years or older and 2) injection of one or more drugs (excluding insulin or other medication that was prescribed for injection) within the 30 days prior to the interview. Various strategies were used to recruit respondents for an interview and the findings are based on interview data collected from 90 respondents who met the study criteria. Pdf 250 kb
Drug Users’ Human Rights Harm reduction – the pragmatic view on the realization of drug users’ right to health Many drug users are occasional or opportunistic recreational user, thus they do not fit the category of “drug addict” Nevertheless, this does not save them from the related harms created by drug use such as, blood borne diseases, HIV infection, and viral hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) - as public health concerns. Policies and practices based on the principles of a right-based approach and a public health perspective toward drug use -such as harm reduction, are considered to be the best approaches on realizing drug users’ right to health and their human rights in general.  
Effect of Training Program on Physicians' Attitude Towards Knowledge and Practice Related to Assessment and Screening of Clients with HIV/AIDS This is a study which examines the effects of an educational program on Hispanic physicians' attitudes towards and knowledge of HIV/AIDS. The study also examines physicians' practice patterns related to the screening and testing of Hispanic patients at risk for the disease. A one on one educational program was taken to the physician's office at a time convenient to the physician. A pre- and post-test design is used with questionnaires developed for the study that assess self-reported data related to physicians' attitudes, knowledge and practice patterns. A convenient sample of physicians participated. This limited the generalizability of the results to other groups. However, it does point out that a training program can alter physicians' screening and testing practices as well as their attitudes towards clients with HIV/AIDS  
Evaluation of environmental bacterial contamination and procedures to control cross infection in a sample of Italian dental surgeries Research has shown that infective hazards are present in dental practice, because many infections can be transmitted by blood or saliva through direct or indirect contact, droplets, aerosols, or contaminated instruments and equipment. All dental personnel are at risk, including dentists, nurses, and hygienists, who may transmit infectious diseases to patients by the use of contaminated dental instruments or hands. This microbial cross contamination is particularly dangerous when considering immunodeficient patients  
Exposure to Blood: What Healthcare Personnel Need to Know Exposures occur through needlesticks or cuts from other sharp instruments contaminated with an infected patient’s blood or through contact of the eye, nose, mouth, or skin with a patient’s blood.  Important factors that influence the overall risk for occupational exposures to bloodborne pathogens include the number of infected individuals in the patient population and the type and number of blood contacts. 364 kb pdf
Exposure of healthcare workers in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland to bloodborne viruses between July 1997 and June 2000: analysis of surveillance data The transmission of bloodborne viruses to healthcare workers can have serious consequences not only for clinical practice but also, because of the requirements of health and safety legislation, for their employers. In spite of guidance and education, however, many health­care workers continue to be exposed to bloodborne viruses from percutaneous, mucocutaneous, or other injuries. An enhanced system of surveillance of occupational exposure to bloodborne viruses was introduced in mid­1997, developing the passive system that was set up after the first reported case (in 1984) in the United Kingdom of HIV seroconversion associated with needlestick injury. Pdf 360 kb
Fact Sheets: HIV in Specific Populations Many American adolescents are engaging in behaviors that may put them at risk of acquiring HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. In periodic studies of high school students, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) consistently found the following:  
Factors Associated to the Occurrence of the First Intercourse in Adolescents Power Point Presentation-Today’s adolescent are affected by a disproportionately high prevalence of unplanned pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS, and other serious problems that affect their reproductive health.  
Health care workers and AIDS: a differential study of beliefs and affects associated with accidental exposure to blood This study aimed to analyze affective and cognitive determinants of the professional work of individuals caring for patients with HIV/AIDS, in view of the risk and/or experience of accidental exposure to blood. We drew on the theoretical-methodological references of Fishbein & Ajzen and Maslow's theory. Fifty health care workers were evaluated using an attitudes questionnaire and a needs and motivations instrument. The research verified differences between answers by health care workers who had never suffered accidents and those who had already experienced accidental exposure to blood. Health care workers did their work activities motivated by the need for self-fulfillment and valued their own performance when they were able to meet the patients' emotional needs. Among health professionals who had never experienced accidental exposure to blood, the predominant beliefs was that patients feel remorse over having expose themselves to HIV. Accidental exposure to blood raises difficulties in personal life. Technical aspects are also associated with the possibility of accidental exposure to blood.  
Health care workers and AIDS: a differential study of beliefs and affects associated with accidental exposure to blood This study aimed to analyze affective and cognitive determinants of the professional work of individuals caring for patients with HIV/AIDS, in view of the risk and/or experience of accidental exposure to blood. We drew on the theoretical-methodological references of Fishbein & Ajzen and Maslow’s theory. Fifty health care workers were evaluated using an attitudes questionnaire and a needs and motivations instrument. The research verified differences between answers by health care workers who had never suffered accidents and those who had already experienced accidental exposure to blood. Health care workers did their work activities motivated by the need for self-fulfillment and valued their own performance when they were able to meet the patients’ emotional needs. Among health professionals who had never experienced accidental exposure to blood, the predominant beliefs was that patients feel remorse over having expose themselves to HIV. Accidental exposure to blood raises difficulties in personal life. Technical aspects are also associated with the possibility of accidental exposure to blood. Pdf 74 kb

Health care workers are at occupational risk

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in collaboration with the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee, has issued recommendations for follow-up of health care workers after occupational exposure to hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus).


Hepatitis C Risk Not Limited to Injection Drug Users

A study in New York City has found a higher than expected prevalence of hepatitis C infection among non-injecting drug users. In this study, as many as 17 percent of the subjects who denied a history of injection drug use were found to be infected, compared to a 2 percent infection rate in the general population.


Hepatitis C Virus Infections in Dialysis Centers in The Netherlands: a National Survey by Serological and Molecular Methods The prevalence of HCV infections among dialysis patients is generally much higher than that among healthy blood donors. Studies in selected dialysis centers from different countries all over the world revealed that prevalences range from 2 to 3% to 60%. To a certain extent this may reflect the different prevalences of HCV-infected individuals among the general population in these countries. However, the dialysis process itself and the level of hygienic standards may influence the risk of HCV infection. This may explain differences found between dialysis centers in one country  

Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Spouses of Patients with Type C Chronic Liver Disease

Hepatitis C virus-associated antibodies were detected in 42 (27%) spouses, of whom 25 were also positive for Hepatitis C Virus RNA. Of 112 (73%) spouses without detectable antibodies, 2 had chronic liver disease. The development of markers of Hepatitis C Virus infection in spouses increased with the duration of marriage, ranging from 1 to 60 years (30 ± 11 years).


Hidden Epidemic Confronting Sexually Transmitted

There is a tendency to look on AIDS and HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases as issues largely of the developing world, particularly sub-Saharan Africa and Southern and South East Asia. However, some rich industrialised countries, particularly the United States, have an epidemic of sexually transmitted diseases (about 12 million new cases annually, of which 3 million occur in teenagers), and no national coordinated control programme of education and clinical services.


High Profits - At What Cost? Manufacturer markets unsafe needles in light of epidemic Top sales managers for Becton Dickinson and Company, the world's largest needle maker, had gathered for their quarterly meeting, and listed on the agenda was a new device that could dramatically cut into a deadly epidemic of needle sticks among health care workers… But something would go dreadfully wrong. Just as Kuhlman had feared, few of the safer needles would reach the hands of medical workers. And the epidemic would rage on.  
HIV/AIDS in Dental Care A case-based self-study module for dental health care personnel 533 kb pdf

HIV/AIDS Infected Health Care Workers: Guidance on the Management of Infected Health Care Workers


Health care workers who are infected with HIV must promptly seek appropriate expert medical and occupational health advice. If no consultant occupational physician is available locally, consideration should be given to contacting one elsewhere. Those who perform or who may be expected to perform exposure prone procedures must obtain further expert advice about modification or limitation of their work practices to avoid exposure prone procedures. Procedures which are thought to be exposure prone must not be performed whilst expert advice is sought. Pdf 121 kb



This document concerns exposure to HIV and post-exposure prophylaxis. Any significant exposure to blood and some other body fluids or tissues (see Annex A) has the potential to transmit other blood-borne virus infections, such as hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV). In the EAGA/AGH guidance referred to above [2], the chapter on “Management of Blood Exposure Incidents” recommends an integrated approach to post-exposure management with respect to HIV, HBV and HCV. Pdf 263 kb
Hospital blunder allowed sick firefighters to keep working What is particularly devastating for the firefighters who have unknowingly lived with hepatitis-C for the past three years is they don't know how much damage has been done to their liver in that period of time. Nor do they know if they have unknowingly passed it on.  
HOW TO AVOID CONTRACTING A DISEASE FROM A BLOODBORNE PATHOGEN Bloodborne pathogens are microscopic organisms, which cause disease and are found in and transmitted through human blood.  The most known Bloodborne pathogens are Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).  HBV is a virus that causes the disease, Hepatitis B.  Hepatitis B is a serious public health problem that affects people of all ages in the United States and around the world.  Each year, more than 300,000 persons get Hepatitis B in the United States.  The disease can lead to severe illness, liver damage, and in some cases, death.   HCV is a virus that causes the disease, Hepatitis C.  This virus is being identified more frequently and there is no vaccination at this time.  HIV is a virus that eventually develops into a disease called Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDs).  HIV is a relatively recent public health problem that has become increasingly more prominent among people in the United States and around the world.  Approximately 750,000 Americans have AIDs.   

Identifying high-risk carriers of infectious diseases is worth the effort

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) call for discrimination. Containing the spread of an STD by focusing on promiscuous individuals, who are most likely to pass it on, should be cheaper and more effective than large-scale random campaigns, according to two new mathematical analyses


Infection Control Practices Across Canada: Do Dentists Follow the Recommendations?

Infection control forms an important part of practice for all health care professions and remains one of the most cost-beneficial medical interventions available.1 In dentistry, both patients and health care workers may be exposed to a number of bloodborne and upper respiratory pathogens through exposure to blood and saliva. Professional dental associations, including provincial licensing authorities in Canada, have advocated that universal precautions be applied to all patients, as their potential infectivity may not be known  
Infections Acquired during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation To estimate the risk for acquiring an infectious disease during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or CPR training and to identify strategies to minimize that risk.  
Investigation of Patients Treated by an HIV-Infected Cardiothoracic Surgeon --- Israel, 2007 A total of 1,669 patients, operated on by the surgeon at four hospitals, were identified. None was listed in the national HIV registry, indicating that none had ever tested positive (non-anonymously) for HIV infection in Israel. A total of 121 were known to have died, and a correct address could not be obtained for 54. An attempt was made to contact the remaining 1,494 patients. A total of 545 patients (33% of the total 1,669) submitted serum samples. A total of 531 samples (97%) were tested at either of two virology laboratories at tertiary-care hospitals; the remaining 14 samples were tested at outside laboratories, and results were submitted to the investigators. All samples were reported negative for HIV antibody  

Detection of Hepatitis C Virus RNA in Salivary Glands

Hepatitis C Virus infection has been associated with several extrahepatic manifestations, among these, to diseases with oral manifestations such as Sjogren’s syndrome or sialadenitis. Hepatitis C Virus RNA has been detected in saliva and in salivary glands from patientw with sialadenitis by polymerase chain reactions.

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Introduction to Bacteriology

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The discipline of bacteriology evolved from the need of physicians to test and apply the germ theory of disease and from economic concerns relating to the spoilage of foods and wine. The initial advances in pathogenic bacteriology were derived from the identification and characterization of bacteria associated with specific diseases.


Kazakh health workers jailed in HIV+ infants case A group of medical workers went on trial in the southern city of Shymkent in January on charges of criminal negligence for allowing the children to be infected, mainly through blood transfusions in hospitals. Campaigners accuse the oil-producing former Soviet state of doing too little to improve hospitals, raise medical standards and root out discrimination against HIV-positive patients.  
Knowledge, Attitude and Practices among Health care workers on Needle-stick injuries Health care workers who have occupational exposure to blood are at increased risk for acquiring blood-borne infections.  The level of risk depends on the number of patients with that infection in the health care facility and the precautions the health care workers observe while dealing these patients.  There are more than 20 blood-borne disease, 27 kb pdf
Lack of evidence for the heterosexual transmission of hepatitis C The importance of sexual transmission in the epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is still controversial. To assess the risk of heterosexual HCV transmission, we examined eighty patients with chronic HCV-associated liver disease and their spouses in a cross-sectional clinical and serological cohort study.  

Lessons for (and From) America

Drawing lessons from international experience for health care reform in the United States requires striking a difficult balance between historical determinism and free will, between cynical pessimism and naïve optimism. The key to this puzzle may lie in a paradox: the United States is the most successful exporter of public health policy ideas and instruments yet has failed to build an effective health care system.


Lift Restrictions on Clean Needle Programs

Government interference with sterile syringe programs is thwarting HIV prevention efforts in California, Human Rights Watch said in a new report today. State laws and local enforcement are preventing drug users from obtaining the sterile syringes they need to protect themselves from HIV.


Management of healthcare workers after occupational exposure to hepatitis C virus

The increasing rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the community means that there is increased risk of occupational exposure for healthcare workers.

·   In metropolitan hospitals in Victoria, we found that 80–150 healthcare workers have occupational exposures from HCV-infected patients annually.

·   As there is a 1.8%–3% risk of transmission of HCV from a needlestick injury, two to five healthcare workers are likely to acquire HCV each year in Victoria.

·   These needlestick injuries pose a personal, legal and professional risk to healthcare workers and their patients.

·   Recent information shows that early antiviral treatment of acute HCV infection has high cure rates.

·   Current local and international protocols for management of healthcare workers exposed to HCV do not address these issues.

·   We propose a management protocol after needlestick injury that is stratified according to the likelihood of HCV acquisition and potential risk of staff-to-patient transmission, and that is consistent with the current legal and clinical context of HCV infection in Australia.


Model-based estimates of risk of disease transmission and economic costs of 7 injection devices When not properly sterilized, or if contaminated, needles and syringes can produce local abscesses and can transmit bloodborne infections between patients.  Needlestick injuries can transmit infectious agents from patients to health care workers, while incorrect disposal can transmit disease to the community as a consequence of both needlestick injuries and improper reuse. 360 kb pdf

Most resistance to Anti-HIV drugs created by good pill-taking patients

Resistance mutations to Anti-HIV medications are more likely to occur in patients who take most of their medications than in those who take few of them, according to researchers at UCSF


Needlestick Injuries Among Healthcare Workers This statement summarizes the scientific issues related to needlestick injuries, including what we know about the number of workers affected, what can happen to a worker's health as a result of such an injury, how these injuries occur, and ways to prevent them. In addition, it describes what CDC is doing to address this serious public health problem.  
Nurse, operating room This datasheet lists, in a standard format, different hazards to which nurse, operating rooms may be exposed in the course of their normal work…With the knowledge of what causes injuries and diseases, is easier to design and implement suitable measures towards prevention 89 kb pdf
Nurses' Working Conditions: Implications for Infectious Disease Staffing patterns and nurses' working conditions are risk factors for healthcare-associated infections as well as occupational injuries and infections. Staffing shortages, especially of nurses, have been identified as one of the major factors expected to constrain hospitals' ability to deal with future outbreaks of emerging infections. These problems are compounded by a global nursing shortage. Understanding and improving nurses' working conditions can potentially decrease the incidence of many infectious diseases. Relevant research is reviewed, and policy options are discussed.  

Officials Target Spermicide in Condoms

Behind-the-scenes efforts to persuade some of the largest condom manufacturers to stop using a spermicide that may increase the risk of HIV and urinary tract infection have failed,


Only heat can kill HIV on dental tools

A chemical disinfectant used on some medical and dental devices can fail to kill the AIDS virus, posing a potential risk of infecting patients, a study suggests.


Patients' Fear of Contracting the Blood-Borne Infections from Dentists There has been no recent assessment of public attitudes and opinions concerning risk of blood-borne pathogen transmission during health care. To assess public attitudes and opinions towards dentists infected with blood-borne viruses, this study was carried out. Pdf 199 kb

Patients Seek Answers On Surgeon Who Spread Hepatitis

Former heart surgery patients jammed telephone lines at North Shore University Hospital in Manhasset yesterday in an effort to find out whether they were operated on by a doctor who apparently transmitted hepatitis C to several patients in the course of surgery during the past decade.


Public Health Legal Services: A New Vision We call this emerging vision “public health legal services.” The phrase encompasses those legal services provided by private sector attorneys to low-income persons that advance the public’s health. For example, assume an asthmatic child with multiple emergency room admissions. Each time the child is stabilized she returns home to a mold-infested home that triggers the next emergency episode. An attorney who compels the landlord to abate the mold is exercising individual rights on behalf of the child. She is also improving the child’s health. If several such actions within the same community result in similar improvements, such outcomes might be aggregated and evaluated using traditional public health metrics. Such studies could document the public health value of such actions as surely as studies of vaccine effectiveness or improved sanitation. And if such legal services not only improved access to justice but public health, should not that change the public debate about the value of legal services? Pdf 245 kb
Risk & Management of Blood Borne Exposure

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Exposure to blood-borne pathogens poses a serious risk to health care workers (HCWs). We review the risk and management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus) infections in HCWs and also discuss current methods for preventing exposures and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis  
Safety Precautions in Health Care Settings In addition to the need to continue to fund programs aimed at stopping sexual transmission of HIV, HIV transmission in health care settings requires immediate and sustained attention. Every year more than 500,000 people contract HIV in health care settings. According to numbers endorsed by the World Health Organization, every year at least 260,000 people become infected through unsafe medical injections, and at least 5% of new infections, or 255,000 people, become infected through unsafe blood transfusions.  
Sexually Transmitted Diseases Field medical officers are likely to encounter STDs—a diverse group of infections caused by bacterial, chlamydial, and virl pathogens—in an active-duty population of men and women 264 kb pdf
Sources of Hepatitis C Infection Power Point Presentation  
The Truth About HIV/AIDS and Infection Control Practices in Dentistry While the risk of contracting HIV in the dental care setting is small, infection control practices are based not only on the risk of HIV exposure, but also on the risk of transmission of other important pathogens such as hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, tuberculoisi, cytomegalovirus. 218 kb pdf
Transmission of hepatitis C by blood splash into conjunctiva in a nurse The risk of transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important problem for the health care worker. HCV transmission by blood splashing into eyes is very rare. In a hemodialyses department, a 23-year-old female nurse splashed blood from a patient who was anti-HCV positive into her eyes. She washed her eyes with water immediately and reported to the infection control department. She had never used intravenous drugs nor received transfusions. At the time of exposure, there was no abnormality in her laboratory tests. Her anti-HCV and HCV-RNA tests produced negative results. Pdf 65 kb
USA vs. The American National Red Cross Court Ruling and Actions concerning the US Courts and the American Red Cross on how they supply blood products Pdf 429 kb

Where is the M in MTCT? The Broader Issues in Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV

In addition, several million more women were suffering serious complication, most notably vesical vaginal fistula and rectal vaginal fistula, which result in permanent urinary or rectal incontinence, essentially making outcasts of the women who survive

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