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Financial Issues-HIV/AIDS


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Women are harder hit in Africa than men. About 55 percent of all adults living in the sub-continent with HIV/AIDS are women. The difference between infected men and women is most pronounced in those less than 25 years of age. The reasons for these extremely high rates in girls are not fully understood. Biological vulnerability of young girls and the fact that girls frequently have sex partners of much higher age - with high levels of infection - likely play a role.

HIV/AIDS is primarily a young person's disease. Youths have a higher rate of risk taking behaviors and because of these behaviors; they are more prone to become infected with this virus.

The time duration from exposure to death ranges between 8.5 years in less developed countries, to 15 years in the more advance countries primarily due to access to medications and healthcare.

Because of the age factor, this group (young people) are generally performing the most physically demanding tasks for a society-the high intensity labor work as they try to acquire a higher skill level to advance into the next higher employment class.

HIV/AIDS is causing the (removal) loss of this productive group from society.



Document Name & Link to Document


File Type/Size

2000--US Census--AIDS impact on economy

Paper on how AIDS is/will impact the world-UN report provided by the US Census Agency



In studying economic and political settings connected with high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, social scientists have come to the conclusion that there is a clear link between levels of HIV/AIDS and poverty throughout the world. Whilst an impressive amount of research has been undertaken to study the impact of the epidemic, less has been achieved in mitigating its effects of deepening poverty and the rolling back of development gains.


Access to Treatment for HIV/AIDS

The total number of people living with HIV/AIDS is estimated at 40 million.  Most of these people live in the developing world.  While there are indications that the incidence of HIV infection has been declining in some countries, in many others incidence rates remain high or are increasing.  Consequently, the prevalence of HIV infection is likely to continue to rise.  In the absence of treatment, most people infected with HIV will eventually develop an HIV-related disease and succumb to the consequences of the infection.

1013 kb pdf

Addressing the HIV/AIDS Pandemic

At the dawn of the new millennium, there are few threats more 
dangerous to mankind than the global HIV/AIDS pandemic. 
Infecting 40 million people and already accounting for 25 million 
deaths, it could well become the worst health crisis in modern 
history. While centered today in sub-Saharan Africa, it is 
spreading rapidly in India, China, Central Asia, and Russia.


Adult Mortality in the Era of HIV/AIDS: Sub-Saharan Africa

The strong age-specific impact of HIV on mortality is reshaping the population structure of African countries with substantial epidemics.  The survival of adults in the worst effected countries is substantially reduced which will eventually depopulate certain tiers of the age pyramid, reducing the number of adults available to reproduce, and this together with the impact of HIV on fertility itself, will substantially alter the age distribution of severely impacted African populations for many decades to come

Pdf 611 kb

African AIDS: Impacts of Globalization, Pharmaceutical Apartheid, and Treatment Activism

Worldwide, but especially in Africa, a disproportionate number of infections occur in late teenage and young adult years.  Although HIV/AIDS in African affects both men and women, women how have a higher overall infection rate than men, and women contract the virus at a munch younger age, 5-10 years earlier, because of numerous co-factors, including cross-age sex between younger teenage women and older, already infected men, the effects of young age and STD�s on vaginal susceptibility to viral transmission, and lack of power of younger women to negotiate safer sex practices.

385 kb pdf

Africa: The Socio-Economic Impact of HIV/AIDS

It is at the level of the family and community that the fullest impacts of the HIV pandemic is unraveling.  One such ramification is AIDS related poverty among households.  Across the African continent, the most vulnerable people are the most economically active.  As these active people die, families are struggling to cope not just emotionally, but also economically.  Poverty is increasing as bread-winners die and scarce savings are utilized in the period of ill health.  As savings dwindle, families begin to fragment economically.  One implication of this fragmentation of families is the rising numbers of orphan children on our continent.

Pdf 1104 kb

African Microenterprise AIDS Initiative- Preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS by empowering women in Africa

Disadvantaged African women require both economic empowerment and HIV/AIDS education to significantly reduce their susceptibility to the HIV virus.  Their lack of resources and understanding constrains them to high-risk sexual behavior


Agriculture & AIDS

This paper can be explained by the fact that the objective was to demonstrate to a reluctant agriculture sector that HIV/AIDS was having an impact on agriculture production, food security and rural development



Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is currently a growing, worldwide, fatal, pandemic. Destruction of CD4+ T cells predisposes infected individuals to a wide range of opportunistic infections, tumors, dementia and death.  "The reality of AIDS in Botswana is so grim it is hard to grasp. In the main hospital in the capital city, Gaborone, 70% of beds in the pediatric ward are for children with complications of AIDS.



AIDS, Economics and Terrorism in Africa

After years of denial, there is now little debate about the economic impact of AIDS in countries with high prevalence rates.  AIDS kills people in the most productive years of their lives and leads to dramatic increases in private and public health care spending while tax revenues decline.  Foreign investors are less likely to invest in areas with high HIV prevalence because AIDS decimates human capital and reduces public investment in education.

158 kb pdf

AIDS Erupts as National Security Issue - Epidemics Threaten Russia, China and India

Five years ago, the Clinton Administration identified AIDS as a national and global security threat, declaring that it has the potential to destabilize governments. Today, the threat has grown as governments across sub-Saharan Africa teeter on the brink of collapse while those in developed and developing states differ greatly in their reactions to the devastating disease from denial to the suggestion of aggressive action.


AIDS & democracy: What do we Know? 

It is essential to note from the outset the paucity of substantive data and primary research on the topic of HIV/AIDS and democracy.  The vast majority of sources discussed in this paper are theoretical or conceptual pieces which speculate�with varying degrees of expertise�on the possible, probable, or expected impact of HIV/AIDS on security and democracy, as well as the impact of insecurity and antidemocratic forces on accelerating the spread of HIV, or of democracy and governance on slowing that spread.

Pdf 94 kb

AIDS and AFRICA a Gender Driven Catastrophe

This level of spending becomes all the more criminal when it is clear that many countries spend more on their military than on the fight against AIDS. "By it's own figures the Zimbabwean government spends seventy times the amount that goes to HIV programs on its support of the war in the Congo-a conflict with no direct implications for Zimbabwe."


AIDS Becoming Youth Epidemic

Young people are increasingly responsible for the spread of HIV/AIDS around the world because of poverty and a severe lack of information and prevention services, the United Nations said Wednesday.

Every 14 seconds a person aged between 15 and 24 is infected with the virus. They now account for half all new cases of the disease, the U.N. Population Fund said in its annual State of the World's Population report


AIDS Epidemic Grows Unchecked

"AIDS has become the biggest threat to the continent�s redevelopment... essential services are being depleted at the same time as state institutions and resources come under greater strain...the risks of social unrest and even socio-political instability should not be underestimated." Eastern Europe and Central Asia, covering much of the area that formed the Soviet Union and its East European satellite countries, has experienced the fastest rise in levels of HIV infection.


AIDS: How a Killer Plague Can Be Stopped

The facts about AIDS are overwhelming. The disease is spreading rapidly from country to country. Morgues are working round the clock to keep up with the demand. Millions of orphans are left behind by their dead parents. Cemeteries are filled and overflowing. Coffin makers are running out of wood. Ignorance, superstition and fear abound. Governments are paralyzed by the sheer enormity of the death toll. Medical services are swamped and unable to cope.


AIDS Impact Model (AIM) Approach

Tool-Kit for Building Political Commitment for Effective HIV/AIDS Policies and Programs

PDF / 774KB

AIDS impact on children�HIV/AIDS Lagging Policy response & impact on Children: The Case of Cote d'lvoire.

The number of the reported cases increased from 2 in 1985 to 56,000 in 1999.  AIDS has become the leading cause of mortality among adults and one of the first in children, and the mortality associated with the disease has reduced life expectancy at birth from 65 years to 55 years in 2000.

Pdf 590 kb

AIDS impact on children�Overview of the Impact & best Practice responses.

This paper reviews the community and public policy interventions introduced so far to moderate the impact of the disease on children and families and discusses the advantages and limitations of such interventions.  The main problem of the measures introduced so far is their nearly exclusive focus on prevention and the health sector.  While this approach is understandable in the early phase of the epidemics, its ability to protect child well-being appears now limited.

Pdf 261 kb

AIDS impact on children�Poverty and HIV/AIDS impact, coping & Mitigation.

AIDS is a very long wave event.  The true death toll cannot be estimated until the full waveform of the epidemic has been seen.  It may be as long as 50 years before we can say that the world epidemic has peaked and/or begun to decline.

Pdf 128 kb

AIDS impact on children�The current & future impact of HIV/AIDS Epidemic on South Africa's Children

The impacts infant and child mortality rates will double over 15 years, life expectancy will dramatically decline as more children acquire HIV, millions of orphans will be created as adults die and these children will kept in poverty and be less likely to attend school and receive the normal socialization of childhood.

Pdf 380 kb

AIDS impact on children�Impact of HIV/AIDS on Children: Lights and Shadows in the Successful Case-Uganda

The analyses of the socio-economic impacts of HIV/AIDS on children in Uganda, with specific focus on their health, education and social welfare, and on the current and future policy/program responses in the field of prevention, treatment and mitigation.

Pdf 235 kb

AIDS impact on children�The impact on a Growing HIV/AIDS Epidemic of AIDS Epidemic on Kenyan Children

HIV prevalence in Kenya increased from 5.3 percent in 1990 to 13.5 percent in 2002 with the number of children under 5 years living with HIV growing from 32,000 in 1990 to 106,000 in 2000.

Pdf 81 kb

AIDS impact on children� The Social & Economic Impact of HIV/AIDS on Children in a Low Prevalence Context

The main features of this adequate policy (in Senegal)  consist of a timely response, an eagerness to anticipate on new developments, the strategic involvement of religious and political leaders, effective STD-control programs, and the construction of strong responses at the community level.

Pdf 92 kb

AIDS in Africa: A Call for Sense, not Hysteria

Pat Sidley makes dire predictions indeed. However, the claim of saving such a high number of lives is based on estimates and certain assumptions. It seems essential to substantiate these claims before asking for wide ranging interventions. The case of Uganda provides an important lesson in this respect. A detailed analysis seems mandatory before engaging in costly and potentially dangerous interventions in South Africa.  The absence of the predicted Aids catastrophe in Uganda calls the basic assumptions about the epidemic into question. It is high time to reconsider the priorities of health policy


AIDS in prison-problems, policies presentation

Presentation: HIV/AIDS in Prison-Problems, Policies and Potential

PDF / 159KB

AIDS is cutting African Life Span to 30-year Low

In AIDS-ravaged parts of southern Africa adult mortality is higher than it was 30 years ago, the World Health Organization said Thursday.
In 14 African countries, the United Nations agency said in its annual World Health Report, child mortality is higher than it was in 1990, with more than300 children out of every 1,000 born in Sierra Leone dying before the age of 5.


AIDS needn't wipe out millions

Should we make Aids a notifiable disease? If so, what do we do with the existing stigma of the disease, fed by ignorance? What will that do to insurance policies and premiums? These are important questions that will need answers.

When the Medical Research Council issued results of a similar study last year and declared that 20% of adult deaths were caused by Aids, the government ordered a new investigation.

Given the stance it has taken at various times about the causes and impact of Aids, it was clear its hope was that Stats SA would produce "better" results.


AIDS orphans & vulnerable children An evidence-led response

Power Point Presentation-an evidence-led response


AIDS orphans to Double

Extended families often fail to cope, and many children are forced to live on the street


AIDS Pandemic Reduces Life Expectancy in Africa by 20 years

Life expectancy in some African countries has fallen by 20 years in the past decade, mainly due to the HIV/Aids crisis.

Child and adult mortality rates in more than a dozen sub-Saharan countries have increased in the past 10 years, even as life expectancy in developed countries is improving.

The WHO report uses a simple comparison to highlight the issue: a girl born in Britain today can expect to live to 80.6 years. A girl born in Sierra Leone is unlikely to make it past her 36th birthday.


AIDS Stalks Haiti's Children

``Every year 5,000 children are born HIV-infected. There are an estimated 200,000 children orphaned by AIDS,'' said Luz Angela Melo, child protection officer for the U.N. children's agency.


AIDS takes an economic & Social Toll

Taking a narrow economic approach, however, some have argued that AIDS is unlikely to inflict severe damage on national economies because those infected are, in their great majority, the poor and unskilled, who contribute little in pure economic terms. This view ignores not only the human dimension, but also the broader social and economic aspects of development. It likewise ignores the existing evidence of the many insidious ways in which AIDS already is harming key sectors in those countries most seriously affected by the epidemic.


AIDS threatens Africa

The future success of Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) and the livelihood of many South Africans could soon be off the economic radar screen if business fails to deal with the destructive HIV/AIDS threatening the SME


An assessment of trends in Child Mortality-Tanzania

Comparing the results of the TRCHS 1999 with the TDHS 1996 suggests that child mortality in Tanzania has increased.  Yet, five-year trends within the TRCHS suggest the opposite.  How should these trends be interpreted?

Pdf 95 kb

An ILO study on the socio-economic impact of HIV on infected persons finds that the HIV-positive face the maximum discrimination within their families

In 2002, ILO (India) initiated a study to understand the socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDS on infected persons and their families, particularly women and children. The findings of this report, which was published recently, are both meaningful and significant because of the sensitivity with which the study was carried out. Conducted in collaboration with the network of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), the study underlines the adverse economic impact of HIV/AIDS, and the trauma arising from stigma, discrimination and ostracism.


Anti-AIDS Effort in Central China Focuses on Former Plasma Donors

The epidemic in Central China took root between the late 1980s and the late-1990s when entrepreneurs paid poor farmers in Henan province for plasma � the liquid portion of blood that provides critical proteins for blood clotting and immunity. The farmers, who were not tested for HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or other blood-borne infections, gave blood to collection centers, which pooled the blood of several donors of the same blood type, separated the plasma, and injected the remaining red-blood cells back into individual donors to prevent anemia.


ASSA AIDS and Demographic Models

(Large report-increased download time)

This is a guide that begins with an overview of modeling of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa-brief description of the nature, and basis of the assumptions, different aspects of the model and information about which assumptions and values can be changed


Barcelona Report on HIV prevalence and impact

Power Point Presentation with several grafts and diagrams

820 kb


In a broad sense, HIV/AIDS affects the workplace in many aspects: it affects productivity; it can increase business costs, and affect the national economy. Productivity is reduced because of increased absenteeism and low employee morale. Business costs are increased because of increased benefits, increased amounts of sick pay, as well as the cost of replacing workers as others become too sick to work, or die. 


BUDGETING FOR HIV/AIDS - Costing the �Indirect Impact� on the Health Sector

PowerPoint Presentation

139 kb

Case Study Executive Summary

DCSA established its workplace and community HIV/AIDS project in 2001 to address the increasing financial burden associated with HIV/AIDS. DCSA also decided to provide prevention, care, support and treatment services to employees, their dependants and the community as part of DCSA.s obligation to these stakeholders based on the principles of corporate social responsibility (CSR). This is also an extension of DaimlerChrysler's signing of the UN Global Compact on CSR.


Childcare & work

This study investigates the effects of childcare on work and earning of mothers in poor neighborhoods of Guatemala City.

PDF / 283KB

Company Actions on AIDS in Durban Metro Area

"Company Practices" - a look at HIV prevention initiatives in ten large and small business enterprises in the Durban Metropolitan Areas.

PDF / 1280KB

Confronting the Impact of HIV and AIDS:

The global spread of the HIV and AIDS pandemics will, for the next three generations at least, underline education access, quality and provision. Reforms within the sector will necessarily take account of the implications of this plague within national, provincial and local contexts. This article is based on several assumptions. The first is that HIV/AIDS is not only a medical problem: the spread of the disease has created a pandemic with social, economic, geopolitical and other consequences for all countries. Second, increasing numbers of countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean, are now facing one of the great crises of human history. The third is that other countries in Eastern Europe and the Asia and Pacific regions will confront similar challenges as the pandemic spreads.


Counting the cost of HIV in Southern Africa

A study by the International Monetary Fund warns that health services in southern Africa are already over-stretched. The current cost of providing health services to HIV patients� accounts for a very large proportion of total health expenditure for most countries in the region. As the number of AIDS patients increases, the situation will deteriorate.


Destabilizing Impacts of HIV/AIDS

The impacts of HIV/AIDS on the critical infrastructures that sustain the security, stability, and viability of modern nation-states are manifold.  In much of the developing world, particularly in Africa, HIV/AIDS is undermining education and health systems, economic growth, micro enterprises, policing and military capabilities, political legitimacy, family structures, and overall social cohesion.

217 kb pdf

Dirty Needles Blamed for HIV

Children in South Africa are being infected with HIV through dirty needles, experts have claimed


Eastern Europe-assessing impact on Parallel HIV, TB, and STD Epidemics 

Since 1989 the countries of Eastern Europe have undergone a period of unparalleled change.  The change began with political liberalization, which resulted in the creation of new governments and countries.  However, this has been happening concurrent with economic decline and a collapse of many social services.  It is not at all certain that the majority of citizens of East Europe would regard this as �reform.�

Pdf 71 kb

Economic Consequences of HIV in Russia

Decline in participation rates, Decline in productivity, Decline in human capital, Increased consumption expenditures - less funds for investment, Lower propensity to safe - less investment


Economic Deprivation and AIDS in Mass. USA

This study quantified AIDS incidence in Massachusetts in relation to economic deprivation

PDF / 339KB

Economic Impact

Assessing the magnitude of the economic impact hinges, of course, on the difficult task of determining the cause of the epidemic itself.  Based on anecdotal evidence at the household and firm level, however, a reasonable hypothesis is that the impact on the productive sectors will be channeled through changes in the size and quality of the labor force.  Given the scale of the epidemic in some hard hit countries, it is conceivable that long-run growth in per capita output will be constrained. AIDS predominantly affects adults in their prime sexual and most productive ages, and unlike many other diseases afflicting adults in developing countries, it is fatal.  Furthermore, this disease does not spare the occupation of urban elite, who is arguably among the most productive members of the economy.  They thought that the virus first spread among higher socioeconomic classes in African countries.  Indeed, infection rates in African urban centers are often double those in rural areas (AIDS is already the leading cause of adult death in Abidjan, and about 20 percent of adults are infected).


Economic Impact of AIDS

The socio-economic causes and consequences of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Part 2 looks more closely at the socio-economic impact of the epidemic on Southern Africa. Analysis


Economic Impact of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa.

Since the first cases of HIV/AIDS were reported 20 years ago, nearly 58 million people have been infected and 22 million have dies.  Consensus in the international community has grown over the past two years that HIV/AIDS poses a threat to development, security, and economic growth.

Pdf 91 kb

Economics of AIDS-impact mitigation

The adverse economic impact of HIV/AIDS is becoming increasingly evident. In high-prevalence countries the growth rates of gross domestic product are slowing down, the manpower losses in key sectors are mounting, the number of orphans is increasing and household poverty is deepening. These countries are facing the formidable challenge of mitigating the economic impact of HIV/AIDS.

PDF / 268KB


Economy and Epidemic: Microfinance and HIV/AIDS in Asia

Asia faces a serious AIDS epidemic.  In the year 2000, the number of new adult HIV infections per year in Asia exceeded that of Africa for the first time.  This paper explores ways that Microfinance Institutions can assist their clients to cope with the impact of HIV/AIDS

976 kb pdf

Economics of HIV/AIDS: Multisectoral Impacts and Programmatic Implications

HIV/AIDS is a global health calamity.  It is also a profound human tragedy for the victims, their families, and their communities.  At the end of 2003, the disease had already killed an estimated 30 million people, and 40 million more were living with the virus.

Pdf 192 kb

Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases 2003

Power Point Presentation

1344 kb


Lesotho�s cereal production appears to be on a downward trend, especially in the main producing districts of Berea, Butha-Buthe, Leribe and Maseru. This is cause for concern and should be fully investigated. Endemic soil erosion, weather-related disasters and the impact of HIV/AIDS pandemic are likely to be major underlying causes.


Financing & Quality of HIV Care

Many state Medicaid programs have adopted managed care as well as a variety of other measures to ensure that MCOs caring for high-cost enrollees can continue to provide quality care and are protected from financial risk.


Future Forsaken: Abuses Against Children Affected by HIV/AIDS in India

Millions of Indians, including at least hundreds of thousands of children, are living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome.  Many more children are otherwise seriously affected by India�s burgeoning epidemic�when they are forced to withdraw from school to care for sick parents, are forced to work to replace their parents� income, or are orphaned (losing one or both parents to AIDS)

1049 kb pdf

Gender, AIDS, and ARV Therapies-ensuring that women gain equitable access to drugs

Given limited resources, choices will inevitable be made about who will be treated and when, raising the issues of equity in access to treatment for sub-groups of those infected

181 kb pdf

Global Crisis-Global Action

Deeply concerned that the global HIV/AIDS epidemic, through its devastating scale and impact, constitutes a global emergency and one of the most formidable challenges to human life and dignity, as well as to the effective enjoyment of human rights, which undermines social and economic development throughout the world and affects all levels of society - national, community, family and individual


Global Estimates of the impact of HIV/AIDS on the world of work

Executive summary

Part 1

Chapter 1  

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Part 2

Chapter 5  

 Chapter 6


 Technical notes

Main tables

Main table 1

Main table 2  

Main table 3



Main table 4


Main table 5


Main table 6

Download the report complete (Large file-please allow extra time for download)



 Contents and introduction


Global Estimates of the impact of HIV/AIDS on the world of work


Global estimates: overview of main tables

 The macroeconomic impact of HIV/AIDS: human capital, labour and production

The impact of HIV/AIDS on the world of work


The impact on women and children


Policy implications and the response to HIV/AIDS in the world of work

Policy implications

The response to HIV/AIDS in the world of work


Basic data on HIV/AIDS, the labour force, population, age groups and dependency, 50 countries, 2000-2005

Estimated impact of HIV/AIDS on economic growth, 47 countries, 1992-2002

3A: Estimated impact of HIV/AIDS on the labour force, according to 3 durations of Stages 3 and 4 of HIV/AIDS, 50 countries, 1995 3B: Projected impact of HIV/AIDS on the labour force, according to 3 durations of Stages 3 and 4 of HIV/AIDS, 50 countries, 2005 3C: Projected impact of HIV/AIDS on the labour force, according to 3 durations of Stages 3 and 4 of HIV/AIDS, 50 countries, 2015

Estimated and projected cumulative mortality losses to the male, female and total labour force as a result of HIV/AIDS, and equivalent proportion of the total labour force, 50 countries, 1995-2015

Estimated indirect mortality impact of HIV/AIDS on children, 2003, and direct impact on working-age persons, 50 countries, years 1995, 2005 and 2015

6A: Estimated increase in economic burden and social burden due to deaths and due to illness for durations 1, 2 and 3 of Stages 3 and 4 of HIV/AIDS, 50 countries, 1995
6B: Projected increase in economic burden and social burden due to deaths and due to illness for durations 1, 2 and 3 of Stages 3 and 4 of HIV/AIDS, 50 countries, 2005
6C: Projected increase in economic burden and social burden due to deaths and due to illness for durations 1, 2 and 3 of Stages 3 and 4 of HIV/AIDS, 50 countries, 2015

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Global tensions grow over AIDS

The number of people infected with HIV/Aids will grow significantly by the end of the decade, reaching up to 75 million in the world's five most populous countries and continuing to decimate millions in Central and Southern Africa, a new US intelligence report says.

The report also says rates of infection will grow dramatically in Russia, China, India, Nigeria and Ethiopia, with the last two countries being the hardest hit if urgent steps are not taken to implement education and preventive programs about HIV/Aids.


Global Infectious Disease Threat & Its implications.

CIA report on infectious diseases (large report-increase download time)

2,517 kb pdf

Guidelines for preparation & execution of socio-economic impact study

This document provides basic concepts to assist thinking about the implications together with ideas and techniques for planning responses to the medium and longer term social and economic impact of AIDS

PDF / 193KB

HEALTHY DEMOCRACIES? The potential impact of AIDS on democracy in Southern Africa

Social scientists are only beginning to understand the range of potential impacts the HIV/AIDS pandemic may have on Southern African societies. Belatedly, researchers began compiling evidence about the demographic, economic and social impacts of the disease on infected people, their households and communities, national populations and national economies. They have only recently begun to develop propositions about the impacts of HIV/AIDS on the broader processes of governance. However, the implications of the pandemic for the survival and consolidation of democratic government, in particular, remain largely unexamined. This paper attempts to systematise emerging thinking about the various economic, social and political consequences of HIV/AIDS in the context of political science's best available knowledge about the factors that lead to the consolidation of democracy.


HIV/AIDS and child labour in Zambia

This rapid assessment examined correlations between the HIV/Aids pandemic and child labor in Zambia, and subsequently on the welfare of children in terms of their health, education, etc. It assesses gender issues related to HIV/Aids, as well as analyzing the coping or survival strategies of girls and boys, including Aids orphans and assesses the child laborers' awareness and knowledge of HIV/Aids


HIV/AIDS and Globalization

Disease epidemics have been related as both cause and effect to increasing integration of human economies, societies and cultures throughout history. It is well known that infectious disease is not equally distributed between different societies and different sections of the same society. This clear on a global scale where disparities in exposure to infection and access to public health provision and health care are acute.


HIV/AIDS & Human Rights

The ILO estimates that over 25 million workers worldwide are infected with HIV, and millions more are affected by the epidemic, including the tragic situation of children orphaned by AIDS. Prevention of the further spread of the epidemic is essential, as are measures to mitigate its impact, including the provision of care and support. Neither prevention nor care, however, is effective in settings where the rights of workers and individuals are not respected.


HIV/aids and child labour in Zambia: a rapid assessment on the case

This rapid assessment examined correlations between the HIV/Aids pandemic and child labour in Zambia, and subsequently on the welfare of children in terms of their health, education, etc. It assesses gender issues related to HIV/Aids, as well as analysing the coping or survival strategies of girls and boys, including Aids orphans and assesses the child labourers' awareness and knowledge of HIV/Aids.


HIV/AIDS and the Workforce Crisis in Health in Africa: Issues for Discussion

This paper summarizes the key issues confronting human resources (HR) in the health sector in sub-Saharan Africa and the role that HIV/AIDS has played in exacerbating this crisis. Section I reviews the causes and consequences of this crisis. Section II focuses on the effects of the HIV/ AIDS epidemic on the crisis. Section III analyzes the constraints faced by recent health initiatives in addressing HR issues. Finally, Section IV provides recommendations on how donors and other partners can address HR issues in a more intensive, sustained, and concerted manner.

Pdf 312 kb

HIV/AIDS as a Regional Security Threat-China

The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Xinjiang and throughout the greater Central Asian region is a pressing security concern to China and the entire Central Asian region.  Xinjiang�s HIV/AIDS situation�bleakly reveals that China and the entire geopolitical region faces a security issue of the gravest proportions.

31 kb pdf

HIV/AIDS: confronting a killer: The HIV/AIDS epidemic: a brief overview A new disease emerges

The immensity and rapidity of the spread of HIV have reversed gains in life expectancy in many African countries. But the worst may be yet to come. The poorer regions of Asia, including densely populated southern Asia, are the latest areas to be affected by the emerging AIDS epidemic. There has been an alarming rise in HIV/AIDS cases in Asia over the past two decades; the burden of disease and death in the region will be enormous if current epidemiological trends are not slowed or reversed. Developed countries are also afflicted. The Russian Federation and Ukraine, along with other countries in eastern Europe and countries in central Asia, have the most rapidly expanding HIV epidemics. Here the disease is more closely tied to injecting drug use, which itself is linked to a rapid rise in indices of social inequality. Although the absolute number of AIDS cases in the former Soviet Union remains relatively small, the epidemic is expanding rapidly in the Russian Federation and other countries in the region


HIV/AIDS Epidemics Expand Rapidly in Asia

The rapid spread of HIV/AIDS epidemics in Asia, illustrated by dramatic increases in new infections in China, Thailand, and Vietnam over the past year, poses particularly worrisome challenges for the international health community.


HIV/AIDS in Africa

The Economic Impact of HIV and AIDS in Southern Africa.  The major concerns to businesses in areas where HIV prevalence is high are reduced productivity and increased costs.  List of reasons

784 kb pdf

HIV/AIDS in the Workplace

The spread of HIV/AIDS worldwide, and the growing number of people affected, makes it very likely that few, if any, global companies will escape its impact. As the pandemic progresses, an ever-wider sphere of business operations is being touched by the disease. Although Africa and Asia have been the hardest hit, every continent has seen significant consequences due to HIV/AIDS. Estimates by the World Bank suggest that the macroeconomic impact of HIV/AIDS may reduce the growth of national income by up to a third in countries where the prevalence among adults is 10 percent. Additionally, rates of HIV infection worldwide are highest for the young and for women, who are major contributors to the workforce



AIDS is not recognised as a labour issue, especially in the Third World. Yet it should be for two key reasons � victims suffer discrimination caused by fear and ignorance of employers and workmates, and it kills workers.


HIV/AIDS on top of Poverty: What needs to be done?

Extreme poverty, which is associated not only with underdeveloped infrastructure of health, but also similarly primitive other sectors of development, is the main reason why we have uncontrolled spread of HIV/AIDS and its devastating complications (incredible suffering, loss of lives and other resources, worsening of risk of famine, etc). The world community is reluctantly accepting this central issue (way far from ridiculing it just a couple years ago).


HIV/AIDS prevention and �class� and socio-economic related factors of risk of HIV infection

Despite a multitude of prevention activities people continue to be infected by HIV.  The epidemic which initially emerged among middle class gay men seems to have shifted toward working class people.  Subsequently, people with lower socio-economic background seem to be more at risk of HIV infection and to have fewer possibilities to cope with the risk of HIV infection.

Pdf 236 kb

HIV/AIDS: What are the implications for humanitarian action?

The report considers the complex relationships between HIV/Aids and food security and that in order to capture the diversity and complexity of the interactions between HIV/Aids and food security, a clear conceptual model is needed.



This social history has resulted in a double standard and is responsible for many of the contradictions that pervade Filipino life. These contradictions manifest and represent a distinct aspect of the national personality. Youngsters are torn between the family's strict moral codes and peer group pressure to break sexual taboos. As a rite of passage, groups of friends commonly arrange for boys to lose their virginity in brothels. Marriage is extolled as the social ideal, yet married men regularly seek extra-marital sex. Sex work is regularly denounced and blamed on the American military and other foreigners. Yet, in one study, female sex workers said that 75 per cent of their clients were local married men


HIV-economics, morality

It (AIDS) is the fourth most important cause of death. There is considerable variation in the pattern of epidemic spread between countries, within countries and even quite locally.

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Home Care for PLWHA: The Power of our Community

The HIV/AIDS pandemic has created a crisis of unprecedented 
proportion that greatly impacts society as a whole, especially women 
and their reproductive health.  Communities everywhere are 
struggling to respond

419 kb pdf

Household Responses to Prime Are Adult Mortality in Rural Mozambique: Implications for HIV/AIDS Mitigation Efforts and Rural Economic Development Policies

The objective of this paper is to use nationally representative rural household survey data from Mozambique to investigate the effects of prime age adult death from illness.  The paper also evaluates the characteristics of affected individuals and households, household demographic changes and livelihood adjustment strategies taken in response to prime age death from illness

214 kb pdf

How Does HIV/AIDS Affect African Businesses?

For African businesses to attract new investors, they must demonstrate a competitive advantage. In much of Africa, businesses already have a competitive advantage because labor is abundant, affordable, and productive. Countries inevitably compete against one another to attract investors. In turn, investors seek to locate their businesses in a country that has the most productive, lowest-cost workforce. There are several mechanisms by which HIV/AIDS affects the international competitiveness of African businesses: Labor Supply, Profitability, other Impacts

Pdf 544 kb

Human Resource Managers.

Human Resource Managers have a particularly important role to play in an organizational response to HIV/AIDS.  It is their responsibility to manage the problems caused by HIV/AIDS in the workplace at both an organizational and individual level.  This dichotomy between organizational requirements and those of individuals living with or affected by HIV/AIDS makes this a challenging task.

Pdf 1,034 kb

Impact of AIDS on the Health Sector

The AIDS epidemic poses enormous challenges to the health systems of developing countries.  The magnitude of the epidemic requires medical care and social support for those infected.  Yet, the threat of future infections demands an effective preventive programme.  And AIDS must compete for resources with acute infectious diseases and the growing burden of chronic diseases

51 kb pdf

Impact of AIDS on Older People in Africa: Zimbabwe Case Study

The main focus of the project is to "identify barriers that prevent older people from providing adequate & fulfilling care to their children dying from HIV/AIDS & subsequently, to their orphaned grandchildren". The project is set in 4 countries: Zimbabwe, Ghana, South Africa & Tanzania & hopes to be the driving force behind new policies & programmes "that would sustain older people as key assets in the care of the terminally ill patients & children orphaned by AIDS".


Impact of HIV/AIDS on Agriculture and the Private Sector in Swaziland

Swaziland has one of the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the world. The excess morbidity and mortality due to the disease has wide ranging socioeconomic implications for the national economy and the various sectors. HIV/AIDS leads to destruction of social capital, weakening of institutions and deepens poverty. The demographic impact and resultant reduction in labour force; and associated income changes will have significant effects on society and 115 the economy. Households, the community, the national economy and business firms, will not escape the impact.

Pdf 535 kb


Since the HIV/AIDS pandemic began in the early 1980s, it has been spreading rapidly in many developing countries. Today, its impact on health and socio-economic development is highly visible in these countries, and their attempts to prevent and control the spread of HIV/AIDS have so far met with little success. In fact, the prevalence of HIV infection among young adults in developing countries has increased at an alarming rate.


Initial Burden of Disease Estimates for South Africa, 2000

Comprehensive, timely and precise health information is essential for formulating health policy and for planning to meet the demand for appropriate health services and interventions.  Information about the burden of disease in South Africa, in common with other developing countries, is incomplete and generally has hot been systematically reviewed for coherence and consistency


International Cost Limits Treatment of HIV in India

The plight of HIV-infected Indians is of particular concern today, as it becomes increasingly clear that this country of about one billion people has a growing AIDS problem. Last week the Indian government disclosed that the country's number of HIV/AIDS cases had jumped 15% in 2002, raising the total number infected to 4.58 million, or about 0.5% of the population.


Labour market and employment implications of HIV/AIDS

Analysis of the economic impact of HIV/AIDS has focused mainly on the effects of the epidemic on costs that directly affect productive activities and reduce profits at the enterprise level.  While information on costs that enterprises have incurred as a result of HIV infection, such as medical expenditure, recruitment and training costs, funeral expenses, and so on, has been useful as a tool for advocacy, this has been of limited use for an overall assessment of the economic impact of HIV/AIDS because of relative neglect of a whole set of labour market and employment issues.  There are also lacunae in the present state of knowledge relating to the impact of AIDS on human capital at the level of productive activities.

Pdf 220 kb

Lagging Policy response & impact.

Lagging policy response and impact on children: the case of Cote d�Ivoire

590 kb pdf

Local agricultural knowledge key to fighting HIV/AIDS and food insecurity

The explosive impact of HIV/AIDS on food security in Africa is now well recognized. But little has been done to empower rural communities with local resources to cope with this crisis


Long-run Economic costs of AIDS: Theory and an Application to South Africa .

We argue that this emphasis is misplaced and that, with a more plausible view of how the economy functions over the long fun, the economic cost of AIDS are almost certain to be much higher.  Not only does AIDS destroy existing human capital, but by killing mostly young adults, it also weakens the mechanism through which knowledge and abilities are transmitted from one generation to the next,; for the children of AIDS victims will be left without one or both parents to love, raise and educate them

Pdf 570 kb

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