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Financial Issues-HIV/AIDS

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Women are harder hit in Africa than men. About 55 percent of all adults living in the sub-continent with HIV/AIDS are women. The difference between infected men and women is most pronounced in those less than 25 years of age. The reasons for these extremely high rates in girls are not fully understood. Biological vulnerability of young girls and the fact that girls frequently have sex partners of much higher age - with high levels of infection - likely play a role.

HIV/AIDS is primarily a young person's disease. Youths have a higher rate of risk taking behaviors and because of these behaviors; they are more prone to become infected with this virus.

The time duration from exposure to death ranges between 8.5 years in less developed countries, to 15 years in the more advance countries primarily due to access to medications and healthcare.

Because of the age factor, this group (young people) are generally performing the most physically demanding tasks for a society-the high intensity labor work as they try to acquire a higher skill level to advance into the next higher employment class.

HIV/AIDS is causing the (removal) loss of this productive group from society.


Document Name & Link to Document


File Type/Size

Macroeconomic Impact of HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia In this paper, a small macroeconomietric model of Ethiopia is used to simulate the macroeconomic impact of HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia.  The model is set up in aggregate demand and supply framework and the individual equations in the model are estimated in an ECM format using the Jobansen approach in view of the time series properties of the macro-time series variables.  The simulation result shows that the prevalence of HIV/AIDS has a negative impact on the overall economy through lowering the active labour force.  The decline in the labour force has a direct negative impact on both the  output of the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors that would lead to the fall in private consumption, investment, exports and government tax revenue.  The slow down of the economy would also be strengthened with the fall in imports due to the decline in exports and hence the shrinking down of the importing capacity. 200 kb pdf
Macroeconomic Level: HIV/AIDS Macroeconomic research issues of HIV/AIDS- There seem to be a consensus that accurate effects at the macroeconomic level are difficult to ascertain.


Macroeconomic Models of the Impact of HIV/AIDS Major differences of opinion are emerging in assessments of the socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDS in heavily affected countries between the experiences of those who are devising practical responses to the pandemic, and forecasts based on macroeconomic modeling. 176 kb pdf
Measuring Economic Impact of AIDS The HIV/AIDS epidemic is affecting all spheres of human activity and behavior. Because most of the hardest-hit countries are still overwhelmingly rural, the epidemic represents an enormous threat to rural development.


Meeting-The Challenge The acute labor shortage created by HIV/AIDS and its severe consequences for agriculture production and food security or rural household has been well documented. The paper tries to development methods to reduce this burden

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Meeting the Global Challenge of HIV/AIDS More people have dies from HIV/AIDS over the last twenty years than from any other disease in human history.  The devastation caused by the epidemic poses a clear and direct challenge to long-term US economic and security interests AIDS is devastating whole societies and economies, depriving countries of the educated and skilled individuals required to build democratic governments, professional militaries, and free market economies 594 kb pdf
Millions of AIDS Orphans Strain Southern Africa The United Nations Children's Fund estimates in a new report that 11 million children under 15 in sub-Saharan Africa have lost at least one parent to AIDS. About a third of them have lost both parents. By 2010, Unicef predicts, AIDS will have claimed at least one of the parents of 15 percent of the region's children - 20 million in all.


NGO code of Good Practice-responding to HIV/AIDS Today, human security is being threatened by HIV/AIDS, as the virus destabilizes society and the state in various ways�as the economically active succumb to AIDS-related illnesses, families, households, workplaces, and communities are disrupted, income levels are reduced, the social fabric undermined, and economies are weakened 248 kb pdf
Overview of the Impact & best responses. Impact and best practice response in favour of children in a world affected by HIV/AIDS 261 kb pdf
Poor State of Finance in East Africa The major consequence of financial services being inaccessible and unaffordable by the vast majority of the productive sectors in the region is that demand for financial services far outstrips supply



Poor to get Aids drugs first Their understanding of the problems with HIV/Aids prevention, support and care services were instrumental in writing the Global Fund proposal, which included all aspects of the fight against HIV/AIDS


Poverty and AIDS. Looks at the relation between HIV/AIDS and poverty and tries to say something about the relationship. 128 kb pdf
Poverty and Labour Market Markers of HIV+ Households: An Exploratory Methodological Analysis This study, through an exploratory but promising methodology, provides a tentative analysis of the relationship between HIV, poverty and labour markets.  The paper illustrates that the relationship between poverty, labour markets and HIV is not homogenous but multi-dimensional in character.  The analysis examines these inter-relationships at both the household and individual level.  The key findings from the analysis suggest that imputed HIV positive women come from poorer households than imputed negative women Pdf 959 kb
Private Sector Response Private Sector Response 785 kb PDF This report conveys a number of important lessons. They not only apply to commercial organizations but also have relevance for those operating in the NGO sector.

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Relationships between work and HIV/AIDS status During the past decade HIV infection has become a pandemic, affecting millions of workers. HIV/AIDS in the workplace has made a decided impact on business and will continue to do so for years. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the impact of HIV/AIDS on work and to assess the reasons behind cessation of occupational activities among HIV-infected persons. Pdf 193
Researchers Project Lifetime Cost and Life Expectancy for Current HIV Care in the United States The authors estimated the monthly medical cost for people with HIV, from the time of beginning appropriate care until death, to be $2,100 on average. The projected life expectancy for these individuals, if they remain in optimal HIV care, has now increased to 24.2 years, and the lifetime per person HIV care cost is now $618,900 per person. This amount is comparable to the estimated lifetime medical cost for women under age 65 in the U.S. with cardiovascular disease, who can also have long life expectancies with appropriate medical management. When HIV care costs are discounted to reflect the fact that they will be incurred in the future, the projected lifetime cost per person at the time of entering optimal HIV care is $385,200, and the treatment expense that can be avoided by preventing each HIV infection is $303,100.  
Results: HIV/AIDS The UNGASS Declaration called for a fundamental shift in our response to HIV/AIDS.  No longer perceived as only a health sector concern, the epidemic is now accepted by the world�s leaders as a global development challenge of highest priority.  The implications of this shift for the UN system are profound and far-reaching.  Effective support to national HIV/AIDS responses demands that we fundamentally re-think current plans and programmes; find the courage to take risks, innovate and expand interventions on a scale never before achieved; and forthrightly address issues such as stigma. Discrimination, gender inequality and inequitable access to prevention, care and treatment 118 kb pdf
Social & Economic Impact of AIDS Politicians, policy makers and others often expect, and are looking for, a dramatic and measurable impact from the disease (AIDS) - something they can respond to in a technical manner as they respond to many other social, economic and medical problems. There are number of reasons shy this is not and will not be possible

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Socio-Economic Causes and Consequences of HIV / AIDS: A Focus on South Asia HIV/AIDS is a major development challenge with implications beyond the health sector. Socio-economic factors such as gender inequality, poverty and livelihood issues, which are key causes of high mobility and migration of people and trafficking of women and children, also contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS, and are, in turn exacerbated by it. These factors operate within the legal and ethical environment, which also influences responses to the HIV-affected.  
Socio-economic effects of HIV/AIDS in African countries This study considers the impact on enterprises.  The most notable negative effect has been the decline in labour supply and loss in productivity because of absenteeism, while the effect on capital appears less certain.  Many of these effects are greater for small businesses that are dependent on a few key persons and therefore will be particularly vulnerable.  Foreign direct investment is likely to decline because of the economic uncertainties created by the epidemic.  Declining economic growth will mean that the demand for domestic goods will be hit. 374 kb pdf
Socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDS on households in South Africa (Large report-increased download time) The impact of HIV/AIDS on households was assessed by means of a longitudinal (cohort) study of households affected by the disease. The CHSR&D established a formal relationship with various stakeholders in the two study sites to facilitate the recruitment of affected households. Verbal informed consent was obtained from infected individuals to interview the households to which they belong. The household impact of HIV/AIDS was determined by comparing over time the observed trends in socioeconomic variables in HIV/AIDS households and a control group using statistical methods. For this purpose, a survey on the quality of life and the economics of affected and non-affected households was conducted.  
Socio-economic Impact of HIV/AIDS on People Living with HIV/AIDS and their Families The deteriorating economic impact on the PLWHA is also shocking�The number is increasing and now we are about 10% of the global HIV population�We shall make mistake if we don�t take these findings seriously and strengthen out responses to HIV/AIDS 339 kb pdf
Social Capital Social Capital 294 kb PDF Using household panel data that include directly solicited information on economic shocks and employing household fixed-effects estimation, this paper explores how well households cope with shocks by examining the effects of shocks on child nutritional status

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Still no excuses: Orphans and vulnerable children and HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS is the biggest threat to the developing world.  Fairer trade rules and debt relief will be in vain if the HIV epidemic is not dealt with.  Its impact on the societies and economies of the developing world, especially in Africa, is already devastating. 87 kb pdf
The Challenge of HIV/AIDS for Food Security and Nutrition "With shortage of labor in the household and lack of resources to obtain agricultural inputs, many households have to resort to changing their usual crop mix, in order to cope with the stress of chronic sickness. The more labor intensive crops, as well as those requiring expensive inputs, may be dropped (tobacco). When faced with making the difficult choice, a household may decide to grow crops only in their garden or only the field, thereby dropping all the crops grown in one area. In an indirect way chronic sickness and death in the household also impacts the crop-mix adopted by the household when they deplete all their resources to meet the medical needs of the sick person, and then are left with no cash to buy fertilizers or seeds. This forces the household to drop one or two crops for that agricultural season."


THE ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF HIV IN RUSSIA HIV/AIDS has two effects on the supply of labor: a decline in absolute numbers, as the death rate increases, and a decline in the productivity of workers who are affected by HIV.


The Economic Impact of AIDS in Nigeria AIDS has the potential to create severe economic impacts in many African countries.  It is different from most other disease because it strikes people in the most productive are groups and is essentially 100 percent fatal.  The effects will vary according to the severity of the AIDS epidemic and the structure of the national economies.  The two major economic effects are a reduction in the labor supply and increased costs 187 kb pdf

The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Retailers

A scan of press releases and research reports relating to HIV/AIDS and the retail sector reveals one simple truth� Retailers have done very little to protect themselves against the harmful effects of the epidemic. The business community and general population typically have the same attitude towards the threat of HIV/AIDS. There is denial amongst those most at risk, refusal to talk openly about the issues and safeguards. Most individuals prefer not to know the full extent of the problem and there is a general failure to change behaviour and recognise that each institution is as vulnerable as the next. It is important that retailers identify the impact that HIV/AIDS will have on an individual business. An effective response to the epidemic can only be achieved by convincing all stakeholders of the severity of the problem. A greater understanding of the impact is also required in developing an appropriate response to the epidemic. Pdf 306 kb
The Economic Impact of AIDS in South Africa AIDS has the potential to create severe economic impacts in many African countries.  It is different from most other diseases because it strikes people in the most productive age groups and is essentially 100 percent fatal.  The effects will vary according to the severity of the AIDS epidemic and the structure of the national economies. Pdf 251 kb
THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF AIDS IN THE United States Because of the virulence and deadliness of the disease, which has generally required acute hospital care, serious concerns about its impact on health care costs were raised almost from the beginning. Yet only in the past three or four years have some data on its costs become available from a number of studies that have estimated the economic impact of AIDS. Even now, serious data gaps remain. Because we appear to have reached the end of the first phase of the medical management of AIDS, with its heavy reliance on inpatient hospital care, it is timely now to review the studies and estimates relating to the costs of the epidemic and its economic impact that have been made to date. Pdf 137 kb


The Globalization of Disease As trade, travel, and food sources become more global, humans, animals, and plants are being exposed to myriad new and ever more resilient diseases. Increasingly antibiotics fail to subdue multi-drug-resistant forms of diseases, such as tuberculosis, that they once nearly eliminated. Although there is no agreement on what is causing this trend�theories include climate changes, manipulation of plants and animals, genetic engineering, increased mobility of humans and food sources, and terrorism�the fact remains that disease threats are increasing. Officials in the United States and the international community need to begin containing the threat that diseases and pests pose in an increasingly globalized  world, by putting into place reliable, cooperative, and responsive systems to anticipate, prevent, detect, and react to outbreaks�both those caused inadvertently and those caused by terrorist attack.


THE IMPACT OF HIV/AIDS This paper begins with the impact of HIV/AIDS on the social structure in the farming communities and is followed by the impacts on labor and income, land ownership and the health and psychological well-being of affected households including school-age children in schools. Findings on the impact of the epidemic on crop and livestock production, community coping mechanisms and strategies for increasing labor productivity are also covered.


The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Civil Society (large report-increase download time) Assessing and mitigating impact-tools and models for NGOs and CBOs 561 kb pdf
The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Health Service Personnel at Two Public Hospitals in Johannesburg

It is general knowledge that the HIV/AIDS epidemic is adversely affecting the South-African population.  Public servants are responsible for providing services to all sectors of society. In the same way that educators are critical to the schooling of South Africa�s youth, health workers are critical to the implementation of a successful public health response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa, and yet they may be as susceptible to this epidemic as the general population.

In the wake of health care staff shortages in the public sector and increased levels of morbidity and mortality within the general population due to AIDS. Concern over the readiness of the public health sector to deal with the increasing patient burden has prompted stakeholders to want to ascertain the impact of HIV/AIDS on public healthcare personnel in order to formulate a proper response and anticipate the future demand for this segment of the workforce.  For this reason, our research team carried out an HIV sero-prevalence study among voluntary participants at Helen Joseph and Coronation Hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa. Additionally, blood samples found to be HIV positive were further tested to measure the CD4 cell count.  Knowledge of the CD4 cell distribution provides an indication of what percentage of workers are at increased risk of opportunistic infections, such as tuberculosis, and what percentage of workers have AIDS and would likely need to receive antiretroviral therapy. 
The impact of HIV/AIDS on rural households/communities and the need for multisectoral prevention and mitigation strategies to combat the epidemic in rural areas HIV/AIDS is no longer restricted to cities. The disease is now spreading with alarming speed into rural areas and affects the farming population, especially people in their most productive years (ages 15 to 45). However, there is also some evidence of stabilization in HIV infection rates in certain areas of East and Central Africa. In one rural district of southwest Uganda, the percentage of those aged 13 and above acquiring HIV infection each year declined from 7.5 percent in 1989-1990 to 4.5 percent in 1993. This is attributed to success in changing sexual behaviour.  
The impact of HIV/AIDS on adult Mortality. This report is a chilling reminder of how powerful stereotypes across society have colluded in creating the most explosive epidemic in the history of our country.  Comprehensive, powerful and rigorous as these data are, they can be seized upon positively by individuals, government and society to intervene at many levels such that no South African person, family or community has to live under the cloud of this vicious and unrelenting epidemic

Pdf 434 kb

THE IMPACT OF HIV/AIDS ON NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT This article attempts to project into public domain, by means of authentic and honest analysis of the practical realities on the ground, the devastating consequences of HIV/AIDS on our collective social existence, growth and national development.   
The Impact on Economic Growth in Africa of Rising Costs and Labor Productivity Losses Associated with HIV/AIDS This paper analyzes the impact of HIV/AIDS using a model of economic retrogression. Derived from reversing direction in an endogenous growth framework, the model provides a fresh perspective of the impact of HIV/AIDS on economic growth. Many analysts have now recognized that their best estimates of the effect of the epidemic have been systematically understated. What they have failed to fully account for is that the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been having a non-linear effect on economic growth. Our model incorporates this element by including the feedback to the rate of economic growth of declining savings and investment due to rising costs and falling productivity associated with HIV/AIDS.  
The Impact of HIV/AIDS on the Health System and Child Health This study finds that HIV/AIDS has generated a substantial increase in the overall burden of disease, crowded out the health resources assigned to the care of traditional sicknesses, (iii) directed most of the additional demand for care at the secondary and tertiary levels thus causing a congestion at these levels while weakening primary health care, including the programs targeted at children and mothers,  caused a substantial increase in health expenditure that was financed by the households in poor countries and by the public sector in the middle income ones and eroded the delivery capacity of the whole health sector due to mounting infection rates among the staff and falling expenditure on fixed investment and maintenance. As for the impact on U5MR, the evidence shows that countries with high HIV prevalence rates, a high coverage of child health services and low U5MR in the pre-AIDS era, there was a marked reversal of the declining trend in child mortality. Pdf 153 kb
The Impact of HIV and AIDS on Children, Families and Communities: While recent scientific efforts have resulted in a series of discoveries and advances in understanding and controlling the virus that causes AIDS, this progress has had limited impact on the majority of HIV infected people and populations living in developing countries. The social and economic conditions that nurture the spread of the virus have to be confronted as essential elements in local and global efforts to stem its spread and create effective solutions to halt the epidemic. The current demographics of the epidemic illustrate that this is particularly true of the conditions of human life during childhood  
THE IMPLICATIONS OF HIV/AIDS FOR SOCIAL PROTECTION The myriad of impacts of HIV/AIDS on poor people is increasingly well documented. Poverty research from many different disciplines and sectors has contributed to a growing understanding of the current and potential future impacts of the epidemic. The main outcome of this improved understanding is recognition, on the parts of governments, donors and civil society, of the need to take action in order to mitigate the growing vulnerability and poverty effects of the epidemic. At the same time, there has been a re-emergence of concern amongst policy-makers regarding the ways in which social protection interventions can help households cope with livelihood insecurity. Debates about social protection focus on new types of interventions and on appropriate targeting and implementation mechanisms. Through a review of current understandings of the impact of HIV/AIDS and a brief analysis of emerging new perspectives on social protection, this paper demonstrates why it is important for policy-makers and practitioners to explore the implications of HIV/AIDS for social protection.  
The long-run economic costs of AIDS: Theory and an application to South Africa Most existing estimates of the macroeconomic costs of Aids, as measured by the reduction in the growth rate of GDP, are modest. For Africa, they range between 0.3 and 1.5 per cent annually. This is because these estimates are based on an underlying assumption that the main effect of increased mortality is to relieve pressure on existing land and physical capital so that output per head is little affected.


The Macroeconomic Impact The macro economic impact of HIV/AIDS has two dimensions, namely direct and indirect costs. The latter is much more difficult to estimate, whilst its effect is also much more profound. This situation is aggravated by the fact that the portion of the population most affected by HIV/AIDS is the most economically active. The result of this is reduced economic growth and hence pressures on income. This could translate into changes in expenditure patterns that would definitely have an impact on the demand for food. Although the per capita income is expected to increase, it is projected that total expenditure on food will decrease in 2004 and 2009 in the "With HIV/AIDS" scenario. In constant 1995 terms, AIDS will cause a reduction in food expenditure in 2004 from 265,6 million to 258,8 million, while in 2009 the pandemic will result in a 6,52 per cent reduction from 294,5 million to 275,3 million  

The National Security Implications of HIV/AIDS


Despite the high-pro. le linking of HIV/AIDS and security, including four United Nations Security Council (UNSC) meetings and prominent mention within the United States national security strategy, critical debate about the ways in which public health interacts with the security interests of states are scarce in public health journals. Journals have examined the ways national security issues, including the recent war in Iraq and the Israeli�Palestinian con. Ict [3,4], have negatively affected public health. However, the ways public health affects national security interests have rarely been considered. It is essential to examine this debate, including evidence for the links between HIV/AIDS and national security, from a public health perspective because of the implications this linkage has for the direction and funding of global HIV/AIDS efforts. Pdf 927 kb
Top Russian Official Says One In 25 Could Have HIV In Five Years The top Russian government HIV/AIDS expert, Vadim Pokrovsky of the Russian Center for AIDS Prevention and Treatment, said in a new report yesterday that at least 500,000 Russians have HIV and that as many as 1.5 million of the country's 147 million people may be infected.  
Ukraine-socio-economic impact There is a strong possibility that Ukraine is confronted by an HIV epidemic, which will spread into the general population.

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UNICEF report on Africa's orphaned generations Today, over 11 million children under the age of 15 living in sub- Saharan Africa have been robbed of one or both parents by HIV/Aids. Seven years from now, the number is expected to have grown to 20 million. At that point, anywhere from 15 per cent to over 25 per cent of the children in a dozen sub-Saharan African countries will be orphans - the vast majority of them will have been orphaned by HIV/AIDS.


We have AIDS-

Access to Medication and care


AIDS and the Marketplace


Choking the seeds of learning


Compassion in the Midst of crisis


Food Security Spiral


The Role of Gender


Youth�part of the Solution


How can a country that cannot afford to feed its own people and assure them of food security, spend money on medication and care?

Most of the 40 million people infected with HIV are in the prime of their working lives.  The effects are momentous�not just on workers and their families, but on enterprises and entire national and regional economies.  AIDS has become a crucial workplace issue and a massive development challenge.�

In the most affected countries, the loss of teachers due to AIDS is expected to outstrip the ability of training colleges to provide new qualified teachers.

Many of us don�t even know someone personally who is infected with HIV or AIDS, even though there are a lot of people suffering with the disease in out neighborhoods and even in our churches

Food security, described as your-round access to sufficient food of appropriate nutritional value, is a basic human need.  It is dependent on availability, stability, and accessibility of food supplies.  All of these are diminished when HIV/AIDS enters a community

The relative lack of power that women experience and conditions of poverty go hand in hand with behaviors to create the conditions ripe for a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS in women.

Tanzanian girls are taught to submit to men, so if a man asks them for sex they feel that they cannot refuse or even insist on protecting themselves


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Wealth Alone does not Buy Health-State Capacity, Democracy, and the Spread of AIDS In this paper- it considers how a variety of domestic factors influence HIV infection rates across countries.  We argue that states with higher state capacity lend to slow down the spread of HIV/AIDS epidemic.  Moreover, we argue that democracies tend to be more responsive to the needs of the population and can be more efficient in curtailing the spread of HIV/AIDS. Pdf 443 kb
Welfare implications The fact that relatively better-off households have a more diversified income base following the shocks implies that the poor are more vulnerable to economic changes unaccompanied by well-designed safety nets.

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Which is the Scourge: Debt or HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS is not the only problem demanding government attention. In the poorest countries especially, confronting AIDS can consume scarce resources that could be used for other pressing needs. Most of the countries worst affected by HIV virus are already buckling under the heavy burden of international debt


World Bank approves 20 Million for Trinidad The World Bank yesterday approved a $20 million loan aimed at reducing HIV infections and providing treatment and care for people infected with HIV/AIDS in Trinidad and Tobago.


World Bank says AIDS worst Economic Evil "The irony of AIDS is that it is striking the middle age group which constitutes the majority of the productive workforce. This is bringing a lot of pressure to economies at national and household level,"


World Bank:  Accelerating Response to HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS is the leading cause of death in the 15 to 44 year age group in the Caribbean. By the end of 2001, more than a half million people in the region were infected with the disease.


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