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“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”


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"Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is transmitted through sexual contact and exposure to infected blood or blood components and perinatally from mother to neonate. HIV has been isolated from blood, semen, vaginal secretions, saliva, tears, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid, amniotic fluid, and urine and is likely to be isolated from other body fluids, secretions, and excretions. However, epidemiologic evidence has implicated only blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and possibly breast milk in transmission.

The increasing prevalence of HIV increases the risk that health-care workers will be exposed to blood from patients infected with HIV, especially when blood and body-fluid precautions are not followed for all patients. Thus, this document emphasizes the need for health-care workers to consider ALL patients as potentially infected with HIV and/or other blood-borne pathogens and to adhere rigorously to infection-control precautions for minimizing the risk of exposure to blood and body fluids of all patients.

The recommendations contained in this document consolidate and update CDC recommendations published earlier for preventing HIV transmission in health-care settings: precautions for clinical and laboratory staffs (1) and precautions for health-care workers and allied professionals (2); recommendations for preventing HIV transmission in the workplace (3) and during invasive procedures (4); recommendations for preventing possible transmission of HIV from tears (5); and recommendations for providing dialysis treatment for HIV-infected patients (6). These recommendations also update portions of the "Guideline for Isolation Precautions in Hospitals" (7) and reemphasize some of the recommendations contained in "Infection Control Practices for Dentistry" (8). The recommendations contained in this document have been developed for use in health-care settings and emphasize the need to treat blood and other body fluids from ALL patients as potentially infective. These same prudent precautions also should be taken in other settings in which persons may be exposed to blood or other body fluids. " Recommendations for Prevention of HIV Transmission in Health-Care Settings


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3 articles about Hepatitis C Virus not being just an IVDU disease

Hepatitis C Risk Not Limited to Injection Drug Users


A violation of citizens’ rights: The health sector and tuberculosis The magnitude of the human problem caused by TB, especially with its current co-infection status with HIV is such that it is ethically imperative for all to respond in some measure. If morals do not convince, at least the instinct of self- preservation should. The spectre of drug resistant TB may touch anyone.  
Acute Respiratory Disease Associated with Adenovirus Serotype 14 Adenovirus serotype 14 (Ad14) is a rarely reported but emerging serotype of adenovirus that can cause severe and sometimes fatal respiratory illness in patients of all ages, including healthy young adults. In May 2006, an infant in New York aged 12 days died from respiratory illness caused by Ad14. During March--June 2007, a total of 140 additional cases of confirmed Ad14 respiratory illness were identified in clusters of patients in Oregon, Washington, and Texas. Fifty-three (38%) of these patients were hospitalized, including 24 (17%) who were admitted to intensive care units (ICUs); nine (5%) patients died. Ad14 isolates from all four states were identical by sequence data from the full hexon and fiber genes  

AIDS battle reaches new climax in Asia with aggressive condom policy

In an aggressive policy to stem the growing HIV/AIDS problem, the World Health Organisation (WHO) wants sex workers in Asia to adopt this uncompromising stand when facing clients.


AIDS-CDC’s Investigation of HIV Transmissions by a Dentist

Report from the CDC on dental transmission of HIV

5,150 kb pdf

AIDS Transmission Through Blood Supply is Discussed at Internews Nigeria Roundtable “HIV/AIDS is not a sinners’ affliction,” declared Evangelist Peter Ikiti to journalists attending an educational roundtable organized by Internews’ Local Voices Project in Abuja about the safety of Nigeria’s blood supply.  

Approximate Time line for Hepatitis

Historic view of Hepatitis


At least five related, but distinct, hepatitis C viral genotypes exist

Hepatitis C virus, the major causative agent of blood-borne non-A, non-B hepatitis in the world, has been the subject of considerable nucleic acid sequence analysis.

1,379 kb pdf

Blood tests and their ranges

Lab values for Hepatitis


Californians Support Needle Exchange, Condoms for Prisoners

The majority of Californians support access to clean needles for injection drug users and condoms for prisoners to fight the spread of HIV.


Chronic Hepatitis C During Pregnancy

In a pregnant patient with chronic hepatitis C, will a scheduled cesarean section reduce the risk of vertical transmission? Is there a place for the use of pegylated interferon during the third trimester to reduce viral load?


Chronic Hepatitis C: Current Disease Management

The hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus) is one of the most important causes of chronic liver disease in the United States. It accounts for about 15 percent of acute viral hepatitis, 60 to 70 percent of chronic hepatitis, and up to 50 percent of cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and liver cancer. Almost 4 million Americans, or 1.8 percent of the U.S. population, have antibody to Hepatitis C Virus (anti-Hepatitis C Virus), indicating ongoing or previous infection with the virus. Hepatitis C causes an estimated 10,000 to 12,000 deaths annually in the United States


Clearer Liver Warning Urged for Painkillers

Experts are urging the federal government to mandate clearer and more consistent warning labels for acetaminophen, and the nation's leading maker of the pain and fever remedy has announced it is ready to do so.


Clinical Features of Hepatitis C-Infected Patients With Persistently Normal Alanine Transaminase Levels in the Southwestern United States

It is difficult to estimate the duration of infection in a majority of subjects owning to multiple risk factors. However, it is easier to predict the duration of disease in subjects who have had a single blood transfusion or used intravenous drugs for a short duration of time. There has been a suggestion that the mode of transmission of infection influences the severity of liver disease.


Conditions Link to Hepatitis



Condom is the mainstay of the fight

The condom has been the mainstay of the fight against HIV/AIDS and widespread distribution of free condoms by local family planning clinics has succeeded in a massive reduction in the spread of the virus.


Controversial Issues in Hepatitis C Virus

Many of the seminal presentations concerning this virus and its clinical sequelae will be reviewed throughout the remainder of this meeting coverage. This summary will specifically review data presented on a variety of controversial areas in the world of clinical Hepatitis C Virus.


Controversy Regarding risk of Transmission of Infection via Dental Handpieces

Current epidemiologic evidence indicates that infectious diseases, specifically blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV, are not transmitted from patient to patient via dental instruments. However, ongoing laboratory investigations suggest that potential pathogens may be retained within dental handpieces, creating a theoretical risk of cross infection.


Dental instrument and device sterilization and disinfection practices

Dental instruments and devices require sterilization or high-level disinfection. An evaluation of the implementation of such processes was undertaken. Eleven thousand questionnaires on methods used to sterilize and disinfect dental instruments were sent to dental practices and 1391 (13%) were returned for evaluation. Sixty-eight percent of respondents believed they were sterilizing their instruments, however, some of the liquid chemical products used were not suitable for sterilizing instruments, and 12% of respondents used incorrect contact times


Dialysis linked to Hepatitis C Virus spread alarming About 2.2 percent of patients who underwent dialysis in 2001 were infected with the hepatitis C virus because some facilities apparently failed to take proper precautions to prevent infection  

Dirty Needle Research rejected

The United Nations has disputed the findings of United States researchers which says most HIV infections in Africa result from dirty medical needles.


Discovery of immune group in Uganda raises Aids vaccine hopes

Scientists believe an effective Aids vaccine may be a step closer after studying an unexpected response to the HIV virus in individuals in Uganda who appear immune.


Doctors Gun-Shy on Newborns' Hepatitis Shot

A large percentage of newborn babies aren't getting the recommended hepatitis B vaccination (HBV) because hospitals were thrown off their routine by a precaution that was intended to be temporary, doctors say.


Donor Testing A high incidence of liver dysfunction has been found to occur among recipients of blood transfusion.  Some 10 to 12% of recipients develop elevates of liver enzymes. 787 kb pdf

Double trouble: South African study on dual HIV infections highlights superinfection risk

Researchers from the University of Cape Town have found further evidence suggesting that patients who become infected by more than one strain of HIV prior to seroconversion (antibody formation) are more likely to progress rapidly to AIDS.


Factors Associated with Prevalent Hepatitis C: Differences Among Young Adult Injection Drug Users in Lower and Upper Manhattan, New York City

In both sites, testing positive for Hepatitis C Virus antibody was associated with having injected for more than 3 years. Additionally, Hepatitis C Virus infection was positively associated with injecting with someone known to have had hepatitis and with sharing cotton (but the association was statistically significant only in Harlem).

107 kb pdf

Further evidence for association of hepatitis C infection with parenteral schistosomiasis treatment in Egypt

Hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus) infection and schistosomiasis are major public health problems in the Nile Delta of Egypt. To control schistosomiasis, mass treatment campaigns using tartar emetic injections were conducted in the 1960s through 1980s. Evidence suggests that inadequately sterilized needles used in these campaigns contributed to the transmission of Hepatitis C Virus in the region. To corroborate this evidence, this study evaluates whether Hepatitis C Virus infections clustered within houses in which household members had received parenteral treatment for schistosomiasis.


Further evidence of super-infection found in African sex workers and Swiss drug injectors

Super-infection - that is, infection with a genetically diverse strain of HIV once chronic infection is established - was the topic of three presentations on the first full day of the Second International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment in Paris.



Dentristry has come a long way and is doing many things to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. However the Hepatitis C Virus transmission occurs through blood and equipment not viewed as a risk may in fact be harbouring the virus. Next time you go to the dentist make a note of everything he/she touches with their gloved hands. The gloves could have your blood on them. How is the dentist going to clean the areas he touched?


Hepatitis C Virus Viral Load Ultrasensitive Testing

The information below (the TMA study I reported toy you that was presented here at AASLD) compared a highly sensitive TMA qualitative test to LabCorp/NGI's highly sensitive quantitative test (apples/oranges) Our Hepatitis C Virus quantitative test (Hepatitis C Virus SuperQuant) has a sensitivity of 100 copies / 39 IU's w/ a dynamic range to 5 million copies / 2 million IUs. Our Hepatitis C Virus qualitative RNA test (Hepatitis C Virus UltraQual) has a sensitivity of 5-8 copies / 2 IU's. The UltraQual test is the most sensitive qualitative test commercially available in the world.


HEMODIALYSIS (Hepatitis C Virus)

'The incidence was directly related to the prevalence in the dialysis unit. Units with a prevalence of less than 19% had an annual incidence of 2.5% compared to a 35.3% incidence in units with a prevalence greater than 60%. There was a wide variation in the incidence of Hepatitis C Virus infection in HD units across the country, with geographical location, unit ownership and socioeconomic factors playing a significant role.


Hep C is deadly: Many emergency workers around country afraid to be tested or treated

"They are pretty scared," said Jackson of his comrades who have the virus. "They don’t really know what it is, and they don’t want to talk about it because they don’t want to admit they’re scared."


Hep C-the Silent Epidemic

Hepatitis C (Hepatitis C Virus) is being called the silent epidemic because as many as 70% of those infected with this virus don't know even know it. 


Hepatitis B in Children

Based upon CDC statistics, an estimated 80,000 persons in the USA were infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) in 1999. People of all ages, including children, can get hepatitis B and about 5,000 die per year from sickness caused by HBV.


Hepatitis B virus infected physicians and disclosure of transmission risks to patients: A critical analysis The potential for transmission of blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus from infected healthcare workers to patients is an important and difficult issue facing healthcare policymakers internationally. Law and policy on the subject is still in its infancy, and subject to a great degree of uncertainty and controversy. Policymakers have made few recommendations regarding the specifics of practice restriction for health care workers who are hepatitis B seropositive. Generally, they have deferred this work to vaguely defined "expert panels" which will have the power to dictate the conditions under which infected health care workers may continue to practice  

Hepatitis C a Growing Killer Among People With HIV

Liver disease is emerging as a leading killer of people with HIV because many are also infected with the liver-damaging hepatitis C virus. Newly available hepatitis C drugs offer the greatest promise yet for the prevention of liver damage and death. But treatment remains complicated for people infected with both viruses, a top researcher says.


Hepatitis C Among Drug Users: Deja Vu all Over Again?

Approximately 80% of persons infected with Hepatitis C Virus become chronic carriers, and Hepatitis C Virus is readily transmitted through sharing of injection equipment. Hepatitis C Virus is quite common in populations of injection drug users, with seropreva1ence rates typically from 60% to 80%. Hepatitis C Virus infection also frequently occurs early in a drug injection career, usually before the user seeks help for drug problems.


Hepatitis C from Gammagard®, An Intravenous Immunoglobulin [IGIV]

In February, 1994 Baxter Healthcare Corporation withdrew from world markets Gammagard®, an immunoglobulin administered intravenously to those with acquired or congential immune disorders, after 112 people in the U.S. were reported having symptoms of hepatitis C, the most fatal form of the this liver disease.


Hepatitis C Growing chorus of concern over the ‘silent’ epidemic

Nearly 25 years have passed since Paul McVetty, now 44, roamed the streets of San Francisco, shooting drugs, sharing needles, embracing havoc with fellow runaways.


Hepatitis C may be transmitted via toothbrushes

The viral infection hepatitis C could possibly be transmitted by common household items such as toothbrushes, researchers warned here at Digestive Disease Week, an annual meeting of gastroenterologists.


Hepatitis C Risk Not Limited to Injection Drug Users

A study in New York City has found a higher than expected prevalence of hepatitis C infection among non-injecting drug users. In this study, as many as 17 percent of the subjects who denied a history of injection drug use were found to be infected, compared to a 2 percent infection rate in the general population.


Hepatitis C The Insidious Spread of a Killer Virus

This stealthy disease can incubate for decades. Now thousands of people are getting sick. By 2010 it may strike down more Americans each year than AIDS


Hepatitis C virus and interferon resistance

Interferon plays a critical role in the host’s natural defense against viral infections and in their treatment. It is the only therapy for Hepatitis C Virus infection; however, many virus isolates are resistant. Several Hepatitis C Virus proteins have been shown to posses properties that enable the virus to evade the interferon-medicated cellular antiviral responses

373 kb pdf

Hepatitis C Virus Infection in the Mothers and Infants Cohort Study

Our study is in accordance with other studies that have shown low overall Hepatitis C Virus vertical transmission risk and atrend toward higher risk with maternal risk factors such as HIV-coinfection or Hepatitis C Virus viremia. A delay in infant Hepatitis C Virus antibodyresponse may be associated with HIV coinfection although larger studies are needed to confirm these findings.


Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Young, Low-Income Women: The Role of Sexually Transmitted Infection as a Potential Cofactor for Hepatitis C Virus Infection

Injection drug use is the highest risk exposure for Hepatitis C Virus, but HSV-2 and noninjection drug use contribute significantly to increased risk. Hepatitis C Virus prevention programs in impoverished areas should integrate drug treatment and sexually transmitted infection control.


Hepatitis C Virus Linked With Carotid Plaque

Hepatitis C virus core protein positivity is an independent predictor of carotid plaque, researchers in Japan have found.


Hepatitis C Virus Resistance to Antiviral Therapy

Research produces highly efficient antiviral drugs. At the same time, viruses develop sophisticated strategies to evade their actions

199 kb pdf

Hepatitis C Virus Transmission From an Anesthesiologist to a Patient

Our investigation suggests that the anesthesiologist acquired Hepatitis C Virus infection from patient B and transmitted Hepatitis C Virus to patient A. No further transmission was identified. Although we did not establish how transmission occurred in this instance, the one previous report of bloodborne pathogen transmission to patients from an anesthesiologist involved reuse of needles for self-injection


Hepatitis viruses: Changing patterns of human disease

Changes in human ecology and behavior have had discernable effects on the epidemiology of the hepatitis viruses in different ways and to different degrees.

1,439 kb pdf

High Hepatitis B Rate Among Young Gay Men

Almost one out of five gay men is infected with the potentially fatal hepatitis B virus (HBV) by the age of 22, despite the fact that a vaccine to prevent the disease has been available for almost 20 years, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) study has found.


HIV, Hepatitis-B, Hepatitis-C: Blood-borne Diseases

Nurses constantly balance occupational risks with their primary goal of providing quality health care to all persons. Because threats to personal well-being may affect practice, nurses must promote a safe and healthy work environment to protect themselves, their loved ones, patients, and coworkers.

As front-line providers of health care, nurses have long been exposed to blood-borne pathogens on the job. The AIDS epidemic has heightened awareness of this and has broadened our knowledge of other bloodborne diseases, notably hepatitis-B (HBV) and hepatitis-C (HCV).

HIV Transmission in Hospital Settings Power Point presentation 320 kb


Today a significant number of annual cases of viral acute and chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis – conservatively estimated at 300,000 worldwide – cannot be attributed to the known viruses A, B, C, D and E. As a consequence, major efforts have been undertaken toward the discovery of new hepatitis viruses that could be linked to non-A / non-E (NANE) hepatitis.


Illegal Drug Users Need/Deserve Treatment for Hepatitis C

"Controlling hepatitis C will require providing treatment to people who use illegal drugs. We believe that when treatment is guided by evidence, tolerance, and compassion, this can be done,"


Detection of Hepatitis C Virus RNA in Salivary Glands

Hepatitis C Virus infection has been associated with several extrahepatic manifestations, among these, to diseases with oral manifestations such as Sjogren’s syndrome or sialadenitis. Hepatitis C Virus RNA has been detected in saliva and in salivary glands from patientw with sialadenitis by polymerase chain reactions.

723 kb pdf

Incidence and Risk Factors for Acute Hepatitis B in the United States, 1982-1998: Implications for Vaccination Programs

In 1982, a safe and effective vaccine became available to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and was recommended for persons at increased risk for infection.


Incidence of seroconversion to positivity for Hepatitis C antibody in repeat blood donors in England, 1993-5

The rate of seroconversion for positivity to Hepatitis C Virus antibody in repeat blood donors in England was extremely low.

221 kb pdf

Investigations of Patients of Health Care Workers Infected with HIV: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Database

As of 1 January 1995, information about investigations of 64 health care workers infected with HIV was reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; HIV test results were available for approximately 22 171 patients of 51 of the 64 health care workers. For 37 of the 51 workers, no seropositive patients were reported among 13 063 patients tested for HIV. For the remaining 14 health care workers, 113 seropositive patients were reported among 9108 patients. Epidemiologic and laboratory follow-up did not show any health care worker to have been a source of HIV for any of the patients tested.  

Jet injectors can regularly transmit relevant volumes of blood

As a result of this work, WHO and other major users of jet injectors have reconsidered their use.  A more positive outcome of this work has been an understanding of previously unsuspected contamination mechanisms, which is enabling design of new generations of jet injector whose safety can be assessed in our model.


Knowledge and attitudes of dental patients towards cross-infection control measures in dental practice The knowledge and attitudes of 460 dental patients attending outpatient dental clinics in Alexandria, Tanta, and El-Mansoura universities were studied. Every patient was interviewed individually using a questionnaire concerning the routine use of protective gloves, masks and spectacles.  

Liver Disease in Pregnancy

Women with chronic liver disease or cirrhosis exhibit a higher risk of fetal loss during pregnancy. Preeclampsia is associated with HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count) syndrome, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and hepatic infarction and rupture. These rare diseases result in increased maternal and fetal mortality. Treatment involves prompt delivery, whereupon the liver disease quickly reverses.


Liver Injury Associated with Hepatitis C Infection

The role of the host immune response in determining clinical outcome following hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is well recognized.


Manual for Healthcare workers on Viral Blood Borne Occupational Diseases This module is meant for all Health-care workers (HCW).It gives recent relevant information on Hepatitis B and C and HIV, without going into details of symtomatology, differential diagnosis and treatment. The references used for preparing the document are given at the end of the document and can be procured from any medical college’s library in India. A notable feature of some of the references1-13 is that they are in the public domain, the names of hospitals, where occupationally acquired viral infections have occurred-being clearly mentioned--a far cry from the situation in India where such incidents are held secretive. There have been anecdotal evidence of occupationally acquired HIV infection to health-care workers in Mumbai, Ahemedabad and Vellore.  

More People getting Liver Cancer, Study Finds

The study focused on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver. People infected with chronic hepatitis B or C, or cirrhosis, face a substantially increased risk of developing this cancer



Recent media attention to the hepatitis C epidemic may have given Americans a false sense of security that the disease is one of intravenous drug users and sexually promiscuous people only, according to Stephen P. Longello, Hepatitis C Foundation.


Needle Use Soars In Young Heroin Users

The number of young heroin addicts in New Jersey who said they injected the drug spiked sharply in the last decade, state health officials say. And they suspect the problem isn't unique to the Garden State.


Needle-Exchange Program Cut Hepatitis C Transmission Rate

According to a report presented to the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease, injection drug users who began injecting drugs after the 1993 legalization of a safe needle program in San Francisco had a much lower risk of contracting hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus) than those who started earlier.


New CDC Treatment Guidelines Critical to Preventing Health Consequences of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

The CDC has issued national guidelines to help health care providers protect their patients from the health consequences of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). CDC revises the guidelines periodically (approximately every four years).



Presents a question-and-answer advisory on legal matters concerning nursing and medical professions in the United States. Transition from medical and surgical nursing to home health care; Notification of employer on a hepatitis C infected employee; Variations of health facility restraint standards


 One in Four Heroin Injectors Infected With Hepatitis C

 A new report in the Journal of Infectious Diseases (2000;182:1588-1594) indicates that approximately 25 percent of Chicago-area injection drug users are infected with the hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus).



What to expect from piercing


Predictors of Mother-Adolescent Discussions About Condoms: Implications for Providers Who Serve Youth

By univariate analysis, mother-adolescent communication about condoms was associated with greater knowledge about sexuality and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, perception of having enough information to discuss condoms, information from a health-related source, less conservative attitudes about adolescent sexuality, perception that the adolescent was at risk for human immunodeficiency virus, greater ability and comfort in discussing condoms, stronger belief that condoms prevent human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and a more favorable endorsement of condoms.


Prevalence and Duration of Hepatitis C Among Injection Drug Users in

Injection drug users are the population most affected by the hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus); an estimated 60% of Hepatitis C Virus transmission in the United States is attributed to injection drug use.1 Progression to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, or both is believed to occur in 200/0 to 30% of infected persons within 2 to 3 decades! There are an estimated 1.0 to 1.5 million injection drug users in the United States.) To anticipate the future burden of Hepatitis C Virus-related care among injection drug users, it is important to determine the prevalence and duration of infection.


Recommendations for Prevention and Control of HDV Infection and Hepatitis C Virus-related Chronic Disease

Report for the CDC

490 kb pdf

Recommendations for Prevention of HIV Transmission in Health-Care Settings

The increasing prevalence of HIV increases the risk that health-care workers will be exposed to blood from patients infected with HIV, especially when blood and body-fluid precautions are not followed for all patients. Thus, this document emphasizes the need for health-care workers to consider ALL patients as potentially infected with HIV and/or other blood-borne pathogens and to adhere rigorously to infection-control precautions for minimizing the risk of exposure to blood and body fluids of all patients.


Red Cross Failing Blood Test

The risk of contaminated blood is one reason why the Food and Drug Administration is going to the mat with the Red Cross, which provides half of the nation's blood supply and has been violating blood safety laws for 17 years.


Reuse of Single Use Medical Devices A single use device is not designed for reuse and is strictly against the manufacturer’s recommendations.  The manufacturer does not guarantee the sterility, functionality or quality of the device after it has been reprocessed.  Reuse of SUMeD’s carries risks to the patient such as transmission of serious infectious disease or injury resulting from failure.  Reuse is prevalent in Canadian hospitals pdf

Serological findings amongst first-time blood donors in Yaounde

Blood safety remains an issue of major concern in transfusion medicine in developing countries where national blood transfusion services and policies, appropriate infrastructure, trained personnel and financial resources are lacking. This is aggravated by the predominance of family and replacement, rather than regular benevolent, nonremunerated donors.


Shots Snafu Puts Newborns at Risk

U.S. Public Health Service recommended postponing initial doses of the hepatitis B vaccine for up to six months in infants whose mothers tested negative for the virus. Before then, the vaccine routinely had been given to infants within 12 hours of birth, regardless of whether a child's mother tested positive or negative.


The Art of Getting Hepatitis C 

Getting a tattoo can lead to liver disease


The Hepatitis Report: A Critical Review of the Research and Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus (Hepatitis C Virus) and Hepatitis & HIV Coinfection

The patient who has a liver disease wants (or needs) to know about the natural history of the disorder so as to plan for the future. The patient should be informed regarding the likely consequences, important milestones, major complications, and available therapies, all given with a large measure of compassion and sensitivity.


The Hidden Epidemic: Confronting Sexually Transmitted Diseases

The Hidden Epidemic is the report of a 16 member committee on prevention and control of sexually transmitted diseases set up by the Institute of Medicine to assess the current impact of such diseases and to "provide direction for future public health programmes, policy and research in STD prevention and control."


The Significance of Liver Enzyme Elevations

Listing of different tests and meaning

48 kb pdf

Transmission of drug-resistant HIV 

There have been many reports of the transmission of drug-resistant strains of HIV. While studies from the late 1990s suggested that less than 10% of new infections involve drug-resistant virus, recent studies suggest that many seroconverters are infected with a type of HIV that has reduced sensitivity to at least one anti-HIV drug.


Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus by blood splash to eyes The risk of transmission of hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus) infection is an important problem for the health care worker. Hepatitis C Virus transmission by blood splashing into eyes is very rare  

Two rare cases of family HIV transmission between adults reported

Two similarly unusual but unconnected cases of HIV transmission within two Australian families are reported in the September 5th issue of AIDS, providing a sobering reminder that HIV can occasionally be acquired by surprising routes.


Types of Hepatitis provided by CDC

Description of the various types of Hepatitis


U.S. Travelers Clueless About Hepatitis Risk

With more Americans traveling to exotic locales, a new survey shows few seem to understand the risks for serious liver diseases that await them.


'Unexplained HIV' in SA's hospitals The children had had overlapping hospitalisation in a regional hospital, and since 2000, several cases of unexplained HIV infection in children were reported, leading to the establishment of a registry for unexplained transmission at Tygerberg Hospital.  


Universal precautions took the place of and eliminated the need for the isolation category "Blood and Body Fluid Precautions" in the 1983 CDC Guidelines for Isolation Precautions in Hospitals. However, implementing universal precautions does not eliminate the need for other isolation precautions, such as droplet precautions for influenza, airborne isolation for pulmonary tuberculosis, or contact isolation for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.


Vaginal Laceration is a risk factor for Hepatitis C Virus transmission in childbirth

Children delivered vaginally and whose mothers sustained a perineal or vaginal laceration had a six-fold higher risk of hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus) than vaginally delivered children whose mothers had no laceration, according to a retrospective study of 73 Hepatitis C Virus-positive pregnant women who gave birth to 75 children.



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