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“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”

HIV/AIDS: Social Impact

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Main topics can be found within the left column; sub-topics and/or research reports can be found near the bottom of this page.  Thank you

"As much of the world has now realized, the HIV/AIDS pandemic is ravaging the countries of sub-Saharan Africa, where more than seventy percent of the world's HIV-positive people live and where more than one-third of adults in some areas are infected with HIV. The impact on hard-hit countries will be multi-faceted and potentially severe. Substantial demographic changes, economic slowdown, social destabilization, and an undermining of democracy and governance are all potential consequences of this pandemic, which targets economically- and socially-productive adults in the 'prim' of their lives, orphaning children and burdening families, communities, governments, health care facilities, and companies…The strongest finding to come out of this research, consequently, was not about the current impact, but rather the inevitable and imminent future impact. Most of the sampled organizations were aware that they eventually would have to grapple with HIV/AIDS among their own staff and volunteers, and they knew this could have serious consequences for their organizations' effectiveness and sustainability. Many also knew they wanted to do something to prepare for this eventuality: to develop and implement policies that would help minimize the impact. However, many of them noted that there is a distinct lack of resources and guidance for organizations seeking to develop responses to HIV/AIDS, and argued that such resources were sorely needed. Even several of those that had already developed HIV/AIDS policies noted the difficulty they had in accessing assistance in doing so."

—The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Civil Society


Document Name & Link to Document


File Size

A Cultural Approach to HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care

(Large report-increase download time)


The major issues and recommendations were:

·   Taking a cultural approach to strategy building and project design

·   Designing and delivering culturally appropriate IEC messages and materials

·   Capacity building and developing subsequent data collection and research within the framework of the cultural approach to HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care

·   Bridging the gap between western and indigenous models of development to achieve sustained development

·   Building viable partnerships and functional networks among stakeholders at all levels

·   And many other issues
Pdf 5024 kb
A Spatially Explicit Modelling Approach to Socio-economic Development in South Africa South Africa finds itself at a development cross road: optimism for ‘high road’ development is bisected by a wasteland of poverty and overpopulation. Intervention policies are largely ‘faith-based’, even in the face of rising uncertainties surrounding population growth, HIV/Aids and resource availability.  Added to this are the complexities of disparate spatial development and social scenarios, mass urbanization and immigration. Pdf 223 kb
Access to Treatment for HIV/AIDS The total number of people living with HIV/AIDS is estimated at 40 million.  Most of these people live in the developing world.  While there are indications that the incidence of HIV infection has been declining in some countries, in many others incidence rates remain high or are increasing.  Consequently, the prevalence of HIV infection is likely to continue to rise.  In the absence of treatment, most people infected with HIV will eventually develop an HIV-related disease and succumb to the consequences of the infection. 1013 kb pdf
Adjustment and Development for Children of HIV-Positive Mothers Urban, African American women comprise an increasing proportion of newly reported AIDS cases. Many of these women are single mothers, and their children, even if not HIV-positive, are at high risk for psychosocial problems such as aggression, delinquency, anxiety, and depression. Researchers examined the relationship between mother's HIV status and childhood stress and behavior for 147 mother-child dyads


Adoption Agency Admits HIV Discrimination In the first known case in the country challenging a private adoption agency’s refusal to provide services to a couple because one of them is HIV-positive, a new York couple has settled a lawsuit charging Children of the World, an adoption agency licensed in new Jersey and new York, with violating federal and state laws prohibiting discrimination against people with disabilities, including HIV/AIDS. 103 kb pdf
Adolescent Women 
Triple Jeopardy: 
Unwanted Pregnancy,


New HIV infections and AIDS cases continue to increase in 
most developing countries, while the AIDS epidemic has most 
recently reached a plateau or shown signs of a slight overall 
decline in much of the developed world.  Where AIDS is 
increasing, new HIV infection is disproportionately
high among young women who contract the virus through sexual
 intercourse…This same group has the highest rate worldwide of 
unwanted pregnancy, pointing to a potentially significant 
epidemiological overlap of reproductive health risk.  
Adult Mortality in the Era of HIV/AIDS: Sub-Saharan Africa The strong age-specific impact of HIV on mortality is reshaping the population structure of African countries with substantial epidemics.  The survival of adults in the worst effected countries is substantially reduced which will eventually depopulate certain tiers of the age pyramid, reducing the number of adults available to reproduce, and this together with the impact of HIV on fertility itself, will substantially alter the age distribution of severely impacted African populations for many decades to come Pdf 611 kb
ADULT MORTALITY IN THE ERA OF HIV/AIDS: THE ARAB COUNTRIES OF WESTERN ASIA AND NORTHERN AFRICA This paper reviews recent levels and trends in mortality conditions and the possible impact of AIDS in the Arab region of West Asia and North Africa. Twenty two countries/territories are considered in this study: 12 in Western Asia (Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Occupied Palestinian territory, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen), and 6 in Northern Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia). To complete the picture of the mortality transition in the Arab region, 4 more countries are included in the analysis, 3 in Eastern Africa (Comoros, Djibouti and Somalia), and one in Western Africa (Mauritania). Pdf 997 kb
Africa: The Socio-Economic Impact of HIV/AIDS It is at the level of the family and community that the fullest impacts of the HIV pandemic is unraveling.  One such ramification is AIDS related poverty among households.  Across the African continent, the most vulnerable people are the most economically active.  As these active people die, families are struggling to cope not just emotionally, but also economically.  Poverty is increasing as bread-winners die and scarce savings are utilized in the period of ill health.  As savings dwindle, families begin to fragment economically.  One implication of this fragmentation of families is the rising numbers of orphan children on our continent. Pdf 1104 kb
Age and AIDS: a Lethal Mix for South Africa’s Crime Rate Barring a miracle whereby an inexpensive cure is found for AIDS, the coming decades will be harsh on South Africa.  AIDS will decimate the country’s pool of young workers, and place substantial pressure on an already overburdened public health system.  Decreasing levels of productivity and a reduction in the country’s gross national product will follow.  The disease is also hitting South Africa at the worst possible time when the number of juveniles as a proportion of the general population will be at a high point.  This, and the resulting surge in the number of orphans, will create a sustained upward pressure on crime rates throughout the country 173 kb pdf
AIDS Action testing An AIDS awareness counselor recently summed up her experience of society's response to AIDS: 'I believe that, although AIDS is a new disease, it is laying bare all the old prejudices and political injustices that already exist.' One area where this is most apparent is the misuse of testing for HIV infection.  

AIDS and child labour in Zambia 

This rapid assessment examined correlations between the HIV/Aids pandemic and child labour in Zambia, and subsequently on the welfare of children in terms of their health, education, etc. It assesses gender issues related to HIV/Aids, as well as analysing the coping or survival strategies of girls and boys, including Aids orphans and assesses the child labourers' awareness and knowledge of HIV/Aids.


AIDS & democracy in Southern Africa

Workshop conducted by Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division of the University of Natal, Durban

Pdf 184 kb

AIDS and Older Persons: The View from Thailand Although little attention has been paid to older adults in the context of the global AIDS epidemic, they not only can contract HIV themselves but, far more commonly, they experience multiple consequences as in their role as parents of younger adults who become ill and die from AIDS.  Older persons also make significant contributions to the well-being of younger adults who suffer from AIDS by playing a major role in caregiving to their infected sons and daughters and by assuming the role of foster parents for their grandchildren who are left behind as AIDS orphans emphasizing the consequences for and the contributions by older persons in their role as AIDS parents. 360 kb pdf
AIDS becoming a youth epidemic Young people are increasingly responsible for the spread of HIV/AIDS around the world because of poverty and a severe lack of information and prevention services, the United Nations said Wednesday.  

AIDS Communication--an international view

AIDS-related stigma... refers to prejudice, discounting, discrediting, and discrimination directed at people perceived to have AIDS or HIV and at the individuals, groups, and communities with which they are associated.


AIDS Epidemic Grows Unchecked "AIDS has become the biggest threat to the continentís redevelopment... essential services are being depleted at the same time as state institutions and resources come under greater strain...the risks of social unrest and even socio-political instability should not be underestimated." Eastern Europe and Central Asia, covering much of the area that formed the Soviet Union and its East European satellite countries, has experienced the fastest rise in levels of HIV infection.  
AIDS-proof your marriage - use a condom

Thirty-four year-old Joan Gray has never led a dissolute life so she felt she had little need to worry about using a condom or being at risk for HIV/AIDS.

She was wrapped up in the security of a Christian marriage anchored on trust. Her husband Paul was also firmly rooted in the faith. "I trusted him because he was a child of God. And I know that if you are a child of God, you wouldn't do nothing to at all to hurt your wife or your husband," she said ruefully as she reflected on her ten-year marriage.

She is now HIV-positive - not as a result of her husband cheating on her but because he had had unprotected sex in a previous relationship. "Five years after we got married he learned that his ex-girlfriend had died of AIDS. He never went to get tested and he never told me," she said.
AIDS/HIV Disease and Socio-Culturally Diverse Populations Culture embodies the values, attitudes, beliefs and practices of a group as well as its roles and structures, communication styles, technology, art, and artifacts. The numbers of reported cases of AIDS/HIV disease are dramatically increasing in some ethnic and minority groups.  

AIDS impact on children-Lagging Policy response & impact on Children, the case of  Cote d'Lvoire                      

The number of the reported cases increased from 2 in 1985 to 56,000 in 1999.  AIDS has become the leading cause of mortality among adults and one of the first in children, and the mortality associated with the disease has reduced life expectancy at birth from 65 years to 55 years in 2000.

Pdf 590 kb

AIDS impact on children-Overview of the Impact & best responses                         

This paper reviews the community and public policy interventions introduced so far to moderate the impact of the disease on children and families and discusses the advantages and limitations of such interventions.  The main problem of the measures introduced so far is their nearly exclusive focus on prevention and the health sector.  While this approach is understandable in the early phase of the epidemics, its ability to protect child well-being appears now limited.

Pdf 261 kb

AIDS impact on children-Poverty and HIV/ AIDS Impact, coping and Mitigation polilcy                         

AIDS is a very long wave event.  The true death toll cannot be estimated until the full waveform of the epidemic has been seen.  It may be as long as 50 years before we can say that the world epidemic has peaked and/or begun to decline.

Pdf 128 kb

AIDS impact on children-Current & future impact of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic on South Africa's Children                          

The impacts infant and child mortality rates will double over 15 years, life expectancy will dramatically decline as more children acquire HIV, millions of orphans will be created as adults die and these children will kept in poverty and be less likely to attend school and receive the normal socialization of childhood.

Pdf 380 kb

AIDS impact on children- The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Children: Lights and Shadows in the Successful Case-Uganda AIDS on Children.                         

The analyses of the socio-economic impacts of HIV/AIDS on children in Uganda, with specific focus on their health, education and social welfare, and on the current and future policy/program responses in the field of prevention, treatment and mitigation.

Pdf 235 kb

AIDS impact on children-The impact on a Growing HIV/AIDS Epidemic on the Kenyan Children.                              

HIV prevalence in Kenya increased from 5.3 percent in 1990 to 13.5 percent in 2002 with the number of children under 5 years living with HIV growing from 32,000 in 1990 to 106,000 in 2000.

Pdf 81 kb

AIDS impact on children - The Socio-economic Impact of HIV/AIDS on Children in a Low Prevalence Context                           

The main features of this adequate policy (in Senegal)  consist of a timely response, an eagerness to anticipate on new developments, the strategic involvement of religious and political leaders, effective STD-control programs, and the construction of strong responses at the community level.

Pdf 92 kb

 AIDS needn't wipe out millions 

The study found that the major cause of death, at 11%, were unnatural incidents such as road accidents, injuries, suicide and drowning. This was followed by ill-defined causes and tuberculosis at 8% each, HIV at 7% and influenza and pneumonia at 6%.


AIDS orphans & vulnerable children An evidence-led response

Power Point Presentation-an evidence-led response


AIDS orphans to double A report compiled by aid agencies, presented to the International Aids Conference in Barcelona, said extended families often fail to cope, and many children are forced to live on the street.


AIDS Patients, Program Unable to Afford Meds


"We're living longer, we're living healthier--if you can get the medicines,"… "It's very telling that we didn't have a waiting list at this time last year," said Carmen Julious, Director of Palmetto AIDS Life Support Services. "Because of cuts in funding and because of budget decisions we had to make, we all of a sudden have one of the largest waiting lists in the country." Pdf 10 kb
AIDS-Premature Death (an art of living +) The disease with the deadliest form has opened a disastrous chapter at the back drop of human civilization is known as HIV/AIDS…In every minute, 6 children and 5 others of different age groups of different places of the world are being infected with HIV.  71 kb pdf
AIDS Stalks Haiti's Children ``Every year 5,000 children are born HIV-infected. There are an estimated 200,000 children orphaned by AIDS,'' said Luz Angela Melo, child protection officer for the U.N. children's agency.  

AIDS-Stigma & Discrimination.

Stigma and discrimination associated with HIV and AIDS are the greatest barriers to preventing further infections, providing adequate care, support and treatment and alleviating impact.

Pdf 304 kb

AIDS takes a growing toll on Native Americans With AIDS cases increasing in the most remote Native American outposts, the isolated, insular nature of some of those communities may be their downfall. Those who thought the isolation would protect them, that the disease was only found in urban areas, now see it cropping up in the smallest villages, far from the nearest clinic, places where the lack of health care means people often wait until they're very sick to get help.  
AIDS task team about to complete its work Last year in April, government established a joint technical task team comprising the health department and Treasury, to look into these issues, including comprehensive costs and benefits of various AIDS treatment options.


AIDS Transmission Through Blood Supply is Discussed at Internews Nigeria Roundtable “HIV/AIDS is not a sinners’ affliction,” declared Evangelist Peter Ikiti to journalists attending an educational roundtable organized by Internews’ Local Voices Project in Abuja about the safety of Nigeria’s blood supply.  
AIDS War now enters Church Rev. Heath, an Anglican Priest since 1994 and who became a father in 1995 and tested HIV+ in 2000 discouraged religious leaders who still clung to the old myths in the churches that AIDS was God's punishment for sin.  
Analysis of Social Aspects of Migrant Labourers Living with HIV/AIDS Migrant workers are more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS than the local population because of their poverty, lack of power, lack of health awareness and unstable life-style.  The main reason for taking up this study is that in the state of Tamil Nadu, migrant labourers constitute the major portion of this affected with HIV/AIDS.  (Rural Taminadu, India) 1539 kb pdf
Antecedents of Attitudes Toward the Poor This study assessed attitudes toward the poor using just-world beliefs, external/structural attributions for poverty, and internal/individualistic attributions for wealth as predictors. Just-world beliefs are the extent to which people believe the world is a just or unjust place, and that people get what they deserve. High levels of just-world beliefs frequently contribute to schemas that are associated with victim blaming (e.g., the rape victim must have done something to provoke it). Attributions are indicators of the characteristics (or traits, motives, etc.) that people ascribe to themselves or others. This study assessed internal/individualistic attributions for wealth (e.g., ambition, perseverance, etc.), and external/structural attributions for poverty (e.g., no benefits, low paying jobs, etc.). The significance of holding just-world beliefs and of making internal attributions for wealth and external attributions for poverty in relationship to attitudes toward the poor was analyzed using multiple regression analysis to predict attitudes toward poor persons. In the sample (N = 112), just-world beliefs were found to be a significant predictor of attitudes toward the poor. Participants having high just-world beliefs had negative attitudes toward the poor, and participants who believed the world is unjust had more positive attitudes toward the poor. Attributions for poverty and wealth were not found to be significant predictors of attitudes toward the poor.  

Assessment of trends in Child Mortality in Tanzania.

Comparing the results of the TRCHS 1999 with the TDHS 1996 suggests that child mortality in Tanzania has increased.  Yet, five-year trends within the TRCHS suggest the opposite.  How should these trends be interpreted?

Pdf 95 kb

AT WHAT COST? HIV AND HUMAN RIGHTS CONSEQUENCES OF THE GLOBAL “WAR ON DRUGS” This volume, which focuses on the experiences of people who use drugs and those who work with them, offers a partial answer. While drug control policies have indeed been strengthened in many countries of the world, there is little evidence that they have succeeded in significantly reducing supply of illicit drugs or the numbers of people who use them. 3068 kb pdf
Back to the Future: a feasibility study on return-to-work programming for people living with HIV/AIDS Numerous barriers to the effective reintegration of PHAs into the workforce were identified, particularly in relation to current income support programs, long term disability plans and psychosocial issues. However, significant opportunities exist for programs and partnerships aimed at overcoming these barriers.  
Barriers to better care for people with AIDS in developing countries Access to good quality antiretroviral treatment has transformed the prognosis for people with AIDS in the developed world. Although it is feasible and desirable to deliver antiretroviral drugs in resource poor settings, few of the 95% of people with HIV and AIDS who live in developing countries receive them. The World Health Organization has launched a programme to deliver antiretroviral drugs to three million people with AIDS in the developing world by 2005, the "3 by 5" initiative. We identify some of the challenges faced by the initiative, focusing on delivery of care.  
Big Issues In Brief Scaling up responses to HIV/AIDS Stigma looms large and ominous, shadowing the HIV/AIDS pandemic. It relates to every HIV intervention, including general prevention, the prevention of mother-to-child transmission, antiretroviral treatment, and care and support for the patient and family, including children. On an institutional level, stigma plays a major role, affecting the ability of public health workers to prevent infection, to treat and to help people living with HIV/AIDS, and to assist loved ones in managing and coping with the condition. On a personal level, stigma can mean loneliness, abandonment, ostracism, violence, starvation, and death. Pdf 206 kb
BONELA POLICY PAPER ON HIV/AIDS AND EMPLOYMENT In a broad sense, HIV/AIDS affects the workplace in many aspects: it affects productivity; it can increase business costs, and affect the national economy. Productivity is reduced because of increased absenteeism and low employee morale. Business costs are increased because of increased benefits, increased amounts of sick pay, as well as the cost of replacing workers as others become too sick to work, or die.   

Bug Chasers

Carlos nonchalantly asks whether his drink was made with whole or skim milk. He takes a moment to slurp on his grande Caffe Mocha in a crowded Starbucks, and then he gets back to explaining how much he wants HIV, the virus that causes AIDS


Call to move AIDS council Mr Abdi Tari Sasura (Saku, Kanu) asked what skills the OP had to deal with Aids, while Dr Ali Abdulahi (Wajir North, Kanu) described the office as a bottomless pit that had swallowed all crucial government departments.


Causes & Consequences of AIDS in Africa.

Presentation by Professor Alan Whiteside

Pdf 1.119 kb

CDC Guidelines for Surveillance 1999. AIDS surveillance has been the cornerstone of national efforts to monitor the spread of HIV infection in the UD and to target HIV-prevention programs and health-care services…Monitoring AIDS-defining conditions provided population-based data that reflected changes in the incidence of HIV infection 348 kb pdf
Challenges associated with Increases survival among parents living with HIV This study examined sociodemographic and psychosocial factors that predict survival among parents living with AIDS

174 kb pdf

Childhood under Threat-2005

(Large file-please allow extra time for download)

Pictures of childhood: boys and girls scavenging in the rubbish piles of Manila, coerced into carrying an AK-47 in the Jungles of Democratic Republic of the Congo, forced into prostitution on the streets of Moscow, begging for food in Rio de Janeiro, orphaned by AIDS in Botswana. millions of children grow up in poverty, are caught up in armed conflict or are orphaned and made vulneraable by HIV/AIDS in these beginning years of the 21st centruy 4697 kb pdf
Children and Armed Conflict A guide to international humanitarian and human rights laws 233 kb pdf
Cohesiveness of Society Civil society is a distinct realm of modern human experience: family, friends, neighbors and citizens

326 kb pdf

Combating Child labour and HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa The HIV/AIDS pandemic adds a new and tragic dimension to the worst forms of child labour.  With the death of one or both parents from HIV/AIDS, millions of children have been orphaned.  Millions more will be.  Many of these children will find security in the households of relatives.  Others, however, will drop out of school, looking for work to survive.  An especially harsh burden is placed on the shoulders of the girl child, who often has to provide care and household services for the entire family.  Even children cared for by grandparents or other relatives may have to work to assist guardians and siblings 598 kb pdf
Community Home-Based Care Over 95 percent of People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) live in lower-income or developing countries. Nearly two-thirds of PLWHA globally live in sub-Saharan Africa, and Asia is catching up at an alarming pace.  As the number of PLWHA increases, the gap continues to widen between the demand for, and availability of, health care services. Relying on the strengths of family and community networks, Community Home-Based Care (CHBC) has emerged as an effective method of providing cost-effective, compassionate care to those infected and affected by HIV/AIDS. 5347 kb pdf
Community Home-Based Care for People and Communities Affected by HIV/AIDS This curriculum is the result of collaboration and hard work of many contributors. It draws on the experience of Pathfinder staff who put into practice a model of community home-based care (CHBC) in Kenya, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Uganda. Pathfinder’s CHBC model, piloted by COPHIA in Kenya, emphasizes community mobilization for prevention as well as participation in care and support for those affected by HIV/AIDS. In recent years, Pathfinder has integrated prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), family planning, and other reproductive health initiatives into its CHBC programs in Kenya and Tanzania. This curriculum also incorporates experience from other Pathfinder HIV/AIDS projects in Brazil, Botswana, India, Mozambique, Peru, and Viet Nam. 558 kb pdf
Community Home-Based Care for People and Communities Affected by HIV/AIDS—TRAINER’S GUIDE This curriculum is the result of collaboration and hard work of many contributors. It draws on the experience of Pathfinder staff who put into practice a model of community home-based care (CHBC) in Kenya, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Uganda. Pathfinder’s CHBC model, piloted by COPHIA in Kenya, emphasizes community mobilization for prevention as well as participation in care and support for those affected by HIV/AIDS. In recent years, Pathfinder has integrated prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), family planning, and other reproductive health initiatives into its CHBC programs in Kenya and Tanzania. This curriculum also incorporates experience from other Pathfinder HIV/AIDS projects in Brazil, Botswana, India, Mozambique, Peru, and Viet Nam. 4089 kb pdf
Comparative analysis-India & Uganda HIV and AIDS related Discrimination, stigmatization and denial 209 kb pdf
Crime, punishment and the measurement of poverty in the United States The rate of incarceration has increased dramatically in the US since 1980. We explore the implications of this increased incarceration on national poverty measurement

400 kb pdf

Deadly silence barriers to communicating HIV/AIDS in schools 

An estimated 11.8 million 15 to 24-year-olds are living with HIV worldwide. Schools are the obvious place to teach young people about the risks of infection. But what is the best way to do this? Research by ActionAid identifies a number of silences in communication, which are hindering efforts in the classroom.


Destabilizing Impacts of HIV/AIDS The impacts of HIV/AIDS on the critical infrastructures that sustain the security, stability, and viability of modern nation-states are manifold.  In much of the developing world, particularly in Africa, HIV/AIDS is undermining education and health systems, economic growth, micro enterprises, policing and military capabilities, political legitimacy, family structures, and overall social cohesion. 217 kb pdf
Development Personnel. In countries across the globe, HIV/AIDS threatens to reverse hard won progress in human development. The determinants of the epidemic cannot be explained only in terms of individual risk-taking behavior.

571 kb pdf

Dramatic surge seen in local HIV Cases HIV infections among gay men have increased dramatically over the past two years in King County, Wash., and health officials are renewing their pleas for caution and vigilance against the disease. A new analysis shows HIV infections diagnosed in public health clinics jumped 40 percent last year and are projected to increase by another 60 percent this year


Discrimination Against Children Affected by HIV/AIDS Discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS and their families is widespread in India.  People whose HIV status is known may lose their homes, their jobs, and their families, and may be denied medical care.77  Children who are HIV-positive, or whose caregivers are, may be denied access to school or treated badly there, kept at home to care for sick family members, or be unable to pay school fees because the family wage earner is sick or dead.78  Extended family members may refuse to care for children orphaned by AIDS, especially those who are also HIV-positive.  Institutions, including health care facilities and orphanages, may make improper disclosures of children’s test results and reject HIV-positive children.  Children already facing other forms of discrimination—sex workers, children of sex workers, Dalit and lower-caste children, and street children—suffer more.  Girls are especially vulnerable to HIV transmission if they are targeted for sexual abuse or have less access to information about HIV prevention and related issues.  They are also less likely than boys to be given adequate food, medical care, or education, and more likely to be pulled out of school to care for a sick family member or to take over domestic work.  This section documents discrimination HIV/AIDS-affected children face in health services and in education.  

Drug Use, Prostitution Put Asia's 'Big Three' at Risk

China, India and Indonesia - which are home to 40 percent of the world's population - now face HIV epidemics that could leap out of risk groups and into the mainstream, "Injecting drug use and sex work are so pervasive in some areas that even countries with currently low infection levels could see epidemics surge suddenly


Economics of AIDS-impact mitigation.

The adverse economic impact of HIV/AIDS is becoming increasingly evident.  

Pdf 268 kb

Education of the children of the positive people 

The parents are also experiencing ostracism from the society. In two cases, the children are not allowed to continue in the school where there have been studying, though they are negative


Effective HIV/AIDS Communication 

There is considerable debate and enquiry concerning the most effective communication strategies for addressing HIV/AIDS issues


Fertility Desires and Intentions of HIV-Positive Men and Women HIV-positive men and women may have fertility desires and may intend to have children. The extent of these desires and intentions and how they may vary by individuals' social and demographic characteristics and health factors is not well understood.  
Final Report- The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Health Service Personnel at Two Public Hospitals in Johannesburg Much has been written about the burden placed on the health sector in South Africa by HIV/AIDS.  Most of this work focuses on the increased demand for health services created by AIDS and the costs of providing hospital care to HIV-infected patients.  Little has been published about the impact of HIV/AIDS on nurses, doctors, and the other trained professionals who are responsible for keeping increasingly over-burdened public healthcare facilities functioning.  Little is known about the contribution of AIDS to the high attrition of healthcare personnel, the impact of HIV/AIDS on healthcare worker labour productivity, or the actual financial and human capital costs of the disease to the public health system  
Former Maryland governor wants public registry for people with AIDS
``People should know if they are around people with AIDS,'' said 
Schaefer, a former governor and mayor of Baltimore. ``I feel it's 
absolutely necessary that a registry be set up. It (AIDS) is 
an epidemic in Africa and it's an epidemic here.''

Gay men and their wives 

A recent article in The Monitor argues that directing HIV/Aids services and campaigns at Africa's gay men may also help save their wives and girlfriends.


Guidelines for preparation and execution of studies of the social and Economic impact of HIV/AIDS This document provides basic concepts to assist thinking about these implications together with ideas and techniques for planning responses to the medium and longer term social and economic impact of AIDS

193 kb pdf

Healthcare Workers.

In every country people living with HIV/AIDS have to navigate a confusing and often contradictory health and social service bureaucracy.

Pdf 431 kb

Heterosexual transmission of HIV in Africa: an empiric estimate For more than a decade, most experts have assumed that more than 90% of HIV in African adults results from heterosexual transmission.  In this exercise, we show how data from studies of risk factors for HIV can be used to estimate the proportion from sexual transmission, and we present our estimates Pdf 139 kb

Hidden Battle-family & community.

The AIDS epidemic will cause significant increases in illness and death in prime age adults.  This will affect both households and communities.  Primae are adult illness and death will manifest itself through negative social, economic and developmental impacts

Pdf 76 kb

HIV and Sexual behaviour among Young. A national survey of 15-24 year olds from South Africa 1,393 kb pdf
HIV/aids and child labour in Zambia: a rapid assessment on the case This rapid assessment examined correlations between the HIV/Aids pandemic and child labour in Zambia, and subsequently on the welfare of children in terms of their health, education, etc. It assesses gender issues related to HIV/Aids, as well as analysing the coping or
survival strategies of girls and boys, including Aids orphans and assesses the child labourers' awareness and knowledge of HIV/Aids.
HIV/AIDS and Homelessness HIV is found in epidemic proportions among the homeless.  HIV prevalence is estimated at 3.1 percent and above in homeless populations that have been studied compared to .3 percent in the general population. 299 kb pdf
HIV/AIDS and child labour in South Africa: A rapid assessment This study investigated the link between HIV/AIDS and child labour in South Africa, covering selected towns and rural areas.  It covers: AIDS orphans, Family integrity, HIV/AIDS awareness among child respondents, School dropouts, and Hazardous work conditions 644 kb pdf
HIV/AIDS: Discrimination, Stigma and Shame
We have a lot of strength. It is what has helped us 
withstand the difficulties of an alienating, often hostile 
environment. We can build on those strengths. For 
example, one of the most positive developments 
in our work in HIV prevention has been developing 
capacity of community-based organizations to work 
within their own communities. This is helping to empower 
communities, building important links and greater 
trust with dominant society structures and builds on 
relationships of trust already in the communities. More 
still needs to be done. However, only by setting the goal 
of addressing past wounds and moving on will this
 be accomplished. The past is real, but the future can better.



The focus of workplace policy has moved beyond issues of incidence to the impact of HIV/AIDS in the work environment. Impact in the workplace is experienced in various ways. In the most extreme case, there is the loss of productive employees and the cost of replacement and training. With advanced HIV infection, there is increased absenteeism and the concomitant loss of productivity. In a broader context, employees with family members infected with the disease will lose time at work to attend funerals, and will carry a higher financial burden as family members die and they undertake the care of orphaned nieces and nephews. Other areas of impact include the breakup of research teams as a result of illness and death, and the isolation and withdrawal of the HIV-infected employee. Human Resources (HR) must address these realities when developing compassionate HIV/AIDS policies and programs. Pdf 103 kb

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HIV & Civil Rights from the ACLU Discrimination adds to the daily struggles faced by the growing number of people living with HIV/AIDS in the United States—people who are predominantly poor and disproportionately African American or Latino/a.  Almost every agency told us that the biggest problems facing their clients involve meeting basic needs—coping with poverty, hunger, illiteracy, inadequate medical care, lack of transportation, and homelessness. 271 kb pdf

HIV becomes political again: treatment, stigma, men 

The flames of this movement originated principally in South Africa and Brazil in response to the refusal of international pharmaceutical companies to reduce the price of ARVs or allow developing countries to produce them themselves. They were fanned by the political rows surrounding President Thabo Mbeki's unwillingness to acknowledge the reality of the AIDS epidemic in his country, and the lack of commitment to tackling the epidemic by many of Africa's political leaders (most clearly exemplified at the 1999 HIV/AIDS in Africa conference, where not a single African leader attended).


HIV and Gay Men Over Fifty Presentation 145 kb pdf
HIV and the aging immune system; Impact of HIV and HAART in persons at least 50 years of age Presentation 473 kb pdf
HIV disclosure rule comes under attack "Since that time I have been watching and studying that data, and it turns out the risk to patients is virtually zero," says Gostin, a professor at Georgetown University Law Center in Washington, D.C. "At the same time, I have found that health care workers have been literally hounded out of the profession (because of disclosure). They have been subject to a lot of discrimination and invasion of privacy."  
HIV infection in Parents of Youths. In Response to the clinical observation that many nonperinatally infected HIV-positive youths receiving care through the program mentioned HIV infection in a parent, we conducted a study to determine 1-the number of youths with known sexually and injection acquired HIV and 2-whether parental HIV infection is associated with increased risk behaviors and exposure to abuse among HIV-positive youths 56 kb pdf
HIV Prevention Among Vulnerable Populations Three particular populations in most countries are highly vulnerable to HIV infection: sex workers, men who have sex with other men, and injecting drug users. All over the world, legal frameworks, social stigma, and discrimination have rendered these populations voiceless in the decision-making processes that affect their lives, including those related to HIV. On the other hand, in places where they have been encouraged, or have fought to participate actively in prevention programming, these vulnerable groups have been among the most efficient players in slowing or even stopping the epidemic. 5028 kb pdf

HIV/AIDS and Globalization.

What is the epidemic telling us about economics, morality and pragmatism?

Pdf 48 kb

HIV/AIDS and Human Rights in Nigeria While people living with HIV/AIDS deal with the medical impact of HIV/AIDS, their status may result in or be a consequence of social and economic factors, including human rights.  The links between health and human rights are complex and multidirectional.  Human rights violations often increase people’s vulnerability to HIV infection particularly for women, young people, and other marginalized groups. Pdf 150 kb
HIV/AIDS hits home Larimer County now ranks second in the state with the highest amount of people living with HIV and AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).


HIV/AIDS in Asia Complacency has consistently been a key factor in the spread of the HIV epidemic, and nowhere else in the world has there been more complacency than in Asia…Whether or not the epidemic actually expands is entirely in the hands of the people of the region and their leaders Pdf 164 kb

HIV/AIDS on top of Poverty: What needs to be done?

Extreme poverty, which is associated not only with underdeveloped infrastracture of health, but also similarly primitive other sectors of development, is the main reason why we have uncontrolled spread of HIV/AIDS and its devastating complications


Home Care for PLWHA: The Power of our Community
The HIV/AIDS pandemic has created a crisis of unprecedented 
proportion that greatly impacts society as a whole, especially 
women and their reproductive health.  Communities everywhere 
are struggling to respond
410 kb pdf
Household Responses to Prime Are Adult Mortality in Rural Mozambique: Implications for HIV/AIDS Mitigation Efforts and Rural Economic Development Policies The objective of this paper is to use nationally representative rural household survey data from Mozambique to investigate the effects of prime age adult death from illness.  The paper also evaluates the characteristics of affected individuals and households, household demographic changes and livelihood adjustment strategies taken in response to prime age death from illness 214 kb pdf

Human rights abuses & HIV transmission to Girls in Zambia.

Each year, children are ushered into roles they’re not supposed to perform; heading households, unable to attend school, getting pregnant, on the street, into commercial sex.  Living with HIV/AIDS has a huge impact on the mind of a child.  They lose parents very early, and they’re ushered into these roles.

Pdf 607 kb

In 1987, Surgeon General C. Everett Koop publicly recommended
 that people use condoms to prevent the transmission of HIV, which
 develops in to AIDS. Some conservative Christian organizations 
attacked his stance. Phyllis Schlafly of Eagle Forum accused him 
of promoting "safe fornication with condoms" as "a cover-up for the 
homosexual community." Conservative anti-tobacco advocate and a 
close colleague of Koop defended the Surgeon General. She said: 
"I hate to be in a public debate with Phyllis Schlafly, since we have 
a lot of things in common. But she is wrong about Dr. Koop....In 
everything I've read in Dr. Koop's written speeches, he stresses 
monogamy as the first line of defense against AIDS."

Impact of Faith-based organizations on HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation in Africa.

FBOs often have a direct impact on social institutions which socialize people and change values over time

Pdf 503 kb

Impact of HIV/AIDS on Labour Productivity:


Pdf power point presentation concerning Overview of Broad Reach Healthcare• HIV/AIDS and Workplace Productivity • Reasons for Limited Success of Workplace Programs to Date • Supply and demand-Side Challenges to Scale-Up of Workplace HIV/AIDS Prevention, Treatment and Care • A Pan African Ports “Systems Approach” to tackling HIV/AIDS Pdf 587 kb
Impact of the AIDS Epidemic on Schooling in Sub-Saharan Africa This report assesses the actual and likely impacts of HIV/AIDS epidemic on schooling in sub-Saharan Africa.  In particular, it reviews available evidence concerning the school attendance of orphans and morbidity and mortality among teachers in high prevalence countries. 247 kb pdf

Impact of HIV/AIDS in Education in KwaZulu.

Presentation to the National Teacher’s Union

Pdf 829 kb

In Maine, AIDS/HIV Cases on Rise

State officials say the number of people in Maine living  with HIV/AIDS has never been higher, reflecting a nationwide  trend. State Bureau of Health statistics show more than 500 people diagnosed with AIDS in Maine and 700 with HIV.


In Their Own Right-Addressing the Sexual and Reproductive Health needs of Men Worldwide Addressing the sexual and reproductive behaviors and health of men creates a win-win situation: The more informed and more effective men become in living safer sexual and reproductive lives, the better it will be for them and for their partners and children 947 kb pdf
Innovative Approaches Towards Peer Education. The Center was developed to ensure that the University as a whole was able to plan for, and cope with, the impact that HIV/AIDS is likely to have on the institution and the tertiary sector as a whole.

100 kb pdf

Is the AIDS epidemic having an impact on the coping behaviour and health status of the elderly? Evidence from Northwestern Tanzania This paper is based on a research project entitled, “The economic impact of fatal adult illness due to AIDS and other causes in sub-Saharan Africa”, sponsored by the World Bank, USAID and Danida. We are grateful to UNAIDS—particularly Anita Alban—for the financial support for this paper, to Paurvi Bhatt, Deon Filmer, Robert Hecht, John Knodel, Sukhontha Kongsin and John Stover, for comments on an earlier draft, and to Anna Marie Marańon for expert assistance in producing the paper with all of the figures intact. Our use of the term ‘elderly’ in this paper to describe adults over the age of 50 is purely for convenience; we wish to affirm that none of our friends, colleagues or co-investigators over 50 could in any way be described as elderly. The findings, interpretations and conclusions expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the World Bank or its members. Pdf 734 kb

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