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“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”

HIV/AIDS Issues:

We offer a monthly newsletter dealing with the various issues surrounding infectious diseases.  To find out more click HERE.

Main topics can be found within the left column; sub-topics and/or research reports can be found near the bottom of this page.  Thank you


"The AIDS Litigation Project has reviewed nearly 600 reported cases involving individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the federal and state courts in the United States between 1991 and 1997. Cases were identified through a federal and 50-state computer and library search. An important subset of litigation relates to HIV/AIDS in the public health and health care systems, since the law affects health care institutions and professionals, patients, and public health policy in America. This subset of HIV/AIDS litigation includes testing and reporting; privacy, the duty to warn, and the right to know; physician standards of care in prevention and treatment; and discrimination and access to health care. In broad terms, the review demonstrates a reliance on voluntary testing and protection of patient privacy through HIV-specific statutes and the common law. Negligence with potential civil and criminal liability has been alleged in cases of erroneous or missed diagnosis of HIV infection. In the first AIDS case to be considered by the Supreme Court, the Court will decide whether patients with asymptomatic HIV infection are protected under the Americans With Disabilities Act. Considerable progress has been made, both socially and legally, during the first 2 decades of the epidemic, but much still needs to be accomplished to protect privacy, prevent discrimination, and promote tolerance." The Role of Law and Litigation, JAMA HIV/AIDS Information

"The needle used was not even sterilised before re-use, a principle that is normally applied in those areas where there is a shortage of needles.

We must emphasise that re-using needles is against our national health policy," said part of the statement.

It took more than five days before health officials became aware of what had transpired.

"It was already too late to provide prophylaxis," they said, adding, "The matter has been discussed with the parents and they have given their consent for HIV testing." Government experts are also counselling parents and the children involved." Carefree Nurse Frustrates Health Delivery System


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4 Articles on HIV/AIDS

HIV Database Speeds Cure Hunt, Australian-Developed HIV Vaccine Trial Announced, HIV Increasing in Australia, New Gloves Designed For Better Health Protection


A Portrait of the HIV+ Population in America Despite the dramatic growth in our knowledge about HIV/AIDS treatment over the past 15 years, several fundamental questions about HIV care still exist: How many persons in the United States receive regular care for HIV infection? What are the characteristics of that population? How much care do HIV-infected individuals use, how much does it cost, and who pays for it? Policymakers, researchers, and the national community depend upon reliable answers to these questions to help guide their decisions in allocating future resources to HIV treatment and research.  
Access to Treatment for HIV/AIDS The total number of people living with HIV/AIDS is estimated at 40 million.  Most of these people live in the developing world.  While there are indications that the incidence of HIV infection has been declining in some countries, in many others incidence rates remain high or are increasing.  Consequently, the prevalence of HIV infection is likely to continue to rise.  In the absence of treatment, most people infected with HIV will eventually develop an HIV-related disease and succumb to the consequences of the infection. 1013 kb pdf

Accrued HIV evidence turns treatment dogma on its head

A series of studies has dispelled the widespread notion that patients who don't take every dose of their anti-HIV medication create a public-health risk by helping to nurture HIV strains that resist therapy.


AIDS Action testing An AIDS awareness counselor recently summed up her experience of society's response to AIDS: 'I believe that, although AIDS is a new disease, it is laying bare all the old prejudices and political injustices that already exist.' One area where this is most apparent is the misuse of testing for HIV infection.  

AIDS and Confidentiality Contact Tracing and "Duty to inform"


Contact tracing in the context of STDs before HIV relied on the patient's cooperation and this cooperation was secured by the fact that the anonymity of the index patient (that is, the patient who is to serve as the reference point for all contact traces - the one in the doctor ís office) would be preserved. The people being notified would then be able to begin treatment. In the initial stages of the AIDS epidemic, several facts about HIV led to the opposition of contact tracing; namely, the fact that it was untreatable in the early stages (and ultimately incurable) and the fact that it was initially spread most commonly by homosexual contact. Thus the battle began between invasion of privacy vs. potential benefit.  
AIDS-Dementia complex AIDS dementia complex is a complication of HIV/AIDS that occurs in some people, usually those with advanced disease.  HIV affects the functioning of the normal brain leading to difficulty with concentration, memory, and speed of thought along with a change in personality usually manifesting as a lack of interest in previously pleasurable activities. 35 kb pdf
AIDS Patients to Receive Free Treatment in Gov’t Hospitals The Health Ministry announced yesterday that 1,201 new AIDS cases had been discovered and reported in the Kingdom. According to the ministry, among the new cases reported by the end of 2005, 311 were Saudi nationals and 890 were foreigners. It said that from 1984 to the end of 2005, 10,120 AIDS cases were reported in the Kingdom. Saudis accounted for 2,316 cases representing 22.9 percent of the total number while non-Saudis accounted for 7,804 cases representing 77.1 percent.  

Aids takes its toll in infant mortality

Hundreds of tiny coffins bear witness to the extent of fatal disease


AIDS Transmission Through Blood Supply is Discussed at Internews Nigeria Roundtable “HIV/AIDS is not a sinners’ affliction,” declared Evangelist Peter Ikiti to journalists attending an educational roundtable organized by Internews’ Local Voices Project in Abuja about the safety of Nigeria’s blood supply.  
AIDS Wasting Syndrome as an Entero-Metabolic Disorder There is an interesting relationship between the HIV virus, the health of the gastrointestinal tract, and AIDS wasting syndrome, involving Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha, specific and non-specific immunity in the gut, gut permeability, and oxidative stress. 88 kb pdf

Assess the value of America's Investment in Medical Research

How does a venture capitalist decide where to invest his money? He compares the potential for return against the risk, and when the return appears to be significant and the risk isn't too great, he invests.


Assessing Self-Efficacy for HIV Serostatus Disclosure Four studies were conducted to systematically develop scales for assessing self-efficacy to disclose HIV status to sex partners and negotiate safer sex practices among men and women living with HIV/AIDS Pdf 140 kb

Associated Health Costs - United States


Although few prospective long-term survival and health care cost studies are available for hepatitis C, it has been possible to estimate the life-long economic impact of the disease for both the individual patient and for the U.S. population with chronic hepatitis B. Lifetime health care costs for a patient with chronic hepatitis B has been estimated at $65,000 in the absence of liver transplantation. For the 150,000 HBV carriers with significant liver damage, the lifetime health care costs in the U.S. have been estimated to be $9 billion. Assuming an estimated survival of 25 years, the annual health care costs for the affected U.S. population with chronic hepatitis B is $360 million. Based on the same economic analysis, treatment of chronic hepatitis B with interferon is projected to increase life expectancy by about three years and reduce the aggregate health care costs.  
Attitudes to & management of HIV/AIDS among health workers in Ghana: the case of Cape Coast municipality Health Care Workers as key players in the prevention and management of diseases and important opinion and community leaders have become targets for studies, more so with the outbreak of HIV.  Their perceptions, attitudes and practices have implications for the management of diseases in both health centres and communities. 39 kb pdf
Bacterial Infections Associated with HIV Infections with opportunistic pathogens have been one of the hallmarks of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome since the beginning of the epidemic. An abundance of research and literature has been dedicated to these opportunistic fungi, viruses, and parasites. Less attention has been given to the bacterial infections complicating the course of persons infected with HIV. Even before HIV was found to be the causative agent of the syndrome, however, case reports appeared describing fulminant bacterial infections in these immunocompromised patients. It is now recognized that bacterial pneumonia and bacteremia occur at a higher frequency among HIV-infected patients compared to age-matched controls. Diseases caused by bacteria are responsible for a significant proportion of the morbidity and mortality seen in this population. Bacterial infections were the leading cause of death in HIV-infected patients in Rhode Island over a two and half year period.(3) One study of 46 autopsy cases found evidence of bacterial infection in 83%.  

Bangui Definitions -AIDS surveillance in Europe.

A case of AIDS in a child is defined as an illness characterized by one or more of the following ‘indicator’ diseases

Pdf 3,319 kb

Bangui Definitions- bangui 1985 report.

Good clinical definitions of AIDS is of great importance in Africa, where adequate laboratory facilities are often lacking, to enable medical practitioners to arrive at a diagnosis with maximum precision.  In the absence of such lab testing abilities, the use of symptoms exhibited by patients can also be used

Pdf 900 kb

Bangui Definitions- CDC Guidelines for Surveillance 1999.

This report provides a revised case definition for HIV infection in adults and children, recommended program surveillance by local, state, and territorial health departments.

Pdf 348 kb

Bangui Definitions- Concept of Health & Disease.

This set of definitions and commitments, universally accepted as normative, has posed, to those who work in the health field, limitations on the theoretical and methodological bases traditionally utilized and has shown the need for new developments, that make it possible to treat the health and disease problem as an expression of the living conditions of different population groups and to understand the relationship between these and the most general social processes.

Pdf 910 kb

Bangui Definitions- Current Trends Update-1982.

The eventual case-mortality rate of AIDS, a few years after diagnosis, may be far greater than the 41% overall case-mortality rate noted

Pdf 19 kb

Bangui Definitions- Surveillance Case Definition for AIDS-1993.

Revised HIV classification system for adolescents and adults

Pdf 63 kb

Bangui Definitions- WHO Definitions for AIDS surrveilance-1986.

For surveillance purposed, a relatively precise case definition is required that includes the most characteristic manifestations of LAV/HTLV-III infections.

Pdf 624 kb

Bangui Definitions- WHO Definitions for AIDS surveillance-1988.

The clinical and laboratory definition of AIDS has changed as documentation of the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations due to HIV has accumulated, and as specific laboratory tests to detect HIV infection and immune deficiency have been developed

Pdf 742 kb

Bangui Definitions- WHO Definitions for AIDS surveillance 1994.

This is a method in which the prevalence of HIV infection is measured in specific populations whose blood has been obtained in the health care setting for other purposes and then tested for antibody to HIV after all patient identifiers have been removed

Pdf 536 kb

Benghazi epidemic According to Beshkov, research done by Perrin and Montaigner corroborates the theory that the HIV epidemic in Benghazi was the result of an in-hospital infection.  

Blood Borne Viruses Dental Services Project-Australia

Background-The University of New South Wales to conduct a national project to reduce discrimination related to blood borne viruses within dental services-Final Report

380 kb pdf

Blood Purifiers in the Works

Simple process holds promise for killing off even the HIV virus


Brazil to Strip Patent on AIDS Drug

Brazil's health minister has moved to strip Roche pharmaceutical's patent on the anti-AIDS (news - web sites) drug Nelfinavir after negotiations failed to lower the price.


Brazil Wages War on Hepatitis C & AIDS Drug Pricing

Brazil's Health Ministry, emboldened by its successful fight for cheaper AIDS (news - web sites) medicines, is telling makers of a hepatitis C drug to slash prices or face having their patents broken.


Breastfeeding and HIV/AIDS: is there a conflict? “The HIV pandemic and the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV through breastfeeding continues to pose unique challenges to the promotion of breastfeeding, even among unaffected families. Accurate information, disseminated widely, about breastfeeding’s benefits for the majority of children and mothers is essential for preventing baseless doubts in this connection. Support for HIV-positive women should include counseling about appropriate infant-feeding options”.  
Capillus HIV Rapid Test Kit. Gives a break-down of the HIV rapid test kit with several indicators for use 1,205 kb pdf

Carefree Nurse Frustrates Health Care Delivery System

Botswana health officials have been testing 170 primary school children for HIV, after a nurse on February 20, threw the country's health delivery system into despair, by using the same syringe to immunise the children against childhood diseases.


Caring for HIV Patients The good news about HIV care in the United States is that treatment costs are not prohibitive--the average cost per patient equals about $20,000 a year. Although these costs represent a growing burden on the public sector, they are still smaller than the costs of treating some other major diseases. The bad news, however, is that one-half to two-thirds of American adults infected with HIV do not get regular care, and even fewer receive the most advanced anti-HIV therapy  
Caring for someone with AIDS One of the best places for people with AIDS to be cared for is at home, surrounded by the people who love them. Many people living with AIDS can lead an active life for long periods of time. Most of the time, people with AIDS do not need to be in a hospital. Being at home is often cheaper, more comfortable, more familiar, and gives them more control of their life. In fact, people with AIDS-related illnesses often get better faster and with less discomfort at home with the help of their friends and loved ones.  

CDC AIDS Daily Summary

The CDC National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention makes available the following information as a public service only. Providing this information does not constitute endorsement by the CDC.


CHILDHOOD EXPOSURE TO SIMIAN VIRUS 40-CONTAMINATED POLIOVIRUS VACCINE AND RISK OF AIDS-ASSOCIATED NON-HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA Our study included 56,808 adults with AIDS: 39,468 SV40-exposed (who were born in 1958–61) and 17,340 SV40-unexposed (born 1964–67). These 2 cohorts differed significantly in composition (Table I). Specifically, although the cohorts had the same proportion of homosexual men, the exposed cohort had more nonhomosexual men (25.6% vs. 20.7%) and fewer women (18.8% vs. 23.7%). Also, the exposed cohort had more whites than the unexposed cohort (44.4% vs. 37.8%), with correspondingly reduced proportions from other ethnic groups. As a direct result of the differences in birth years in the 2 cohorts, SV40-exposed subjects were older (mean age at AIDS onset, 32.0 vs. 27.2 years) and developed AIDS earlier (mean year of AIDS onset, 1991.9 vs. 1992.8; p [1] 0.0001) than SV40-unexposed subjects. Registry areas differed between SV40-exposed and -unexposed subjects, most notably with SV40-exposed subjects being more frequently from New York and less frequently from Florida Pdf 80 kb
Circumcision seen as a method to block HIV infection A recent study shows that circumcised men are less likely to contract HIV for biological, not behavioral, reasons. Previous studies have shown that men whose foreskin was removed are six to eight times less likely to become HIV-positive  

Employers should regularly monitor and evaluate work practices and ensure that action is taken to modify practices if necessary (or when needed). The following should be considered:

i) Effectiveness of workplace policies and procedure;

ii) Level of compliance with universal precautions;

iii) Effectiveness of information and training programmes;

iv) Causes of exposures to HIV/AIDS risk;

v) Evaluation of incident debriefing; and

vi) Effectiveness of post-exposure follow-up.

There should be an identified person or group of people in the workplace to carry out monitoring and evaluation. The identity of this person, or group of people, should be made known to all employees.
pdf 120 kb
Complementary and Alternative Medicine Widespread discussion continues of when, how, and why to include complementary and alternative medicine to medical school education 82 kb pdf

Condom is mainstay of fight

The condom has been the mainstay of the fight against HIV/AIDS and widespread distribution of free condoms by local family planning clinics has succeeded in a massive reduction in the spread of the virus.


Coping and Safer Sex Maintenance Intervention for Men and Women Living with HIV-AIDS People living with HIV/AIDS endure numerous challenges.  HIV-related stressors include dealing with complex medical and health choices, coping with chronic symptoms, dealing with disability, and grief and bereavement of multiple losses.  Among the most stressful situations for many men and women living with HIV infection, are those that stem from close and intimate relationships, namely decisions of when and how to disclose their HIV serostatus to others and maintaining safe sex practices.  
Current Concepts in HIV-Associated Nephropathy In the early years of the HIV pandemic there was speculation that the kidney may be spared from major complications. By 1984, however, a broad spectrum of renal disease was reported in patients with AIDS, including a distinctive form of sclerosing glomerulopathy found predominantly among inner-city black injection drug users (IDU). HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is now a well-defined variant of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis which has characteristic clinical and histopathologic features and which now develops in 5-10% of patients infected with HIV [D'Agati VD, et al. J Am Soc Nephrol 1997;8:138]. Although it shows a remarkable predilection for black patients, HIVAN has been demonstrated in all subsets of HIV-infected patients regardless of age, sex, race, and mode of HIV acquisition. The nephropathy typically follows a fulminant course and progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in essentially all untreated cases. More importantly, despite remarkable advances in the treatment of HIV infection and its attendant complications, the incidence and prevalence of HIVAN have steadily increased. Urgent attention is needed to better define the pathogenesis of the disease and to evaluate potential treatment strategies  
Dentists shun HIV patients Many dentists are refusing to treat people with HIV even though there is no risk of transmitting the disease if safety procedures are correctly followed. Experts have warned that continuing discrimination may force people with HIV to keep their condition hidden - which could cause problems if dentists fail to take adequate care. Research conducted by BBC News Online found seven out of 30 dentists contacted refused to commit to treating a person with HIV.  
Determinants of HAART discontinuation among infection drug users The objective of this study was to identify psychosocial determinants of, and self-reported reasons for, HAART discontinuation among HIV-positive injection drug users. 92 kb pdf
Do people with HIV/AIDS disclose their HIV-positivity to dentists? Not disclosing one’s HIV status to the dentist, though, can have serious consequences, such as finding oneself deprived of care adapted to one’s state of health, whether it be because of a lack of systematic screening for oral lesions associated with HIV infection, an error in diagnosis, an inappropriate choice of treatment, or a risk of secondary infection related to certain treatments. 66 kb pdf

Doctors Urged to Support Disobedience Campaign

Medical doctors on Thursday were encouraged to support a civil disobedience campaign to lobby for the creation of a national HIV/Aids treatment plan.


Does circumcision influence sexually transmitted diseases? Despite the wide availability of condoms and the fear of HIV infection, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) continue to be a serious public health concern. In the medical literature about preventive measures, circumcision is rarely if ever mentioned as an effective preventive measure: however, articles promoting the routine practice of circumcision invariably mention the surgery's benefit of reducing STDs. One author refers to over 100 medical articles supporting this thesis. In the present review, the medical literature is examined to determine what influence, if any, circumcision has on STDs  
Drug Injection And HIV/AIDS in Asia Drug injection is a strong driver of HIV infection in Asia, notably parts of China, Indonesia and Vietnam, where the steepest recent rises in HIV infections are seen among injecting drug users (IDUs). HIV prevalence rates in some IDU populations are extremelyhigh, and the sexual behaviour of IDUs can provide a gateway for HIV to spread among non-injectors. Pdf 1355 kb

Double trouble: South African study on dual HIV infections highlights superinfection risk

Researchers from the University of Cape Town have found further evidence suggesting that patients who become infected by more than one strain of HIV prior to seroconversion (antibody formation) are more likely to progress rapidly to AIDS.


Drug War:
Big Pharma’s 625 Washington Lobbyist
s part 1 

Report on drug pricing


Drug War:
Big Pharma’s 625 Washington Lobbyist
s part 2
Report on drug pricing  
Epidemiologic Situation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV/AIDS Patients) in a Private Clinic in Tehran, Iran At the beginning of 1980’s, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and its etiological agent were for the first time described to be associated with sexual contact, especially sex with other men as the main risk factor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Nowadays, in many countries including Iran, however, drug abuse has been the major route of HIV transmission over the past several years. Among males with AIDS in Argentina, 45% were injection drug users (IDUs). It was estimated that 50% of women had acquired infection through heterosexual contact and 12% through sex with IDU male partners; 31% of women were themselves IDUs; 7% showed blood transfusion as the possible route of transmission. Among children who developed AIDS, it was estimated that 3% acquired the infection through blood transfusions and 95% were children whose mothers were infected with HIV.  
Evaluation of environmental bacterial contamination and procedures to control cross infection in a sample of Italian dental surgeries Research has shown that infective hazards are present in dental practice, because many infections can be transmitted by blood or saliva through direct or indirect contact, droplets, aerosols, or contaminated instruments and equipment. All dental personnel are at risk, including dentists, nurses, and hygienists, who may transmit infectious diseases to patients by the use of contaminated dental instruments or hands. This microbial cross contamination is particularly dangerous when considering immunodeficient patients  



The biological anatomic-physiological elements, are mainly related with the capacity of reproduction inherent to the existance of the sexes and with the capacity of experimenting pleasant sensations linked to the sexual arousement and the orgasm, and are the ones most frequently identified with the concept of sexual acts, and even with the one of sexuality, though in reality, they’re only part of it…Psychological elements are refferred as to the human capacity of experimenting and sharing feelins, while socials are related with the appreciation the sexual acts receive as good or bad in each society and with the power relations that are established between individuals because of their ascription within a defined group in principle because its sexual characters.  

Foster City company discounts AIDS drug for poor nations

Gilead Sciences said Tuesday that it would sell its new antiretroviral HIV drug at cost in 68 of the world's poorest countries including every nation in Africa.


Groups that take in prescription drugs for distribution Listing of organizations that accept you outdated prescription drugs for others to use  

HAART patients at greater risk of severe side-effects than AIDS  

HIV-positive individuals who take HAART are more likely to experience a serious or life-threatening treatment side-effect than develop an AIDS-defining condition


HARMLESS VIRUS ASSOCIATED WITH LONGER LIFE FOR SOME HIV-POSITIVE MEN Scientists have shown that an apparently harmless virus is associated with longer life for HIV-positive men, but only when it infects them for many years.  

Health, Illness & Seeking Health care

This article relates to the principles and methodologies of social science relevant to pharmacy


HIV/AIDS and Health Insurance This brochure is intended to help employers who are concerned about the impact of AIDS and other expensive illnesses on their health care costs and their businesses, especially employers with fewer than 100 employees. 48 kb pdf
HIV/AIDS in Dental Care A case-based self-study module for dental health care personnel 533 kb pdf
HIV/AIDS Treatment Literacy The EATG’s mission is to achieve the fastest possible access to state of the art medical products, devices and diagnostic tests that prevent or treat HIV infection or improve the quality of life of people living with HIV, or who are at risk of HIV infection. Pdf 759 kb
HIV and Hepatitis C Virus-Coinfection Information Brochure Complications from hepatitis C are becoming one of the most important medical issues facing HIV positive individuals 17 kb pdf
HIV and infant feeding Guidelines for decision-makers 1,419 kb pdf
HIV and Pregnancy A Guide to Medical and Legal Considerations for Women and Their Advocates However, many women fear that the same drugs that can significantly decrease the risk of HIV transmission from mother to infant may have troubling long-term health consequences for both themselves and their children. The research about the relative benefits and harms of different ARVs, types of delivery, infant feeding methods, and other factors is far from complete. Some women who harbor mistrust of health care providers or drug companies may also be persuaded by the misinformation about HIV or the drugs used to treat it that they find online or in the community. Decision making is further complicated by the ongoing development of new drugs that have yet unproven benefit—and risk—to both HIV-positive women and their children. However, the data clearly show that properly prescribed ARV therapy can be an effective component of a comprehensive strategy to prevent mother-to-child transmission. Pdf 547 kb
HIV and Sexual behaviour among Young A national survey of 15-24 year olds from South Africa 1,393 kb pdf
HIV, Hepatitis-B, Hepatitis-C: Blood-borne Diseases

Nurses constantly balance occupational risks with their primary goal of providing quality health care to all persons. Because threats to personal well-being may affect practice, nurses must promote a safe and healthy work environment to protect themselves, their loved ones, patients, and coworkers.

As front-line providers of health care, nurses have long been exposed to blood-borne pathogens on the job. The AIDS epidemic has heightened awareness of this and has broadened our knowledge of other bloodborne diseases, notably hepatitis-B (HBV) and hepatitis-C (HCV).


HIV Infection and AIDS in the Public Health and Health Care Systems

The AIDS Litigation Project has reviewed nearly 600 reported cases involving individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the federal and state courts in the United States between 1991 and 1997.


HIV Transmission in Hospital Settings Power Point presentation 320 kb

HIV Mandatory Test May Lead to False Security

MANDATORY testing may lead to false security in the military that an HIV/AIDS free environment has been created,


HIV Medicine 2003

Various medical tools used for treatment


HIV study looks to traditional medicine 

A bold new plan involving traditional medicine in the treatment of HIV/Aids is being explored


HIV Testing: 20 Minutes, No Pretest Counseling

Public attention has been captured in the past few weeks by a number of events that are generating anxiety and deep concern among many people, such as the events taking place in the Middle East and the more recent spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) across the world. Yet, there are still very pressing old issues that demand our attention and care within our own communities, such as prevention and appropriate diagnosis of HIV infections, as well as prenatal diagnosis of HIV-positive mothers to implement prophylaxis.

1440 kb pdf

How Did HIV Spread?

Power Point Presentation 934 kb
How to Recognize and Treat Acute HIV Syndrome The diagnosis of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) syndrome requires a high index of suspicion and proper laboratory testing. Patients with the syndrome may have fever, fatigue, rash, pharyngitis or other symptoms. Primary HIV infection should be considered in any patient with possible HIV exposure who presents with fever of unknown cause.  
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection Knowledge about the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection gained since 1988 has necessitated an update of our previously published policies. Important advances have been made in the treatment of HIV infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), resulting in a prolongation of the symptom-free period. Transmission of HIV infection from a dentist to several of his patients is believed to have occurred. Heterosexual transmission of HIV infection is increasing in importance. This statement emphasizes the ethical imperative to care for all patients; the need for health care professionals to adhere scrupulously to universal precautions because of the low but definite risk for transmission of HIV in the health care setting; the expanded recommendations for HIV testing to identify infected persons as early as possible; and the need for national leadership in public education, public policy development, and health care funding.  
Impact of AIDS on the Health Sector The AIDS epidemic poses enormous challenges to the health systems of developing countries.  The magnitude of the epidemic requires medical care and social support for those infected.  Yet, the threat of future infections demands an effective preventive programme.  And AIDS must compete for resources with acute infectious diseases and the growing burden of chronic diseases 51 kb pdf

Involving people living with HIV/AIDS in Research

How the involvement of PLHA and other service providers and users guaranteed the respect of their rights


Involving People Living with HIV/AIDS in Research: Guaranteeing the rights of HIV positive study participants

However, little if any systematic research has been undertaken to identify the factors that limit and enhance this involvement in the delivery of community-based HIV/AIDS prevention, care and support services and explore how the involvement of PLHA can have an impacton the quality of these services.

108 kb pdf

Lower HIV levels among injection drug users in Western US UCSF researchers have found that use of black tar heroin by injection drug users in West Coast cities accounts for a dramatically lower percentage of IDUs in these locations who are infected with HIV.  

Madison Ave. Has Growing Role In the Business of Drug Research

Article on how Madison Avenue, whose television ads have helped turn some prescription drugs into billion-dollar products, is expanding role in drug development


Male Circumcision & HIV Prevention in Eastern and Southern Africa Male circumcision is an important intervention that is increasingly being incorporated into national HIV prevention programmes – especially in settings where HIV prevalence is high and the prevalence of circumcision is low. Effective communications is a vital component of any scale-up strategy.  

Manuel Denies Aids Drug "Voodoo" Statement

Finance Minister Trevor Manuel on Wednesday angrily denied he had referred to Aids drugs as a "lot of voodoo".


Manuel Joins in Antiretroviral Scepticism

Finance Minister Trevor Manuel last night dismissed as "a lot of voodoo" claims about the effectiveness of antiretrovirals in the treatment of HIV/AIDS and said spending government money on them was "a waste of very limited resources".

405 kb pdf

Media Personnel

Examines the responsibilities of media personnel in the areas of mass communication, social responsibility and employment.


Mix-up breaches confidentiality of dozens in state AIDS program The state Department of Health Services inadvertently revealed the names and addresses of up to 53 Californians enrolled in an AIDS drug assistance program to other enrollees by putting benefit notification letters in the wrong envelopes, officials said Friday.  

National surveillance of Dialysis-Associated Disease in US, 1997

Report from the CDC

117 kb pdf

Nedlac to broach HIV/AIDS plan

The executive management committee of the National Economic Development and Labour Council is to meet on Friday to reopen discussions on the national treatment plan for HIV/Aids.


New CDC Treatment Guidelines Critical to Preventing Health Consequences of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

The CDC has issued national guidelines to help health care providers protect their patients from the health consequences of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). CDC revises the guidelines periodically (approximately every four years).


Non-Condom Use is Murder

THOSE who do not use condoms and contract AIDS commit murder which is punishable by God,


Obstetric Care in Patients with HIV Disease Appropriate management of pregnant patients who have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease can have a major impact on maternal and infant health. The goals of therapy are to properly manage the pregnancy, treat the maternal HIV infection and minimize the risk of vertical transmission of HIV. Early detection of HIV through aggressive screening programs is necessary to initiate timely therapy.  

Palliative Care at Home: Reflections on HIV/AIDS Family Caregiving Experiences

This study explored the day-to-day experiences of family members providing care at home for their dying loved one with HIV/AIDS. In-depth interviews with seven caregivers were analyzed using grounded theory qualitative methods


Patients, not Employers or Insurers, Paying Larger Percentage of Prescription Medication Costs

Faced with "rapidly rising" prescription drug spending, which is climbing at about 15% per year, employers and insurers have increasingly shifted the costs to patients, who "may soon pay even more,"


Postexposure HIV cost-effective outside occupational exposure In persons at risk for HIV exposure through
sexual activity or injection drug use, postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with antiretroviral medications and counseling can be a cost-effective means of preventing infection

Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV

(Large report-increase download time)
The rights of HIV-positive patients must always be respected, and discrimination against them must not be tolerated, as has been stated in all legal documents addressing HIV/AIDS.  Despite the severity of the disease, the task of healthcare workers is to ensure a decent quality of life for these patients, their children, and their partners, which suggests that a high priority be assigned to issues of family planning Pdf 1623 kb

Prevention of opportunistic infections in persons infected with HIV-2001

Gives guidelines for prevention

247 kb pdf 

PTSD and Pain in HIV-Positive Patients

For persons with HIV infection, chronic pain from headaches, abdominal cramping, neuropathies, or rheumatologic conditions can limit their functional ability and quality of life.


Recommendations for Prevention of HIV Transmission in Health-Care Settings

The increasing prevalence of HIV increases the risk that health-care workers will be exposed to blood from patients infected with HIV, especially when blood and body-fluid precautions are not followed for all patients


Recommendations for the Triage of HIV+ Patients These are general recommendations for clinicians who are not HIV specialist. 58 kb pdf

Residual Risk of HIV Transmission from Blood Donors Remains During Window Period

Transmission of HIV through blood transfusion from a donor who tested negative for HIV antibodies and p24 antigen at the time of Alternative Treatments highlights the residual risk of HIV transmission from donors during the window period.


Role of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Public Health?

Although long an integral part of the health systems of societies all around the globe, the relationship between public health and traditional or indigenous health practices has not often been a congenial or collegial one. Yet the question of the proper role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the health of the public remains perhaps the most important one to be asked by readers of the Journal, both supporters and detractors of approaches that are beyond the pale of conventional biomedicine. It is a question with a complex set of answers.


Selected Epidemiologic Aspects of HIV Infection Presentation from the National and International Perspectives 1150 kb pdf

Sh 276 million to fight HIV/AIDS prevalence

The Government has through the National Aids Control Council (Nacc), funded 623 Community-Based Organisations (CBOs) to the tune of Sh276,584,541, Cabinet Minister Dr Chris Murungaru said yesterday.


Social Cognitive Theory and Exercise of Control over HIV Infection It is widely assumed that if people are adequately informed about the AIDS threat they will take appropriate self-protective action…Unfortunately, information alone does not necessarily exert much influence on refractory health-impairing habits…Effective self-regulation of behavior is not achieved by an act of will.  It requires certain skills in self-motivation and self-guidance. Pdf 114 kb

Study Reports High HIV, Hepatitis C Virus Rates Among African-, Latino- American Drug Injectors

A study recently released found that among drug injectors, African Americans are five times as likely to get HIV than whites, and Latinos are one-and-a half times as likely.


Study Says Cocaine Hastens Production of HIV

A new study released by the UCLA AIDS Institute suggests that cocaine use may dramatically accelerate the spread of HIV in the body of infected individuals.

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Supply of Anti-HIV Drugs Falls Short Breaks in treatment such as those that have threatened Svetlana present an additional danger. The virus' ability to mutate means that when treatment resumes after a break, it may no longer be effective, requiring a switch to more costly and burdensome therapies.
Friends have helped provide Svetlana with her monthly supply by purchasing drugs privately -- at enormous expense. While a reliance on generic drugs and local manufacturing has lowered anti-retroviral drug costs in countries like India and Brazil to $300 or $400 per person per year, equivalent treatment in Russia can cost $8,000.

Targets for Retro-viral treatment Africa

The Mozambican Health Ministry plans to assist over 100,000 HIV-positive people with anti-retroviral drug treatment over the next five years, according to a report in Tuesday's issue of the Maputo daily


The High Cost of Health Goes Higher

Kaiser Family Foundation and the Health Research and Educational Trust finds that premiums for employer-sponsored health insurance, which covers two of three Americans, increased an average of 11 percent in 2001, the largest increase since 1992. Overall inflation during the same period was only 3.3 percent.


The rate of HBV transmission to susceptible health care workers 1999

Gives rates of infection for HBV, Hepatitis C Virus, and HIV/AIDS


US Seeks Further Restrictions on Generic Medicines for Developing Countries

NGOs long involved in the process over “Paragraph 6” — have acquired new information indicating that the US seeks further restrictions on exports of generic medicines to developing countries. They fear that the recent talks at the WTO TRIPS Council may result in further threats to access to medicines in poor countries.


Use of alternative health care practices by persons with serious mental illness: Perceived Benefits

Perceived benefit has been identified as an important factor influencing the decision to use alternative medicine for various health problems

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We Anticipate a Drop in HIV Infection

Officiating at the Society for Family Health (SFH) presentation of findings from Multi-Round Surveys at Pamodzi Hotel, Dr. Chirwa said overall knowledge about HIV/AIDS was universal but the gap between knowledge and behaviour change was still wide.


Whose Antibodies are they Anyway?  Factors known to cause false positive HIV Antibody Test Results


Since false-positives to every single HIV protein have been documented (36), how do you know the positive WB bands represent the various proteins to HIV, or just a collection of false-positive bands reacting to several different non-HIV antibodies?


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