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“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”

Socio-Economic Issues

Main topics can be found within the left column; sub-topics and/or research reports can be found near the bottom of this page.  Thank you



The combination of both HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis C (these diseases) will eventually change the structure of families to the way governments conduct business. With these diseases (they) are causing a reduction in the work force and resulting in a massive brain drain for current and future generations. As more people become ill with either disease, they become less productive and their economic resources are spent on medical care. Because they are only focusing on basic needs (shelter, food, and medicine) they are not purchasing non-essential or luxury goods and services. This change in purchases causes a dramatic change in the economic structure of their respective society. The resulting effect on non-infected people will be that they will have to pay more money for goods and services, and will have to pay higher taxes if they want the government to maintain the same level of services as it did in the past.

A report from the CIA states that these diseases will have:

·                     A destabilizing Political and Security Impact- In our view, the infectious disease burden will add to political instability and slow democratic development in Sub-Saharan Africa, parts of Asia, and the former Soviet Union, while also increasing political tensions in and among some developed countries.

·                     The severe social and economic impact of infectious diseases and the infiltration of these diseases into the ruling political and military elites and middle classes of developing countries are likely to intensify the struggle for political power to control scarce state resources. This will hamper the development of a civil society and other underpinnings of democracy and will increase pressure on democratic transitions in regions such as the FSU and Sub-Saharan Africa where the infectious disease burden will add to economic misery and political polarization.

·                     Family Structure. The degradation of nuclear and extended families across all classes will produce severe social and economic dislocations with political consequences.

·                     Microeconomic Impact-The impact of infectious diseases at the sector and firm level already appears to be substantial and growing and will be reflected eventually in higher GDP losses, especially in the more advanced developing countries with specialized work force needs.

·                     Threats to Deployed Military Forces--Deployed US military forces have historically experienced higher rates of hospital admission from infectious diseases than from battlefield combat and noncombatant injuries. In addition to disease transmission between deployed troops and indigenous populations, warfare-related social disruption often creates refugees and internally displaced persons that can pass infections along to US military forces. Allied coalition forces may themselves bring infectious diseases into an area for the first time and transmit them to US forces and the indigenous population.


Document Name & Link to Document Description File Size /pdf

10-yr. Strategy for increasing Capital Flows to Africa

Africa’s economic isolation has deep implications for world stability, commerce, and indeed, humanity

501 kb pdf

2000--US Census Status and Trends of HIV Epidemic

A team of internationally recognized technical specialists in epidemiology, modelling, economics, demography, public health, and international development was formed to monitor the dynamics of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and various regional epidemics


2004 World Population Data Sheet

Looking at the trend over that period, 14 African countries are estimated to have had a decline in their HIV/AIDS prevalence, led by Kenya and Uganda. In contrast, 24 African countries are believed to have shown either no decrease or a rise in HIV/AIDS prevalence.


O6 AIDS epidemic Update

(Large report, increase download time)


Promising developments have been seen in recent years in global efforts to address the AIDS epidemic, including increased access to effective treatment and prevention programmes. However, the number of people living with HIV continues to grow, as does the number of deaths due to AIDS. A total of 39.5 million [34.1 million–47.1 million] people were living with HIV in 2006—2.6 million more than in 2004. This figure includes the estimated 4.3 million [3.6 million–6.6 million] adults and children who were newly infected with HIV in 2006, which is about 400 000 more than in 2004. Pdf 2245 kb
A REVIEW OF SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH ON HIV/AIDS In studying economic and political settings connected with high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, social scientists have come to the conclusion that there is a clear link between levels of HIV/AIDS and poverty throughout the world. Whilst an impressive amount of research has been undertaken to study the impact of the epidemic, less has been achieved in mitigating its effects of deepening poverty and the rolling back of development gains.  
A Spatially Explicit Modelling Approach to Socio-economic Development in South Africa South Africa finds itself at a development cross road: optimism for ‘high road’ development is bisected by a wasteland of poverty and overpopulation. Intervention policies are largely ‘faith-based’, even in the face of rising uncertainties surrounding population growth, HIV/Aids and resource availability.  Added to this are the complexities of disparate spatial development and social scenarios, mass urbanization and immigration. Pdf 223 kb
Addressing the HIV/AIDS Pandemic
At the dawn of the new millennium, there are few threats more 
dangerous to mankind than the global HIV/AIDS pandemic. 
Infecting 40 million people and already accounting for 25 million 
deaths, it could well become the worst health crisis in modern 
history. While centered today in sub-Saharan Africa, it is 
spreading rapidly in India, China, Central Asia, and Russia.


Adolescents through the Lifecourse: Variation in Cultures of Sexuality and Risk in Rural South Africa Within the context of South Africa’s severe HIV epidemic, young people face a disproportionate risk.  With more than 10% of those aged 15-24 infected, the epidemic impacts heavily on this age group.  Factors associated with heightened sexual risk in young people include women having an older partner, multiple partnerships, especially for men, and inconsistent condom use. Pdf 194 kb
Adult Mortality in the Era of HIV/AIDS: Sub-Saharan Africa The strong age-specific impact of HIV on mortality is reshaping the population structure of African countries with substantial epidemics.  The survival of adults in the worst effected countries is substantially reduced which will eventually depopulate certain tiers of the age pyramid, reducing the number of adults available to reproduce, and this together with the impact of HIV on fertility itself, will substantially alter the age distribution of severely impacted African populations for many decades to come Pdf 611 kb
African AIDS: Impacts of Globalization, Pharmaceutical Apartheid, and Treatment Activism Worldwide, but especially in Africa, a disproportionate number of infections occur in late teenage and young adult years.  Although HIV/AIDS in African affects both men and women, women how have a higher overall infection rate than men, and women contract the virus at a munch younger age, 5-10 years earlier, because of numerous co-factors, including cross-age sex between younger teenage women and older, already infected men, the effects of young age and STD’s on vaginal susceptibility to viral transmission, and lack of power of younger women to negotiate safer sex practices. 385 kb pdf
Africa: The Socio-Economic Impact of HIV/AIDS It is at the level of the family and community that the fullest impacts of the HIV pandemic is unraveling.  One such ramification is AIDS related poverty among households.  Across the African continent, the most vulnerable people are the most economically active.  As these active people die, families are struggling to cope not just emotionally, but also economically.  Poverty is increasing as bread-winners die and scarce savings are utilized in the period of ill health.  As savings dwindle, families begin to fragment economically.  One implication of this fragmentation of families is the rising numbers of orphan children on our continent. Pdf 1104 kb

African Microenterprise AIDS Initiative- Preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS by empowering women in Africa

Disadvantaged African women require both economic empowerment and HIV/AIDS education to significantly reduce their susceptibility to the HIV virus.  Their lack of resources and understanding constrains them to high-risk sexual behavior


Age and AIDS: a Lethal Mix for South Africa’s Crime Rate Barring a miracle whereby an inexpensive cure is found for AIDS, the coming decades will be harsh on South Africa.  AIDS will decimate the country’s pool of young workers, and place substantial pressure on an already overburdened public health system.  Decreasing levels of productivity and a reduction in the country’s gross national product will follow.  The disease is also hitting South Africa at the worst possible time when the number of juveniles as a proportion of the general population will be at a high point.  This, and the resulting surge in the number of orphans, will create a sustained upward pressure on crime rates throughout the country 173 kb pdf

Agriculture & AIDS

the Ministries of Agriculture generally continue to consider HIV/AIDS as a health issue and do not perceive that the spread of the epidemics in rural populations is linked to their vulnerability resulting in part from a failure in development. It is only recently that some MOAs have considered their role in relation to HIV/AIDS and they still see their involvement as implying additional tasks without additional resources


AIDS & democracy in South Africa

What are the implications of HIV/AIDS for democracy?  How does democracy affect the spread of HIV/AIDS and the extent of its impacts?  What type of democracy and what type of policies are best suited to responding to this epidemic?

Pdf 184 kb

AIDS & democracy: What do we Know?

It is essential to note from the outset the paucity of substantive data and primary research on the topic of HIV/AIDS and democracy.  The vast majority of sources discussed in this paper are theoretical or conceptual pieces which speculate—with varying degrees of expertise—on the possible, probable, or expected impact of HIV/AIDS on security and democracy, as well as the impact of insecurity and antidemocratic forces on accelerating the spread of HIV, or of democracy and governance on slowing that spread.                                                                         

Pdf 94 kb

AIDS, Economics and Terrorism in Africa After years of denial, there is now little debate about the economic impact of AIDS in countries with high prevalence rates.  AIDS kills people in the most productive years of their lives and leads to dramatic increases in private and public health care spending while tax revenues decline.  Foreign investors are less likely to invest in areas with high HIV prevalence because AIDS decimates human capital and reduces public investment in education. 158 kb pdf
AIDS Erupts as National Security Issue - Epidemics Threaten Russia, China and India Five years ago, the Clinton Administration identified AIDS as a national and global security threat, declaring that it has the potential to destabilize governments. Today, the threat has grown as governments across sub-Saharan Africa teeter on the brink of collapse while those in developed and developing states differ greatly in their reactions to the devastating disease from denial to the suggestion of aggressive action.  
AIDS and Older Persons: The View from Thailand Although little attention has been paid to older adults in the context of the global AIDS epidemic, they not only can contract HIV themselves but, far more commonly, they experience multiple consequences as in their role as parents of younger adults who become ill and die from AIDS.  Older persons also make significant contributions to the well-being of younger adults who suffer from AIDS by playing a major role in care giving to their infected sons and daughters and by assuming the role of foster parents for their grandchildren who are left behind as AIDS orphans emphasizing the consequences for and the contributions by older persons in their role as AIDS parents. 360 kb pdf

AIDS Becoming Youth Epidemic

Young people are increasingly responsible for the spread of HIV/AIDS around the world because of poverty and a severe lack of information and prevention services, the United Nations said Wednesday.
Every 14 seconds a person aged between 15 and 24 is infected with the virus. They now account for half all new cases of the disease, the U.N. Population Fund said in its annual State of the World's Population report


AIDS Epidemic Grows Unchecked "AIDS has become the biggest threat to the continentís redevelopment... essential services are being depleted at the same time as state institutions and resources come under greater strain...the risks of social unrest and even socio-political instability should not be underestimated." Eastern Europe and Central Asia, covering much of the area that formed the Soviet Union and its East European satellite countries, has experienced the fastest rise in levels of HIV infection.  

AIDS/HIV Disease and Socio-Culturally Diverse Populations

Culture embodies the values, attitudes, beliefs and practices of a group as well as its roles and structures, communication styles, technology, art, and artifacts. The numbers of reported cases of AIDS/HIV disease are dramatically increasing in some ethnic and minority groups.


AIDS: How a Killer Plague Can Be Stopped

The facts about AIDS are overwhelming. The disease is spreading rapidly from country to country. Morgues are working round the clock to keep up with the demand. Millions of orphans are left behind by their dead parents. Cemeteries are filled and overflowing. Coffin makers are running out of wood. Ignorance, superstition and fear abound. Governments are paralyzed by the sheer enormity of the death toll. Medical services are swamped and unable to cope.


AIDS Impact Model (AIM) Approach

The toolkit considers the questions (AIDS) and offers some discussion and guidelines for activists determined to increase political commitment for effective HIV/AIDS policies and programs.

774 kb PDF

AIDS impact on children—Lagging Policy response & impact.

The number of the reported cases increased from 2 in 1985 to 56,000 in 1999.  AIDS has become the leading cause of mortality among adults and one of the first in children, and the mortality associated with the disease has reduced life expectancy at birth from 65 years to 55 years in 2000.

Pdf 590 kb

AIDS impact on children—Overview of the Impact & best responses.

This paper reviews the community and public policy interventions introduced so far to moderate the impact of the disease on children and families and discusses the advantages and limitations of such interventions.  The main problem of the measures introduced so far is their nearly exclusive focus on prevention and the health sector.  While this approach is understandable in the early phase of the epidemics, its ability to protect child well-being appears now limited.

Pdf 261 kb

AIDS impact on children—Poverty and AIDS.

AIDS is a very long wave event.  The true death toll cannot be estimated until the full waveform of the epidemic has been seen.  It may be as long as 50 years before we can say that the world epidemic has peaked and/or begun to decline.

Pdf 128 kb

AIDS impact on children—The Current & future impact on children

The impacts infant and child mortality rates will double over 15 years, life expectancy will dramatically decline as more children acquire HIV, millions of orphans will be created as adults die and these children will kept in poverty and be less likely to attend school and receive the normal socialization of childhood.

Pdf 380 kb

AIDS impact on children—Impact of HIV/AIDS on Children: Light and Shadows in the successful case- Uganda

The analyses of the socio-economic impacts of HIV/AIDS on children in Uganda, with specific focus on their health, education and social welfare, and on the current and future policy/program responses in the field of prevention, treatment and mitigation.

Pdf 235 kb

AIDS impact on children—The impact on a Growing HIV/AIDS Epidemic on the Kenyan Children

HIV prevalence in Kenya increased from 5.3 percent in 1990 to 13.5 percent in 2002 with the number of children under 5 years living with HIV growing from 32,000 in 1990 to 106,000 in 2000.

Pdf 81 kb

AIDS impact on children—The socio-economic Impact of HIV/AIDS on children in a Low Prevalence Context

The main features of this adequate policy (in Senegal)  consist of a timely response, an eagerness to anticipate on new developments, the strategic involvement of religious and political leaders, effective STD-control programs, and the construction of strong responses at the community level.

Pdf 92 kb

AIDS in prison-problems, policies presentation

Slide show of the various problems found in a prison system dealing with HIV/AIDS

159 kb PDF

AIDS is cutting African Life Span to 30-year Low

In AIDS-ravaged parts of southern Africa adult mortality is higher than it was 30 years ago, the World Health Organization said Thursday.
In 14 African countries, the United Nations agency said in its annual World Health Report, child mortality is higher than it was in 1990, with more than300 children out of every 1,000 born in Sierra Leone dying before the age of 5.


AIDS needn't wipe out millions

Should we make Aids a notifiable disease? If so, what do we do with the existing stigma of the disease, fed by ignorance? What will that do to insurance policies and premiums? These are important questions that will need answers.

When the Medical Research Council issued results of a similar study last year and declared that 20% of adult deaths were caused by Aids, the government ordered a new investigation.

Given the stance it has taken at various times about the causes and impact of Aids, it was clear its hope was that Stats SA would produce "better" results.


AIDS orphans & vulnerable children An evidence-led response

Power Point Presentation-an evidence-led response


AIDS Pandemic reduces Life Expectancy in Africa by 20 years

Life expectancy in some African countries has fallen by 20 years in the past decade, mainly due to the HIV/Aids crisis.

Child and adult mortality rates in more than a dozen sub-Saharan countries have increased in the past 10 years, even as life expectancy in developed countries is improving.

The WHO report uses a simple comparison to highlight the issue: a girl born in Britain today can expect to live to 80.6 years. A girl born in Sierra Leone is unlikely to make it past her 36th birthday.


AIDS takes an economic & Social Toll

While wreaking havoc on the present generation, the disease jeopardizes the future as well, undermining African economies and societies in ways that often are not immediately apparent.


AIDS takes its toll in infant mortality

Health officials and undertakers this week said that although Aids is not a notifiable disease by law, they believed that most of the 372 babies could have died of Aids-related illnesses.


AIDS task team About to Complete its' Work

South Africa also continued to apply itself, despite resistance from some industrialised countries, to securing an appropriate World Trade Organisation (WTO) agreement to facilitate developing countries' access to essential medicines for major health problems including HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria


AIDS Threatens SME

The future success of Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) and the livelihood of many South Africans could soon be off the economic radar screen if business fails to deal with the destructive HIV/AIDS threatening the SME.


AIDS to Hit Work Force

South Africa's economy will be hard hit in 2003 as hundreds of thousands of HIV-infected workers develop full-blown Aids, and few companies have prepared for this.


AIDS, Hunger, Terror Threaten World Security

Warning that the world is living in fearful times and that fear is a bad advisor, he said: "True security must be based on the proven principles of human rights. Some, in fact an increasing number, of states implicitly or explicitly believe that security and a rigorous respect of civil and political liberties are mutually exclusive. But we also have a right to security when faced with the ambitions of states, whether our own or others. We cannot compromise our hard-won human rights to give states a free hand in fighting terrorism.


AIDS impact on economy

Macroeconomic research issues: There seems to be a consensus that accurate effects at the macroeconomic level are difficult to ascertain. Various people made suggestions as to how estimates could be improved:


Allocating HIV Prevention Resources 2002

The primary goal of HIV prevention is to prevent as many infections as possible. This requires allocating HIV-prevention resources according to cost effectiveness principles: those activities that prevent more infections per dollar are favored over those that prevent fewer. This is not current practice in the United States, where prevention resources from the federal government to the states flow in proportion to reported AIDS cases.


An ILO study on the socio-economic impact of HIV on infected persons finds that the HIV-positive face the maximum discrimination within their families

In 2002, ILO (India) initiated a study to understand the socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDS on infected persons and their families, particularly women and children. The findings of this report, which was published recently, are both meaningful and significant because of the sensitivity with which the study was carried out. Conducted in collaboration with the network of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), the study underlines the adverse economic impact of HIV/AIDS, and the trauma arising from stigma, discrimination and ostracism.


An Unhealthy America: The Economic Burden of Chronic Disease Charting a New Course to Save Lives and Increase Productivity and Economic Growth

(Large report-increase download time)
More than half of Americans suffer from one or more chronic diseases. Each year millions of people are diagnosed with chronic disease, and millions more die from their condition. By our calculations, the most common chronic diseases are costing the economy more than $1 trillion annually— and that figure threatens to reach $6 trillion by the middle of the century. Yet much of this cost is avoidable. This failure to contain the containable is undermining prospects for extending health insurance coverage and for coping with the medical costs of an aging population. The rising rate of chronic disease is a crucial but frequently ignored contributor to growth in medical expenditures. pdf 4719 kb

Anti-AIDS Effort in Central China Focuses on Former Plasma Donors

The epidemic in Central China took root between the late 1980s and the late-1990s when entrepreneurs paid poor farmers in Henan province for plasma — the liquid portion of blood that provides critical proteins for blood clotting and immunity. The farmers, who were not tested for HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or other blood-borne infections, gave blood to collection centers, which pooled the blood of several donors of the same blood type, separated the plasma, and injected the remaining red-blood cells back into individual donors to prevent anemia.


ASSA AIDS and Demographic Models

(Large report-increased download time)

The Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA) felt that it was desirable for people to have access to a non-proprietary programme which users could alter to suit their needs. In 1996, ASSA therefore released the ASSA500 model.


Assessing the Value of American Investment in Medical Research

How does a venture capitalist decide where to invest his money? He compares the potential for return against the risk, and when the return appears to be significant and the risk isn't too great, he invests. As our country makes decisions about its future investment in medical research, it might apply a similar standard.


AT WHAT COST? HIV AND HUMAN RIGHTS CONSEQUENCES OF THE GLOBAL “WAR ON DRUGS” This volume, which focuses on the experiences of people who use drugs and those who work with them, offers a partial answer. While drug control policies have indeed been strengthened in many countries of the world, there is little evidence that they have succeeded in significantly reducing supply of illicit drugs or the numbers of people who use them. 3068 kb pdf

An assessment of trends in Child Mortality-Tanzania

Comparing the results of the TRCHS 1999 with the TDHS 1996 suggests that child mortality in Tanzania has increased.  Yet, five-year trends within the TRCHS suggest the opposite.  How should these trends be interpreted?

95 kb pdf

Barcelona Report on HIV prevalence and impact Power Point Presentation with several grafts and diagrams 820 kb
BONELA POLICY PAPER ON HIV/AIDS AND EMPLOYMENT In a broad sense, HIV/AIDS affects the workplace in many aspects: it affects productivity; it can increase business costs, and affect the national economy. Productivity is reduced because of increased absenteeism and low employee morale. Business costs are increased because of increased benefits, increased amounts of sick pay, as well as the cost of replacing workers as others become too sick to work, or die.   

Case Study Executive Summary


DCSA established its workplace and community HIV/AIDS project in 2001 to address the increasing financial burden associated with HIV/AIDS. DCSA also decided to provide prevention, care, support and treatment services to employees, their dependants and the community as part of DCSA.s obligation to these stakeholders based on the principles of corporate social responsibility (CSR). This is also an extension of DaimlerChrysler's signing of the UN Global Compact on CSR.  

Causes & Consequences of AIDS.

Presentation of the economic issues of HIV/AIDS in Africa

Pdf 1,119

Challenges associated with increased survival

Increasing numbers of women are being infected with HIV, resulting in substantially higher numbers of infected parents.

174 kb PDF

Changing Burden of Disease in Southern Africa: A brief note on the evidence and implications

As the AIDS epidemic has matured, it has clearly had devastating and appreciable demographic and epidemiological effects. Here, three pieces of evidence are cited which demonstrate that higher levels of HIV transmission result in a qualitative difference in the burden of disease.


Childcare & work

This report suggests that interventions to increase the availability of formal day care in poor urban areas have the potential to raise labour-force participation rates of mothers residing in poor neighbourhoods

PDF / 283KB

Children and Armed Conflict

A guide to international humanitarian and human rights laws

233 kb pdf


Chronic Conditions in the U.S. Implications for Service Delivery and Financing Power Point Presentation 183 kb

Chronic Hepatitis C-Epidemiology and Economic Burden

Death rates due to Hepatitis C Virus are expected to increase over the next 20 years. Estimates of death rates may underestimate the actual death rate because of underreporting of liver disease and underreporting of deaths due to liver disease on death certificates and in other databases

Healthcare costs for Hepatitis C Virus include managing patients' symptoms, managing other organ involvement, treating Hepatitis C Virus with antiviral agents, and managing end-stage liver disease as well as the cost of liver transplantation. Wong and coworkers estimated that the annual US healthcare cost for Hepatitis C Virus will exceed $1 billion by the year 2008 and continue to increase up to at least the year 2015


Combating Child labour and HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa The HIV/AIDS pandemic adds a new and tragic dimension to the worst forms of child labour.  With the death of one or both parents from HIV/AIDS, millions of children have been orphaned.  Millions more will be.  Many of these children will find security in the households of relatives.  Others, however, will drop out of school, looking for work to survive.  An especially harsh burden is placed on the shoulders of the girl child, who often has to provide care and household services for the entire family.  Even children cared for by grandparents or other relatives may have to work to assist guardians and siblings 598 kb pdf

Common and idiosyncratic shocks to labor labor productivity across sectors and countries

When mapping the world in terms of income per head or labor productivity, we find that rich countries lie in the temperate zones and poor countries in the tropic and semi-tropical areas.

Pdf 71 kb

Company Actions on AIDS in Durban Metro Area


Whilst many large corporations have embarked on ambitious plans and implemented strategic programmes to mitigate the impact HIV/AIDS will have on their workforce, others have been left defenceless through lack of resources, knowledge and an established infrastructure.

PDF / 1,280KB

Confronting the Impact of HIV and AIDS:

The global spread of the HIV and AIDS pandemics will, for the next three generations at least, underline education access, quality and provision. Reforms within the sector will necessarily take account of the implications of this plague within national, provincial and local contexts. This article is based on several assumptions. The first is that HIV/AIDS is not only a medical problem: the spread of the disease has created a pandemic with social, economic, geopolitical and other consequences for all countries. Second, increasing numbers of countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean, are now facing one of the great crises of human history. The third is that other countries in Eastern Europe and the Asia and Pacific regions will confront similar challenges as the pandemic spreads.


CONSEQUENCES OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS (HCV) COSTS OF A BABY BOOMER EPIDEMIC OF LIVER DISEASE Power Point Presentation-Annual medical costs for patients with HCV infection are expected to more than double, from $30 billion to over $85 billion over the next 15 years. 1727 kb

Containing Costs While Maintaining Quality

Series of articles on how insurance companies are reducing costs


Costs of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses Most Americans between the ages of 22 and 65 spend 40 to 50 percent of waking hours at work. Every year millions of Americans suffer injuries and thousands experience deaths in our workplaces. Yet little effort has been made to estimate either the extent of these injuries, deaths, and diseases or their cost to the economy. Thus, important questions about workplace safety and the economic resources expended due to workplace health problems remain unanswered. In this study, we address these questions by presenting estimates of the incidence, prevalence, and costs of workplace-related injuries, illnesses, and deaths for the entire civilian workforce of the United States in 1992. We also consider controversies surrounding cost methodologies, estimate how these costs are distributed across occupations, consider who pays the costs, and address some policy issues  

Crime, punishment-measurement of poverty

This study has found that the depth of poverty associated with the higher incarceration rate, rather than the higher rate of incarceration alone that has had the greatest impact upon poverty.

400 kb PDF

Destabilizing Impacts of HIV/AIDS

The impacts of HIV/AIDS on the critical infrastructures that sustain the security, stability, and viability of modern nation-states are manifold.  In much of the developing world, particularly in Africa, HIV/AIDS is undermining education and health systems, economic growth, micro enterprises, policing and military capabilities, political legitimacy, family structures, and overall social cohesion.

217 kb pdf

Development Personnel

There is a direct relationship between HIV infection and poverty, inequality, the status of women in society, social disruption, illiteracy, human rights violations and all the other factors which define the context for development work

571 kb PDF

Eastern Europe-assessing its impact on Parallel HIV, TB, and STD Epidemic

Since 1989 the countries of Eastern Europe have undergone a period of unparalleled change.  The change began with political liberalization, which resulted in the creation of new governments and countries.  However, this has been happening concurrent with economic decline and a collapse of many social services.  It is not at all certain that the majority of citizens of East Europe would regard this as ‘reform.’

Pdf 71 kb

Economic aide for AIDS and the Nigerian Churches

"Men dominate the socio-economic and political machinery and organizations. Men are regarded as natural leaders, who are superior and born to rule over women. Women are considered weaker vessels- extensions of men and secondary human beings. The pride and dignity of women are derived from and dependent on men. Ten daughters are not worth a son. No woman is regarded as complete or real until she gives birth to a male. Delivering a son gives a woman pride and a place at her husband's home. Every married woman stands with one leg in her husband's house until she gives birth to a male child".


Economic Consequences of HIV in Russia

Series of slides that show how HIV/AIDS is impacting the Economy of Russia


Economic determinants of HIV transmission in Latin America HIV/AIDS has developed under diverse conditions around the world with consequent variations in the mode of transmission and the rate of transmission.  In the industrialized countries, what began as an epidemic amongst gays and then needle-sharing drug users, is now increasingly, concentrated in poor and marginalized sectors of the populations…Latin America represents a composite of the industrial and developing worlds both in its economic performance and in its HIV epidemic Pdf 67 kb
Economic Impact Assessing the magnitude of the economic impact hinges, of course, on the difficult task of determining the cause of the epidemic itself.  Based on anecdotal evidence at the household and firm level, however, a reasonable hypothesis is that the impact on the productive sectors will be channeled through changes in the size and quality of the labor force.  Given the scale of the epidemic in some hard hit countries, it is conceivable that long-run growth in per capita output will be constrained. AIDS predominantly affects adults in their prime sexual and most productive ages, and unlike many other diseases afflicting adults in developing countries, it is fatal.  Furthermore, this disease does not spare the occupation of urban elite, who is arguably among the most productive members of the economy.  They thought that the virus first spread among higher socioeconomic classes in African countries.  Indeed, infection rates in African urban centers are often double those in rural areas (AIDS is already the leading cause of adult death in Abidjan, and about 20 percent of adults are infected).  

Economic Impact of HIV/AIDS in Africa

Power Point Presentation on the socio-economic impact of AIDS in Africa

561 kb PDF

Economic Impact of HIV/AIDS in Africa

Since the first cases of HIV/AIDS were reported 20 years ago, nearly 58 million people have been infected and 22 million have dies.  Consensus in the international community has grown over the past two years that HIV/AIDS poses a threat to development, security, and economic growth.

Pdf 91 kb

Economic Implication of Hepatitis B Vaccination at Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics in the United States

This cost model demonstrates that hepatitis B vaccination implemented at STD clinics throughout the US would result in a net savings in medical costs from the reduction in new infections. The extent of this savings should be considered conservative since it does not include antiviral treatment, liver-transplant, and work-loss.


Economics of AIDS-impact mitigation

The adverse economic impact of AIDS is becoming increasingly evident. In high-prevalence countries the growth rates of gross domestic product are slowing down, the manpower losses in key sectors are mounting, the number of orphans is increasing and household poverty is deepening.

268 kb PDF

Economics of HIV/AIDS: Multisectoral Impacts and Programmatic Implications HIV/AIDS is a global health calamity.  It is also a profound human tragedy for the victims, their families, and their communities.  At the end of 2003, the disease had already killed an estimated 30 million people, and 40 million more were living with the virus. Pdf 192 kb
Economic status and health in childhood: the origins of the gradient That wealthy people live longer and have lower morbidity, on average, than do poor people has been well documented across countries, within countries at a point in time, and over time with economic growth. The positive correlation between income and health is not limited to the bottom end of the income distribution (Adler et al 1994). Indeed, the gradient in health status—the phenomenon that relatively wealthier people have better health and longevity—is evident throughout the income distribution. In this paper we present evidence that the income gradients observed in adult health have antecedents in childhood, and suggest that part of the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status may work through the impact of parents’ long run average income on children’s health. Pdf 226
Economy The economy was probably hit the hardest of all the aspects of Europe. The biggest problem was that valuable artisan skills disappeared when large numbers of the working class died.  
Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases 2003 Power Point Presentation 1344 kb

Empirics of Growth.

Understanding characteristics and determinants of economic growth requires and empirical framework that can be applied to large groups of countries over a relatively long time frame

Pdf 335 kb

Examining the Plague: An Investigation of Epidemic Past and Present  

(Teacher’s Manual)
The overall effects of the plague devastated Europe. The population decreased as in 20 years, affecting agricultural production, family structure and economics. Pdf 230 kb

Existence of democracy vs. infant mortality

The effect of economic development in reducing hunger is widely known, but what is the effect of a country's political regime on the basic welfare of its inhabitants?

PDF / 94KB

FAO/WFP CROP AND FOOD SUPPLY ASSESSMENT MISSION TO LESOTHO Lesotho’s cereal production appears to be on a downward trend, especially in the main producing districts of Berea, Butha-Buthe, Leribe and Maseru. This is cause for concern and should be fully investigated. Endemic soil erosion, weather-related disasters and the impact of HIV/AIDS pandemic are likely to be major underlying causes.  

Financing & Quality of HIV Care

Cost containment has driven state Medicaid programs to alter policies that have a direct impact on some or all groups of Medicaid beneficiaries. State and federal policy makers must balance the need for fiscal health with the public duty to ensure that Medicaid beneficiaries receive services that preserve and promote health.


Food insecurity & disease

Quite naturally with an infection which is predominantly sexually, and in fact heterosexually, transmitted, there is a socio-economic impact as it makes ill and finally kills people in the prime producing age groups

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Gender, AIDS, and ARV Therapies-ensuring that women gain equitable access to drugs

Given limited resources, choices will inevitable be made about who will be treated and when, raising the issues of equity in access to treatment for sub-groups of those infected

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Getting people to the pills: Transport costs, socio-economic status and reasons for defaulting from antiretroviral treatment in public sector clinics in South Africa

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Power Point Presentation 4387 kb

Global Crisis-Global Action

Deeply concerned that the global HIV/AIDS epidemic, through its devastating scale and impact, constitutes a global emergency and one of the most formidable challenges to human life and dignity, as well as to the effective enjoyment of human rights, which undermines social and economic development throughout the world and affects all levels of society - national, community, family and individual


Global Estimates of the impact of HIV/AIDS on the world of work


Executive summary

Part 1

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Part 2

Chapter 5

Chapter 6


Technical notes

Main tables

Main table 1


Main table 2

Main table 3



Main table 4


Main table 5


Main table 6

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 Contents and introduction


Global Estimates of the impact of HIV/AIDS on the world of work

Global estimates: overview of main tables

 The macroeconomic impact of HIV/AIDS: human capital, labour and production

The impact of HIV/AIDS on the world of work


The impact on women and children

Policy implications and the response to HIV/AIDS in the world of work

Policy implications

The response to HIV/AIDS in the world of work


Basic data on HIV/AIDS, the labour force, population, age groups and dependency, 50 countries, 2000-2005

Estimated impact of HIV/AIDS on economic growth, 47 countries, 1992-2002

3A: Estimated impact of HIV/AIDS on the labour force, according to 3 durations of Stages 3 and 4 of HIV/AIDS, 50 countries, 1995 3B: Projected impact of HIV/AIDS on the labour force, according to 3 durations of Stages 3 and 4 of HIV/AIDS, 50 countries, 2005 3C: Projected impact of HIV/AIDS on the labour force, according to 3 durations of Stages 3 and 4 of HIV/AIDS, 50 countries, 2015

Estimated and projected cumulative mortality losses to the male, female and total labour force as a result of HIV/AIDS, and equivalent proportion of the total labour force, 50 countries, 1995-2015

Estimated indirect mortality impact of HIV/AIDS on children, 2003, and direct impact on working-age persons, 50 countries, years 1995, 2005 and 2015

6A: Estimated increase in economic burden and social burden due to deaths and due to illness for durations 1, 2 and 3 of Stages 3 and 4 of HIV/AIDS, 50 countries, 1995
6B: Projected increase in economic burden and social burden due to deaths and due to illness for durations 1, 2 and 3 of Stages 3 and 4 of HIV/AIDS, 50 countries, 2005
6C: Projected increase in economic burden and social burden due to deaths and due to illness for durations 1, 2 and 3 of Stages 3 and 4 of HIV/AIDS, 50 countries, 201

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Global tensions grow over AIDS

The report also says rates of infection will grow dramatically in Russia, China, India, Nigeria and Ethiopia, with the last two countries being the hardest hit if urgent steps are not taken to implement education and preventive programmes about HIV/Aids


Global infectious disease threat & its implications

CIA report on infectious diseases

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Globalization and Disease: The Case of SARS’ The economic costs from a global disease such as SARS goes beyond its direct damages incurred in the affected sectors in the disease-infected countries.  This is not just because the disease spreads quickly across countries through networks related to global trade, but also any economic shock to one country is quickly spread to other countries through the increased trade and financial linkages associated with globalization 753 kb pdf
Globalization, Sex and profits-Are governments doing enough to prevent the global expansion of the sex industry Globalization has increased human interaction around the world due to technological advances and the diminishing significance of state and territory borders.  This increased interaction has required governments to cooperate more extensively than ever before to overcome some of the negative effects of globalization 154 kb pdf
Gods of Eden - The Black Death Europe in the 13th century was beginning so recover from the economic and social disruption caused by the Crusades. Signs of a European renaissance were visible in the widening of intellectual and artistic horizons. Trade with other parts of the world did much to enrich European life. Europe was entering an era in which chivalry, music, art, and spiritual values were playing greater roles. Hardly a century of this progress had passed, however, before a disastrous event abruptly brought it to a temporary halt That event was the Bubonic Plague, also known as the Black Death.  


Growth of AIDS orphans

Currently, sub-Saharan Africa has the largest number of orphans: 12.5% of all children in this region are orphans compared with 6.5% in Asia and 5% in Latin America and the Caribbean. Translated into real numbers, there are 34 million orphans in sub-Saharan Africa, and 11 million are due to AIDS. By 2010, it is estimated that 42 million orphans will exist in sub-Saharan Africa due to all causes, of whom 20 million will be AIDS-related deaths of parents or caregivers


Growth of Tuberculosis (TB) Associated with AIDS

A mathematical model that predicts disease outbreaks suggests that the AIDS epidemic can double the number and frequency of tuberculosis (TB) outbreaks


Guide for Humanitarian, Health Care, and Human Rights Workers-Caring for others, Caring for yourself

Humanitarian aid workers and others working with distressed 
populations need to understand the emotional responses of 
survivors of disasters...

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Guidelines for preparation & execution of socio-economic impact study

Because it (AIDS) results in exceptional levels of illness and death in the mature adult population it has many social and economic implications

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Handbook for Legislators on HIV/AIDS, Law and Human Rights: Action to Combat HIV/AIDS in View of its Devastating Human, Economic and Social Impact

The Introduction to this report sets out the shocking statistics of the epidemic-33.4 million people are currently living with HIV/AIDS.  An effective response is required to avert the devastation wreaked on communities around, the world by the epidemic.  This impact is disproportionately felt in developing countries and vulnerable population (those whose human rights are already not fully respected).

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Health, Wealth, and Welfare New evidence coupled with a wider perspective suggest sizable economic returns to better health 301 kb pdf
HEALTHY DEMOCRACIES? The potential impact of AIDS on democracy in Southern Africa Social scientists are only beginning to understand the range of potential impacts the HIV/AIDS pandemic may have on Southern African societies. Belatedly, researchers began compiling evidence about the demographic, economic and social impacts of the disease on infected people, their households and communities, national populations and national economies. They have only recently begun to develop propositions about the impacts of HIV/AIDS on the broader processes of governance. However, the implications of the pandemic for the survival and consolidation of democratic government, in particular, remain largely unexamined. This paper attempts to systematise emerging thinking about the various economic, social and political consequences of HIV/AIDS in the context of political science's best available knowledge about the factors that lead to the consolidation of democracy.  

Hidden Battle-family & community

The economic impacts at the household level of the epidemic are decreased income, increased costs, decreased productive capacity and changing expenditure patterns

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History of Epidemics and Plagues Diseases like measles and mumps that ravaged virgin populations are now rarely lethal for even the most susceptible human hosts. What were once fatal epidemic diseases are now simply childhood annoyances. These diseases attack only those with the least well-developed immune systems, young children. The microbes and their hosts have coevolved and adapted to a form of equilibrium. A truce has been called—at least temporarily.  Infectious diseases must be closely watched and appropriately feared; as the past has taught us, humility is a far greater virtue than either arrogance or hubris when it comes to dealing with Nature.  
HIV and AIDS in the Workplace In addition to the sheer number of young people affected, the profound impact of AIDS upon the American workplace and the special attention garnered by the disease have stemmed from a wide range of sensitive medical, social, and political issues. From the onset of the epidemic, AIDS struck disproportionately members of certain stigmatized groups, such as gay men and intravenous drug abusers, adding layers of complexity to workplace confidentiality and discrimination concerns. Because it is an infectious illness, widespread ignorance regarding disease transmission, particularly during the early years of the epidemic, led to an increased risk of ostracism at work. The episodic nature of an illness marked by recurrent opportunistic infections also presented difficulties to both employers and to those infected individuals trying to remain occupationally productive. Today, as more AIDS patients benefit from highly effective antiretroviral therapy, their re-integration into the workplace adds yet another layer of complexity  

HIV Mandatory Test may lead to false sense of security

MANDATORY testing may lead to false security in the military that an HIV/AIDS free environment has been created,


HIV/AIDS and the changing burden of disease

Discussion around President Mbeki’s recent AIDS panel has focused on his decision to include the views of “HIV dissidents” including Peter Duesberg and others, who maintain that HIV is benign.  “African AIDS,” according to Duesberg, “is caused by malnutrition, parasitic infection and poor sanitation. . . [T]here is no scientific evidence for the correlation between HIV and African AIDS, only guesses.” (“Peter Duesberg on AIDS” website,  Implicit in this claim, of course, is the contention that the AIDS epidemic has not had a qualitative impact on the burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa.


HIV/AIDS and Cross-National Convergence in Life Expectancy There are two fundamental reasons why HIV/AIDS is responsible for global divergence or a slowdown in convergence in levels of life expectancy.  First, the highest prevalence rates are found in countries faced with widespread poverty, low-income levels, and deficient health care systems.  This implies higher mortality than would result if economically and socially developed countries experienced similar HIV/AIDS prevalence rates.  Second, the epidemic is concentrated in countries that are low performers in life expectancy and infant and child survival rates.  It thus prevents them from catching up with the high performers, or at least from catching up as fast as they would otherwise do Pdf 111 kb



The focus of workplace policy has moved beyond issues of incidence to the impact of HIV/AIDS in the work environment. Impact in the workplace is experienced in various ways. In the most extreme case, there is the loss of productive employees and the cost of replacement and training. With advanced HIV infection, there is increased absenteeism and the concomitant loss of productivity. In a broader context, employees with family members infected with the disease will lose time at work to attend funerals, and will carry a higher financial burden as family members die and they undertake the care of orphaned nieces and nephews. Other areas of impact include the breakup of research teams as a result of illness and death, and the isolation and withdrawal of the HIV-infected employee. Human Resources (HR) must address these realities when developing compassionate HIV/AIDS policies and programs. Pdf 103 kb
HIV/AIDS and the Workforce Crisis in Health in Africa: Issues for Discussion This paper summarizes the key issues confronting human resources (HR) in the health sector in sub-Saharan Africa and the role that HIV/AIDS has played in exacerbating this crisis. Section I reviews the causes and consequences of this crisis. Section II focuses on the effects of the HIV/ AIDS epidemic on the crisis. Section III analyzes the constraints faced by recent health initiatives in addressing HR issues. Finally, Section IV provides recommendations on how donors and other partners can address HR issues in a more intensive, sustained, and concerted manner. Pdf 312 kb

HIV and Child labour in Zambia

This rapid assessment examined correlations between the HIV/Aids pandemic and child labor in Zambia, and subsequently on the welfare of children in terms of their health, education, etc. It assesses gender issues related to HIV/Aids, as well as analyzing the coping or survival strategies of girls and boys, including Aids orphans and assesses the child laborers' awareness and knowledge of HIV/Aids


HIV Prevention and Behavior Change in International Military Populations HIV poses a real threat to both uniformed service and civilian populations, especially during complex humanitarian emergencies including the descent into and emergence from crises involving armed confrontations.  However, HIV prevention is not always the first thing on a service person’s mind in a conflict or crisis situation because the “guns are going” and they are preparing to be deployed into difficult, dangerous and stressful situations.  Nevertheless, learning about HIV/STIs and prevention strategies is critical for every uniformed service member before being sent into a conflict or crisis situation.  
HIV Prevention and Behavior Change in International Military Populations-HIV Prevention in Crisis Settings Despite a multitude of prevention activities people continue to be infected by HIV.  The epidemic which initially emerged among middle class gay men seems to have shifted toward working class people.  Subsequently, people with lower socio-economic background seem to be more at risk of HIV infection and to have fewer possibilities to cope with the risk of HIV infection.  

HIV/AIDS as a Regional Security Threat-China

The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Xinjiang and throughout the greater Central Asian region is a pressing security concern to China and the entire Central Asian region.  Xinjiang’s HIV/AIDS situation…bleakly reveals that China and the entire geopolitical region faces a security issue of the gravest proportions.

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HIV/AIDS & development in Education sector

HIV/AIDS has not been adequately considered in such development thinking is perhaps not surprising by its very nature, the disease has been largely invisible to planners and is attended by such insufficient data that its dismissal was all too easy.

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HIV/AIDS-case studies and a conceptual framework.

This paper presents outline accounts of some social and economic features of the HIV/AIDS epidemics in five countries: the United Kingdom, Botswana, Uganda, India and Ukraine

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HIV/AIDS and Globalization

Draws attention to some of the questions posed by the HIV/AIDS epidemic - perhaps the first global epidemic of which there has been a global political and public consciousness. The most important possibility that needs to be considered is that public health should be seen as a communal process.


HIV/AIDS and Globalization: What is the epidemic telling us about economics, morality and pragmatism

Disease epidemics have been related as both cause and effect to increasing integration of human economies, societies and cultures throughout history.  It is well known that infectious disease is not equally distributed between different societies and different sections of the same society.  This clear on a global scale where disparities in exposure to infection and access to public health provision and health care are acute

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HIV/AIDS Epidemics Expand Rapidly in Asia

The rapid spread of HIV/AIDS epidemics in Asia, illustrated by dramatic increases in new infections in China, Thailand, and Vietnam over the past year, poses particularly worrisome challenges for the international health community.


HIV/AIDS hits home

"The costs of this humanitarian crisis are not limited to the countries that are directly affected. We are all vulnerable-in part, because infectious diseases do not respect the boundaries of sates and geography, and in part because the national economic distress and political instability that inevitably accompany this scale of human loss can cause greater damage to the world economy and to regional stability,"


HIV/AIDS in the Workplace The spread of HIV/AIDS worldwide, and the growing number of people affected, makes it very likely that few, if any, global companies will escape its impact. As the pandemic progresses, an ever-wider sphere of business operations is being touched by the disease. Although Africa and Asia have been the hardest hit, every continent has seen significant consequences due to HIV/AIDS. Estimates by the World Bank suggest that the macroeconomic impact of HIV/AIDS may reduce the growth of national income by up to a third in countries where the prevalence among adults is 10 percent. Additionally, rates of HIV infection worldwide are highest for the young and for women, who are major contributors to the workforce  

HIV/AIDS on top of Poverty

Extreme poverty, which is associated not only with underdeveloped infrastructure of health, but also similarly primitive other sectors of development, is the main reason why we have uncontrolled spread of HIV/AIDS and its devastating complications (incredible suffering, loss of lives and other resources, worsening of risk of famine, etc). The world community is reluctantly accepting this central issue (way far from ridiculing it just a couple years ago).


HIV/AIDS prevention and ‘class’ and socio-economic related factors of risk of HIV infection Despite a multitude of prevention activities people continue to be infected by HIV.  The epidemic which initially emerged among middle class gay men seems to have shifted toward working class people.  Subsequently, people with lower socio-economic background seem to be more at risk of HIV infection and to have fewer possibilities to cope with the risk of HIV infection. Pdf 236 kb
HIV/AIDS Technical Assistance Guidelines The impact of HIV/AIDS in the workplace is felt in many areas, for example the loss of productivity, increased cost of employee benefits, high production costs and lower workplace morale due to prolonged staff illness, increased absenteeism and mortality rates.  This, in turn, impacts negatively on the economy of the country as it slows down economic growth with less economically active persons able to contribute to the economy. 274 kb pdf

HIV can empty a Country in a Decade

"The fight against HIV-AIDS is not an easy thing! The figures released last week by five of Namibia's biggest municipalities, regarding the effect of this pandemic will have on their activities by 2020, were nothing less than terrifying,"


HIV/AIDS and Globalization: What is the epidemic telling us about economics, morality and pragmatism

Disease epidemics have been related as both cause and effect to increasing integration of human economies, societies and cultures throughout history.

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HIV-impact studies

Report on several studies concerning the economic impact of AIDS

PDF / 34KB

Human Resource Managers

Human Resource Managers have a particularly important role to play in an organizational response to HIV/AIDS.  It is their responsibility to manage the problems caused by HIV/AIDS in the workplace at both an organizational and individual level.  This dichotomy between organizational requirements and those of individuals living with or affected by HIV/AIDS makes this a challenging task.

Pdf 1,034 kb

Human rights abuses & HIV transmission to girls

The catastrophe of HIV/AIDS in Africa, which has already claimed over 18 million lives on that continent, has hit girls and women harder than boys and men.  In many countries of eastern and southern Africa, HIV-prevalence among girls under age eighteen is four to seven times higher than among boys the same age

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Impact of AIDS on Older People in Africa: Zimbabwe Case Study

The main focus of the project is to "identify barriers that prevent older people from providing adequate & fulfilling care to their children dying from HIV/AIDS & subsequently, to their orphaned grandchildren".


Impact of HIV

HIV/AIDS in Northern Thailand managed to gain a foothold in high-risk groups such as.and is now having far reaching impact on the region-loss of productive labour, labour shortages

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Impact of AIDS Education in Natal.

A presentation to the National Teacher’s Union Advocacy Conference on HIV/AIDS

Pdf 829 kb

Impact of HIV-AIDS on adult Mortality.

This report is a chilling reminder of how powerful stereotypes across society have colluded in creating the most explosive epidemic in the history of our country

Pdf 434 kb

Impact of HIV/AIDS on Labour Productivity:


Pdf power point presentation concerning Overview of Broad Reach Healthcare• HIV/AIDS and Workplace Productivity • Reasons for Limited Success of Workplace Programs to Date • Supply and demand-Side Challenges to Scale-Up of Workplace HIV/AIDS Prevention, Treatment and Care • A Pan African Ports “Systems Approach” to tackling HIV/AIDS Pdf 587 kb
Impact of HIV/AIDS on saving behaviour in South Africa In the analysis of the implications of HIV/AIDS on the Southern African economy, several microeconomic impact papers exist to assess the consequences of the epidemic.  They generally focus on the economic implications of the virus…and do not observe the link between households and HIV/AIDS. Pdf 149 kb
Initial Burden of Disease Estimates for South Africa, 2000 Comprehensive, timely and precise health information is essential for formulating health policy and for planning to meet the demand for appropriate health services and interventions.  Information about the burden of disease in South Africa, in common with other developing countries, is incomplete and generally has hot been systematically reviewed for coherence and consistency  

Innovative Approaches Towards Peer Education

The Centre was developed to ensure that the University as a whole was able to plan for and cope with, the impact that HIV/AIDS is likely to have on the institution and the tertiary sector as a whole

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International Cost Limits Treatment of HIV in India

The plight of HIV-infected Indians is of particular concern today, as it becomes increasingly clear that this country of about one billion people has a growing AIDS problem.


Labour market and employment implications of HIV/AIDS Analysis of the economic impact of HIV/AIDS has focused mainly on the effects of the epidemic on costs that directly affect productive activities and reduce profits at the enterprise level.  While information on costs that enterprises have incurred as a result of HIV infection, such as medical expenditure, recruitment and training costs, funeral expenses, and so on, has been useful as a tool for advocacy, this has been of limited use for an overall assessment of the economic impact of HIV/AIDS because of relative neglect of a whole set of labour market and employment issues.  There are also lacunae in the present state of knowledge relating to the impact of AIDS on human capital at the level of productive activities. Pdf 220 kb

Lagging Policy response & impact.

Lagging policy response and impact on children: the case of Cote d’Ivoire

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Liberalization, Growth, & Financial Crisis.

Lessons from Mexico and the Developing World-2003

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Local agricultural knowledge key to fighting HIV/AIDS and food insecurity

The explosive impact of HIV/AIDS on food security in Africa is now well recognized. But little has been done to empower rural communities with local resources to cope with this crisis, a report has found.


Long-run economic costs of AIDS: Theory and an application to South Africa

With a more plausible view of how the economy functions over the long run, the economic costs of AIDS are almost certain to be much higher. Not only does AIDS destroy existing human capital, but by killing mostly young adults, it also weakens the mechanism through which knowledge and abilities are transmitted from one generation to the next; for the children of AIDS victims will be left without one or both parents to love, raise and educate them.


Low Agro output Blamed on AIDS

AGRICULTURE and Cooperatives Minister Mundia Sikatana has attributed the low production levels in agriculture to the effects of the deadly HIV/AIDS pandemic which has ravaged the sector.





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