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“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”

Statistical Research on Stigma Issues

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"Stigma is an important consideration for health policy and clinical practice for several reasons. It contributes to the suffering from illness in various ways, and it may delay appropriate help-seeking or terminate treatment for treatable health problems. For diseases and disorders that are highly stigmatized, the impact of the meaning of the disease may be as great or a greater source of suffering than symptoms of a disease. An early presentations of paucibacillary leprosy as a painless depigmented or anaesthetic patch is an example. Hearing the diagnosis is more troubling than symptoms of the disease. Social science studies of stigma regard it fundamentally as a problem arising from social interactions. Goffman and other researchers have also recognized self-perceived stigma, which may also be troubling and responsible for diminished self-esteem whether or not it arises from an actual interaction, and whether or not this perceived stigma accurately reflects the critical views of others. Stigma impairs the quality of life through concerns about disclosure, and it affects work, education, marriage, and family life. Although its impact is likely to be overlooked in the calculation of Disability-adjusted life-years stigma contributes to what WHO's Nations for Mental health Program calls the hidden burden of mental illness. In addition to the suffering it brings, research also shows that stigma and labelling may affect the course of recovery

The stigmatization of HIV/AIDS and specific groups at risk, such as men who have sex with men and illicit drug users, interferes with voluntary testing, counselling and treatment. Timely treatment may benefit the individual and society, inasmuch as it reduces suffering and it improves health and productivity The distasteful prospect of having a stigmatized condition, which is further associated with stigmatized status in society, may be an inducement to ignore it and forego the kind of help that one might readily acknowledge as useful if the condition were affecting someone else. Although denial may relieve the anxiety that follows from stigma, denial is a problem when a treatable condition remains untreated and progresses to cause avoidable suffering. Leprosy, which has long been the gold standard of stigmatized diseases, may progress to preventable deformities. Tuberculosis not only becomes more serious for the infected individual, but also poses a threat for contacts and further spread. People with untreated mental health problems may endure an avoidable progression of symptoms that may also make their condition more difficult to treat. For chronic diseases that require a long course of treatment, or chronic treatment for epilepsy, stigma constitutes an obstacle to remaining in treatment." Interventions: Research on Reducing Stigma


Document Name & Link to Document


File Size /Type

Abstracts in Hepatitis HEPATITIS C EZINE is news, etc. related to hepatitis C (alternative treatments and advances in medical treatment)  
ASSA AIDS and Demographic Models

(Large report-increased down-load time)

This guide begins with an overview of modeling of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa, which is presented in section 2. Section 3 provides information on the structure of the model. It comprises a brief description of the nature and basis of the assumptions, the location of different aspects of the model on the worksheets, and information about which assumptions and values can be changed by the user


HIV-related stigma & discrimination Understanding HIV-related stigma and resulting discrimination in sub-Saharan Africa Pdf 61 kb
Identifying high-risk carriers of infectious diseases is worth the effort. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) call for discrimination. Containing the spread of an STD by focusing on promiscuous individuals, who are most likely to pass it on, should be cheaper and more effective than large-scale random campaigns, according to two new mathematical analyses1


Interventions: Research on Reducing Stigma The term stigma has many associations and implications rooted in history, social science, and public health, but the historical concept of physical stigmata and the sociological framework of deviance and social interactions fall short of research needs for guiding desirable public health interventions to reduce stigma. For that, a working definition of stigma is required that recognizes the distinctive features of particular diseases and particular social and cultural contexts. Research needs include documenting the burden from the stigma of various health problems; comparing both the magnitude and character of stigma for different conditions and in different social and cultural settings; identifying distinctive features of stigma that may guide intervention programs; and evaluating changes in the magnitude and character of stigma over time and in response to interventions and social changes.


Measuring HIV/AIDS related Stigma Stigma, ‘a powerful and discrediting social label that radically changes the way individuals view themselves and are viewed as person’, can be felt (internal stigma),  leading to an unwillingness to seek help and access resources, or enacted (external stigma), leading to discrimination on the basis of HIV status or association with someone who is living with HIV/AIDS 192 kb pdf
Qualitative Study on the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Regarding STDs and HIV/AIDS with Focus Groups Knowledge about STDs, HIV/AIDS and family planning is directly affected by exposure to adequate information. Misinformation, erroneous concepts and negative perspectives are important in the development of fears, rumors and taboos regarding STDs and HIV/AIDS.  
Racial Differences in Knowledge regarding Hepatitis C Virus Infection This survey indicates that a substantial proportion of adults are either uncertain or inaccurately informed about hepatitis C and that racial differences in knowledge of hepatitis C may exist.  
Relationship between knowledge and attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS among dental school employees and students Factor analysis resulted in three dimensions of attitudes ("legal", "personal risk", and "personal consequences") which were anlaysed separately against knowledge.  
Statistical Methods in Psychology Journals: Guidelines and Explanations The TFSI met twice in two years and corresponded throughout that period. After the first meeting, the task force circulated a preliminary report indicating its intention to examine issues beyond null hypothesis significance testing. The task force invited comments and used this feedback in the deliberations during its second meeting.


Stigma What constitutes stigma? Pdf 107 kb
STIGMA AND GLOBAL HEALTH RESEARCH PROGRAM The purpose of this initiative is to stimulate investigator-initiated  research on the role of stigma in health, and on how to intervene to prevent or mitigate its negative effects on the health and welfare of individuals, groups and societies world-wide


Trends & analysis of AIDS Various methods shown to be currently used

375 kb pdf

Validity of scales measuring the psychosocial determinants of HIV/STD-related risk behavior in adolescents We examined the content, construct and concurrent validity of scales to assess beliefs and self-efficacy related to adolescents' sexual risk behavior.


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