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“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”

Sexual Issues & Infectious Diseases

We offer a monthly newsletter dealing with the various issues surrounding infectious diseases.  To find out more click HERE.



Main topics can be found within the left column; sub-topics and/or research reports can be found near the bottom of this page.  Thank you


"Sexual behavior is not only of basic biological importance, but of central social importance. Not only does it perpetuate the human species, but it is the central behavior around which families are formed and defined, a vital aspect of the psychological well-being of individuals, and a component of a variety of social problems. Among current concerns tied in part to sexual behavior are the familial problems of marital harmony and divorce; criminal problems of rape, incest, child molestation, and prostitution; reproductive problems of infertility, sterility, unwanted and mistimed pregnancies, and abortion; and health problems related to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

About 17% of adults 18-59 have had an STD and the lifetime infection rate is likely to be over 20%. Moreover, with the advent of AIDS the medical problem of STDs has taken on increasing urgency. Deaths from AIDS rose at a rapid pace in the 1980s and early 1990s. By 1992 AIDS had become the number one cause of death among men 25-44. Only recent improvements in medical treatments have curbed the rising levels of HIV to AIDS conversions and lowered the death rate from AIDS. Most HIV infections have resulted from sexual behavior and heterosexual intercourse is increasingly becoming a mode of transmission

Because of both the importance of sexual behavior in general and the health crisis of AIDS in particular, we need to arm ourselves with a thorough, scientifically reliable understanding of sexual behavior and especially to study high-risk behavior. In this paper we will outline what is currently known about American sexual behavior." American Sexual Behavior: Trends, Socio-Demographic Differences, and Risk Behavior


Document Name & Link to Document


File Size /Type


Report of a USAID Technical meeting on behavior change approaches to primary prevention of HIV/AIDS.  Abstinence/delay of sexual debut, Being faithful/partner reduction, and Condom use

Pdf 521 kb

AIDS and child labour in Zambia

This rapid assessment examined correlations between the HIV/Aids pandemic and child labour in Zambia, and subsequently on the welfare of children in terms of their health, education, etc.


Aids takes its toll in infant mortality

Hundreds of tiny coffins bear witness to the extent of fatal disease


American Sexual Behavior: Trends, Socio-Demographic Differences, and Risk Behavior (Large report-increase download time)

Sexual behavior is not only of basic biological importance, but of central social importance. Not only does it perpetuate the human species, but it is the central behavior around which families are formed and defined, a vital aspect of the psychological well-being of individuals, and a component of a variety of social problems. Among current concerns tied in part to sexual behavior are the familial problems of marital harmony and divorce; criminal problems of rape, incest, child molestation, and prostitution; reproductive problems of infertility, sterility, unwanted and mistimed pregnancies, and abortion; and health problems related to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).


Assessing Self-Efficacy for HIV Serostatus Disclosure Four studies were conducted to systematically develop scales for assessing self-efficacy to disclose HIV status to sex partners and negotiate safer sex practices among men and women living with HIV/AIDS Pdf 140 kb
Breaking the silence - Stigma, discrimination and HIV/AIDS
Hers is not the sort of life anyone would wish on his or her
 worst enemy. To describe it as rough would be an 
Changing attitudes to sexual morality: a cross-national comparison. How many sexual revolutions can there be, before a certain scepticism arises about whether the use of 'revolution' is apt? The so-called sexual revolution that occurred in the 1960s was by no means the first and doubtless will not be the last. Indeed, the term "sexual revolution" was coined at least forty years earlier to describe the changing sexual mores and behaviour of the 1920s and has been used to describe different periods throughout the intervening years (Martin 1996).(1) The term 'revolution' is charged with meaning and implies a purposive overthrow of traditional sexual morality.  

Completing the Triangle: Immoral Places, Immoral Behavior

Before considering the triangular link in its full three-part form, it is worth mentioning that on occasion during this same period, medical literature explicitly linked alcoholism and venereal disease without the nexus of tuberculosis. For example, the 1901 International Congress on Alcoholism heard a paper in which it was argued that while alcohol had an undeniable influence on venereal disease by encouraging sexual excesses, it was “tipsiness” rather than drunkenness or chronic alcoholism that correlated most closely to the contraction of venereal infection  

Dangerous Inhibitions: How America is letting AIDS become An Epidemic of the Young

AIDS prevention efforts are failing America’s young people. New hope in the treatment of AIDS has overshadowed the fact that the epidemic continues, and that the rate of AIDS reported among younger Americans continues to escalate. Today, one-half of all new HIV infections in the US occur in people under the age of 25.

155 kb pdf

Don't Sell my Body anymore because I can Sell Drugs

Justine Illiria was born in Southern Albania in 1975, in a small rural village to a poor Muslim family. She was one of eight children and from the age of six she would help in the fields with the tobacco harvest. The Salamon Foundation is committed to the regeneration of community in southern Hungary, and has particular regard for the special needs of women and girl-children who participate in sex work.


Education of the children of the positive people is becoming a problem in Kerala

. In two cases, the children are not allowed to continue in the school where there have been studying, though they are negative. In both places the decision came from people's committees. This once again proves that Kerala's high education status has only an instrumental basis, which is of technical quality that helps to attain jobs. There is no real quality or value so that the system rejects those who are not fit to its instrumentality.


Further evidence of super-infection found in African sex workers and Swiss drug injectors

Although none of the studies provided any major new insights in addition to the five published studies that provided the ‘proof of principle’ that chronic infection with one strain may not provide protection against challenge from another, they did add something further to the knowledge-base that might begin to answer the burning question of how often super-infection occurs and what the clinical relevance of super-infection might be in people on HAART.


Gender Differences in the Timing of First Intercourse: Data from 14 Countries Early initiation of intercourse and the context within which sexual activity begins are key indicators of adolescents' potential risk for unplanned pregnancy, abortion and sexually transmitted diseases. Comparative information on the sexual behavior of male and female adolescents in different countries assists health planners and service providers in meeting adolescents' needs.  

Have you ever wondered how these innocent and uneducated village belles's land up as commercial sex workers in the cities?

Often we have seen in movies and heard that women get sold here in the markets by men who coax them to come to cities with the greed of marriage or jobs.


High Incidence of Rape Exposes Girls to HIV/AIDS Infection

Faridah Ssentongo, 10, may remain traumatised for
the rest of her life, right groups fear


Human rights abuses & HIV transmission to girls

After my mother dies, I went to my mother’s mother.  In 2001, she died, so I stopped school…Then we went to my auntie, my mom’s younger sister…Most girls find that they start keeping up with (having sex with) stepfathers or uncles.  Most are raped.  They have no say.  They think if you bring them to the police, there will be no one to keep me.  So they keep quit. Each year, children are ushered into roles they’re not supposed to perform; heading households, unable to attend school, getting pregnant, on the street, into commercial sex.  Living with HIV/AIDS has a huge impact on the mind of a child.  They lose parents very early, and they’re ushered into these roles

Pdf 607 kb

In 1987, Surgeon General C. Everett Koop publicly recommended
 that people use condoms to prevent the transmission of HIV, which
 develops in to AIDS. Some conservative Christian organizations 
attacked his stance. Phyllis Schlafly of Eagle Forum accused him 
of promoting "safe fornication with condoms" as "a cover-up for the 
homosexual community." Conservative anti-tobacco advocate and a 
close colleague of Koop defended the Surgeon General. She said: 
"I hate to be in a public debate with Phyllis Schlafly, since we have 
a lot of things in common. But she is wrong about Dr. Koop....In 
everything I've read in Dr. Koop's written speeches, he stresses 
monogamy as the first line of defense against AIDS."
Intelligent and Responsible Sexual Behavior This page exists to promote rational sexual behavior. The need for such behavior is especially important today with the presence of the HIV virus and AIDS, which can be fatal. Furthermore, some sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are incurable (HIV, hepatitis C, and herpes are cases in point). You get one of those diseases and your life is forever changed. This page contains info that I would want my children to know, but it is designed tastefully for young and old alike  

Lessons learned in India

As the modes of transmission are through blood and sexual intercourse to address the high-risk groups (sex workers; injecting drug addicts; mobile work force, such as truck drivers, construction workers etc.) on a war footing before it percolates to the general public seemed effective. But we failed miserably in preparing the ground for intervention


Men feel uncomfortable in health settings

Reproductive and sexual health services have always focused on women and girls, but little effort has gone into working with men, especially young men.


PIERCING THE VEIL OF SECRECY IN HIV/AIDS AND OTHER SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES: THEORIES OF PRIVACY AND DISCLOSURE IN PARTNER NOTIFICATION At least since their appearance in Western Europe in the late fifteenth century, sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), or "venereal diseases" as they were once called, have been characterized by a remarkable paradox. Despite their endemic nature in Europe and North America, STDs were, and still are, a "secret malady." Persons have endeavored to keep their sexually-transmitted infections hidden from the social world -- from their sexual partners, families, and communities. At the same time, prevailing social mores have kept STDs from the public consciousness and consequently have prevented STDs from receiving public action and effective intervention.  

Potential moral stigma and reactions to sexually transmitted diseases: Evidence for a disjunction fallacy


Five experiments demonstrate how potential moral stigma leads people to underplay their susceptibility to STDs and dampens their interest in getting tested. After adding unprotected sex to a list of otherwise innocuous possible vectors for a disease, we found that infected people were perceived to be less moral (Experiment 1A), and individuals believed that if they had the disease, others would see them as less moral too (Experiment 1B). Adding this stigmatized vector also reduced reported testing intentions (Experiment 2) and perceived risk of exposure (Experiment 3) – a disjunction fallacy because adding a potential cause reduced estimated likelihood, in violation of basic probability rules. Finally, we replicated the effect in a computer virus analog (Experiment 4), and showed that it did not result from simply knowing that one has not engaged in the stigmatized behavior. Results suggest that avoidance of potential stigma can have dramatic health consequences. Pdf 196 kb
Preparing for adulthood: adolescent sexual and reproductive health The nature and experience of adolescence vary tremendously by sex, marital status, class, region and cultural context.  As a group, however, adolescents are generally recognized to have sexual and reproductive health needs that differ from those of adults and which are still poorly understood in much of the world 494 kb pdf

Prevalence of Unsafe Sexual Behavior Among HIV-infected Individuals

Overall, 12% of the individuals reported unsafe sex, 81% denied unsafe sex, and the remaining 7% neither reported nor denied unsafe sex. Of those individuals who responded, 78% received antiretroviral therapy, and 25% had optimal viral suppression with viral loads of <50 copies/mL during the preceding 12 months


Rapes fuel Bangladesh AIDS crisis

Police officers and crime lords who sexually abuse gay men and sex workers are stoking an emerging AIDS (news - web sites) epidemic in Bangladesh, a Human Rights Watch (HRW) report warned.


REFRAMING WOMEN'S RISK: Social Inequalities and HIV Infection

Social inequalities lie at the heart of risk of HIV infection among women in the United States. As of December, 1995, 71,818 US women had developed AIDS-defining diagnoses.


Risk, Morality, and Blame: A Critical Analysis of Government and Donor Responses to HIV Infections Among Sex Workers in India India is one of five countries that were classified by the US National Intelligence Council in 2002 as representing the second wave of the HIV/AIDS epidemic.  Current estimates put the total of those infected with HIV in India at 4.5 million, with projections for the number of infections to rise to anywhere between 9 to 25 million by 2010. 302 kb pdf

Sex and HIV: Behaviour-Change 
Trial Shows No Link

A UK funded trial aimed at reducing the spread of Aids in Uganda by modifying sexual behaviour appears to have had little discernible effect.


Sex and youth: contextual factors affecting risk for HIV/AIDS

This bare summary of 3 pioneering sets of studies investigations into the determinants of HIV-related vulnerability cannot convey the extraordinary wealth of data and the richness of experiences and feeling reported by the participants with striking frankness.

314 kb pdf

Sex for Sale, Legally

Though some governments are still trying to crack down on prostitution, others are realising that it is better to legalise and license it than to suffer the ill effects of driving it underground. New Zealand has just done so; Belgium looks set to be next.


Sex Work in the South

In recent times, prompted by the concern over the spread of HIV/AIDS, commercial sex workers have been the focus of a great deal of attention, primarily with the aim of promoting safe sex as a method of preventing disease. Despite the numerous groups active among sex workers, and despite the government’s professed interest in the matter, there has been no accurate assessment of the total number of people practising the profession in India


Sex Workers and the Cost of Safe Sex There have been few epidemics in the last century which have affected living standards as severely in the developing world as the HIV-AIDS crisis…The epidemic is particularly devastating because it strikes the most productive members of the population—young adults…Given that the disease has no effective vaccine or cure, and that sex work plays a central role in its growth, promoting the use of condoms and other safe sex practices among sex workers is considered perhaps the most effective method of preventing the spread of the epidemic 98 kb pdf

Sex Workers Join Efforts to Contain Spread of AIDS

Commercial sex workers are not responsible for the rise in AIDS cases regionally, but their activities do contribute, and efforts to contain the spread of HIV now include members of the world's oldest profession


Sex workers problems in Greece

This law in Greece it's unconstitutional and can't make things work because you can't find a place in Athens which is 200 metre [away] from churches, schools youth centers public squares public buildings etc.


Sexual behavior among Vietnamese married women

While sex is love, excitement, and joy, in Vietnam existing studies also portray sexual activity as a source of weakness, fatigue and even an extra burden for women. They bear high rates of abortion and reproductive tract infections.


Sexual Behavior, HIV & Family Trends

The USAID-supported ABC Study examines how prevention behaviors may have affected HIV prevalence as well as fertility patterns in three countries where HIV prevalence declined furing the 1990s and in three countries where it appears not to have declined.

Pdf 3,541 kb

Sexual Experiences and Their Correlates Among College Students in Mumbai City, India Traditional norms and the role of the family are losing their importance in governing young people’s sexual behavior in India.  School-based sexuality programs are needed that will provide students with accurate information about pregnancy, contraception and sexually transmitted diseases. 434 kb pdf

Sexual Prejudice:

A variety of motivations underlie sexual prejudice. One way to understand those motives is to ask how a particular heterosexual's antigay attitudes benefit her or him psychologically.


Sexual risk behaviours, perceptions and norms among unmarried adolescents: evidence from case studies About one-fourth of boys in this particular sample had engaged in risky premarital sex, and their sexual networks included multiple partners and unsafe sex.  They carried misperceptions about what constituted risky behavious and therefore did not consider themselves at risk.  Although many girls were aware that some boys had sexual relations with their peers and that some went to ‘red light areas’ they did not perceive any risk of contracting HIV from their future partner or spouse. 29 kb pdf

Every human being is a primary manifestation of life forces which flow through each and every one of us as part of that which energizes us. Part of this life force is sexual energy. It is life enhancing. It is inherent in all of us from birth. It is also powerful.

Sexuality- Study Finds That Teenage Virginity Pledges Are Rarely Kept
Among teenagers who pledged not to have sex before marriage, 
a majority did not live up to their vows, according to a national study 
reported here on Tuesday. The teenagers also developed sexually 
transmitted diseases at about the same rate as adolescents who 
had not made such pledges.
Summary of HIV Prevalence and Sexual Behavior Findings This study compares levels and trends of behavioral indicators such as abstinence and age of sexual debut among youth, faithfulness in sexual relationships, multiple sexual partners, and condom use. 288 kb pdf

Survey on STI among female sex workers in 5 border provinces of Vietnam

STIs and HIV among FSWs are important public heath problems in the border provinces of Vietnam although epidemic patterns appear different between northern, central and southern regions.


Survey Suggests Lack of Awareness Heightens Risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases New survey results unveiled today by the American Social Health Association (ASHA) - an organization dedicated to preventing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) -- suggest that lack of awareness may put Americans at risk for contracting STDs.  

The Secret War on Condoms

Conservative groups in Pres Bush's support base have launched disinformation campaign about effectiveness of condoms that, if successful, could lead to millions of deaths from AIDS around world; says they do not realize that disparaging condoms is far more likely to discourage their use than to discourage sex



It is the thesis of this essay that young people are far more harmed by misguided attempts at “protection” than they would be by having full access to honest information about sexual health and safety.We need to confront the continuing national panic and convincingly argue that socially conservative beliefs and policies are largely to blame for the problems they purport to address.


Teenagers traded for slave labour and sex

Today, a new international study reveals that Britain has become an easy target for child trafficking gangs. In a special report,


Timing of First Intercourse Among Malian Adolescents: Implications for Contraceptive Use Nearly half of sexually experienced urban males said they would have preferred to delay their first intercourse, compared with about one-fifth of females and of rural males. Males most often said curiosity and peer pressure (including pressure from their girlfriends) had led them to begin having sex earlier than they would have liked, while females in urban areas cited love and those in rural areas cited a promise of marriage. Focus groups, however, suggested that young urban women often had sex to obtain cash to meet their material needs and desires. Unmarried urban females who exhibited high self-esteem and an internal locus of control were significantly more likely to be satisfied with the timing of their first sexual encounter; these factors had no effect among males. Among adolescents who were satisfied with the timing of their first sexual experience, both males and females were more likely to have used a modern contraceptive at first intercourse, and females were more likely to have ever used a modern method. Multivariate analyses, however, indicated that a large part of the effect among females was mediated by psychological factors: High self-esteem and an internal locus of control were associated with an increased likelihood of having ever used contraceptives. Among young men, ever-use was strongly associated with self-esteem and was only weakly associated with the timing of first intercourse  
Where men make a difference In all societies, men are known to engage in high risk activities for acquisition of HIV....Due to the high risk behaviour of men, their female sexual partners are at high risk of acquiring HIV infection.  HIV is also more easily transmitted from the male to the female due to biological reasons 78 kb pdf

Women being cheated into marriage by HIV-positive Men

A SWAPO parliamentarian claims that some women are being cheated into marriage by men who lie about their HIV status.





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