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“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”

HIV/AIDS: Social Impact

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Main topics can be found within the left column; sub-topics and/or research reports can be found near the bottom of this page.  Thank you

"As much of the world has now realized, the HIV/AIDS pandemic is ravaging the countries of sub-Saharan Africa, where more than seventy percent of the world's HIV-positive people live and where more than one-third of adults in some areas are infected with HIV. The impact on hard-hit countries will be multi-faceted and potentially severe. Substantial demographic changes, economic slowdown, social destabilization, and an undermining of democracy and governance are all potential consequences of this pandemic, which targets economically- and socially-productive adults in the 'prim' of their lives, orphaning children and burdening families, communities, governments, health care facilities, and companies…The strongest finding to come out of this research, consequently, was not about the current impact, but rather the inevitable and imminent future impact. Most of the sampled organizations were aware that they eventually would have to grapple with HIV/AIDS among their own staff and volunteers, and they knew this could have serious consequences for their organizations' effectiveness and sustainability. Many also knew they wanted to do something to prepare for this eventuality: to develop and implement policies that would help minimize the impact. However, many of them noted that there is a distinct lack of resources and guidance for organizations seeking to develop responses to HIV/AIDS, and argued that such resources were sorely needed. Even several of those that had already developed HIV/AIDS policies noted the difficulty they had in accessing assistance in doing so."

—The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Civil Society


Document Name & Link to Document


File Size /pdf

Lay health providers & HIV Prevention in Latino community For minority populations, lay health advisers (LHAs) often supplement traditional health services by providing information on health promotion and disease prevention in their communities. Nurse researchers in North Carolina developed the Protegiendo Nuestra Comunidad (Protecting our Community) program for a growing neighborhood of recent Mexican immigrants.


Livelihoods at the Margins For every formal job in the tourism industry in Malawi there are people who, usually in an ad hoc and opportunistic way, derive an, albeit irregular, income from tourism Pdf 324 kb
Macroeconomic Models of the Impact of HIV/AIDS Major differences of opinion are emerging in assessments of the socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDS in heavily affected countries between the experiences of those who are devising practical responses to the pandemic, and forecasts based on macroeconomic modeling. 176 kb pdf

Making AIDS our Problem.

Young people and the development challenge in South Africa

Pdf 534 kb

Male circumcision for the heterosexual acquisition of HIV in men.

Circumcision practices are largely culturally determined, so there are strong beliefs and opinions surrounding them.

Pdf 169 kb

MEN AND THE HIV EPIDEMIC There has been increasing awareness that prevailing relationships within and between the sexes, or gender relations as they are more usually called, affect not only the development of the epidemic, but the manner in which individuals, groups and communities respond  
METHODS FOR MODELING THE HIV/AIDS EPIDEMIC IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA An understanding of the magnitude and trajectory of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, as well as the uncertainty around these parameters, is critically important both for planning and evaluating control strategies and for preparing for vaccine efficacy trials. Particularly as efforts mount to make new technologies more widely available in the developing world, tradeoffs among different potential interventions and other critical policy decisions must be based on the best possible information on the current levels and trends in the epidemic. Unfortunately, population-based epidemiological data are extremely limited in sub- Saharan Africa. Incidence data in representative study samples are rare due to the difficulty of direct measurement of population incidence and the high costs and long follow-up periods required for cohort studies. AIDS notification data represent only a fraction of new cases of AIDS and are subject to the problems of reporting delays. Information on HIV/AIDS-attributable mortality is also essential to assessments of the impact of the epidemic, but vital registration systems have extremely limited coverage in most of sub-Saharan Africa; other population-based information on mortality, while increasingly available for children through the Demographic and Health Surveys, for example, are relatively uncommon for adults. Pdf 57 kb
New challenges: HIV/AIDS and drugs
Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS have led in some parts of the 
world to an increased demand for young sex partners, including 
very young children.  In addition to the fallacy that children are 
less likely to contract and transmit HIV/AIDS, in some countries 
of Asia these are long-established myths about the rejuvenating 
powers of youth.
82 kb pdf
Poverty and AIDS. Looks at the relation between HIV/AIDS and poverty and tries to say something about the relationship. 128 kb pdf
Private Sector Response to HIV/AIDS in Swaziland This report presents a detailed analysis of the impact of HIV/AIDS on the private sector, by focusing on costs imposed on the private sector as a result of increased illness and deaths from AIDS

279 kb pdf

Protecting Children from Sexual Abuse and Exploitation Child sexual abuse and exploitation is a global phenomenon.  It exists in most cultures irrespective of material wealth and state ideology 70 kb pdf
Psychological Distress, Substance Use, and Adjustment among Parents Living with HIV Custodial parents demonstrated significantly poorer medication adherence and attendance at medical appointments but were similar to nonparents and noncustodial parents in mental health symptoms and treatment utilization for mental health and substance use problems. Noncustodial parents demonstrated the highest levels of recent substance use and substance abuse treatment. Other markers of risk, such as African American ethnicity, lack of current employment income, and injection drug use moderated many of the apparent psychosocial disadvantages exhibited by parents.  

Quarantine of PLWHAS in Mumbai Airport 

The following is the details fo yet another shocking incident and that too by the government officials.


Racism, stigma and discrimination

It is important to recognize that the HIV/AIDS pandemic consists of multiple and overlapping epidemics, each with its own distinctive dynamics and character

Pdf 88 kb

Researchers fake AIDS study data

Three Maryland researchers have admitted fabricating interviews with teenagers for a study on AIDS prevention that received more than $1 million in federal funds.


Rethinking AIDS as Social Responsibility 

AIDS control efforts reflect the best and the worst face of globalisation.  How are the dual sides manifest in relation to AIDS and how can we capitalise on the positive and counter the negative implications?  These are the central concerns while conceptualizing the workshop. 


RUSSIA: "Rights Group Says HIV-Positive Pregnant Women, Babies Face Discrimination in Russia" Official data show more than 9,500 HIV-positive women had given birth by February 2005. Of them, 10-20 percent had abandoned their babies, HRW said. Many of those children end up in segregated orphanages or hospital wards for HIV-positive children because of fear of contact with them.  
Securing the Supply of Condoms and Other Essential Products for HIV/AIDS Programs Power Point Presentation 1,953 kb

Serological findings amongst first time blood donors 

Blood safety remains an issue of major concern in transfusion medicine in developing countries where national blood transfusion services and policies, appropriate infrastructure, trained personnel and financial resources are lacking. This is aggravated by the predominance of family and replacement, rather than regular benevolent, nonremunerated donors


Sex and HIV Behaviour Change Trial shows no link

However, while the trial led to a marked change in sexual behavioural patterns, with the proportion reporting causal sexual partners falling from around 35 per cent to 15 per cent, there was no noticeable fall in the number of new cases of HIV infection, although there was a significant reduction in sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis and gonorrhoea.


Sexual Behavior, HIV & Family Trends

This study examines how prevention behaviors may have affected HIV prevalence as well as fertility patterns

Pdf 3,541 kb

Sexual risk behaviours, perceptions and norms among unmarried adolescents: evidence from case studies About one-fourth of boys in this particular sample had engaged in risky premarital sex, and their sexual networks included multiple partners and unsafe sex.  They carried misperceptions about what constituted risky behavious and therefore did not consider themselves at risk.  Although many girls were aware that some boys had sexual relations with their peers and that some went to ‘red light areas’ they did not perceive any risk of contracting HIV from their future partner or spouse. 29 kb pdf
Situation Analysis Report on STD/HIV/AIDS in Nigeria The socio-economic impact of this epidemic on the Nigerian society has not been documented but it is becoming apparent that the already fragile health care delivery system is being overloaded. There are also more reported cases of monoparental families and orphans. Furthermore the Nigerian population continues to increase at an alarming rate of 2.83% or more. Hence, the projected impact will have disastrous consequence on the population of Nigeria and ultimately of Africa and the world. Despite all these, the Nigerian populace still continues to deny the existence of the disease.  
Social Capital and Coping with Economic Shocks Households live in an environment characterized by risks and many face a significant probability of experiencing economic losses that threaten their daily subsistence.

294 kb pdf

Social movements: 'ultra-left' or 'global citizens?' 

They are an extremely loose constellation of left-leaning, community-based social movements that vary enormously in focus, size and influence. Most are minuscule. What unites them is a shared desire to help the poor and downtrodden, and, in varying degrees, a common antagonism to hierarchies and bureaucracies, the profit motive, the unfettered market and corporate power.


Social sector. In a market economy, those who are unable effectively to compete for resources often require outside assistance for survival

405 kb pdf

Social Policy to combat Income poverty children & Families in Europe. Income poverty among children now exceeds that among the elderly, who traditionally were the demographic group most at risk of poverty. 378 kb pdf
Social Workers. Social workers are employed within a diverse range of government and non-government organizations. The term ‘social worker’ in this AIDS brief is intended to include professionals with titles such as community worker, child care worker, youth worker, residential care worker as well as social worker.

440 kb pdf

South African National  HIV prevalence, Behavioral risks & mass media.

Over 20 years ago AIDS was first documented and more than 15 years ago HIV was first identified as a causative agent for AIDS

Pdf 2,844 kb

Statistical Analysis of Adolescent sexual & reproductive Health.

A baseline study to provide a foundation and a focus for intervention

Pdf 347 kb

Still no excuses: Orphans and vulnerable children and HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS is the biggest threat to the developing world.  Fairer trade rules and debt relief will be in vain if the HIV epidemic is not dealt with.  Its impact on the societies and economies of the developing world, especially in Africa, is already devastating. 87 kb pdf
Socio-economic Impact of HIV/AIDS on People Living with HIV/AIDS and their Families The deteriorating economic impact on the PLWHA is also shocking…The number is increasing and now we are about 10% of the global HIV population…We shall make mistake if we don’t take these findings seriously and strengthen out responses to HIV/AIDS 339 kb pdf
Stigma stops HIV disclosure “We know that a substantial (but unknown) number of stable sexual relationships are between partners where one is HIV positive, but does not tell the other partner,” Dr Simbayi said. “Stigma is a very real part of these people's lives. Disclosing one's HIV status can be risky.”  “For example, our study in South Africa showed that 40% of people living with HIV/Aids had experienced discrimination and one in five had lost their homes or their jobs because of their HIV status.”  

Suicidal Ideation, Suicide Attempts, and HIV Infection


Factors associated with suicidal ideation included being HIV-positive, the presence of current psychiatric disorder, higher neuroticism scores, external locus of control, and current unemployment. In the HIV-positive group analyzed separately, higher suicidal ideation was discriminated by the adjustment to HIV diagnosis (greater hopelessness and lower fighting spirit), disease factors (greater number of current acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]-related conditions), and background variables (neuroticism). Significant predictors of a past attempted suicide were a positive lifetime history of psychiatric disorder (particularly depression diagnoses), a lifetime history of injection drug use, and a family history of suicide attempts. The findings indicate increased levels of suicidal ideation in symptomatic HIV-positive men and highlight the role that multiple psychosocial factors associated with suicidal ideation and attempted suicide play in this population  

Summary of HIV Prevalence & Sexual Behavior Findings.

This study examines how prevention behaviors may have affected HIV prevalence as well as fertility patterns in three countries

Pdf 288 kb

Surviving on the streets-Sexuality and HIV/AIDS among Male Street youth in Dessie, Ethiopia There is no place where we can find work and we are forced to think of other undesirable alternatives which we would have previously been glad to avoid, things like theft and the like.  We are under great worry right now. Pdf 184 kb

Tanzania-monitoring and Evaluation of National HIV/AIDS/STD Program.

The epidemic has now become generalized but there are large differences in its spread between regions.  The main mode of transmission is heterosexual contributing about 80% of all transmissions.

Pdf 84 kb

The ABC's of HIV Prevention 

Abstaining from sexual activity, mutual monogamy, and condom use are three key behaviors that can prevent or reduce the likelihood of sexual transmission of the AIDS virus. These behaviors are often included together under a comprehensive "ABC" approach


The AIDS Pandemic in the 21st Century

(Large report-increase download time)
Although the full demographic impact is not expected to be felt for several more years, and perhaps will not be completely measured at the pandemic’s epicenter in Sub-Saharan Africa, the emerging downward trends in life expectancy and population growth, the distortions in age structures, and the breakdowns in support systems are already being seen in some countries. Pdf 2123 kb

The changing face of the HIV epidemic in western Europe: what are the implications for public health policies?


In this review, we describe changes in dynamics of HIV transmission and shifts in affected populations in western Europe using HIV/AIDS surveillance data and published and unpublished reports. Despite substantial reductions in HIV-related morbidity and mortality since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral treatment, HIV continues to pose a major public health problem in western Europe. More than half a million people are living with an infection that remains incurable and requires costly lifelong treatment; many people remain unaware of their infection, and thousands of new infections continue to occur every year. Migrants from countries with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, notably sub-Saharan Africa, bear a disproportionate and increasing share of HIV throughout western Europe and, in most countries, account for the majority of heterosexually acquired HIV infections diagnosed in recent years. Prevention, treatment, and care must be adapted to reach migrant populations. Following a resurgence of risky sexual behaviour, HIV transmission may now be increasing among homosexual and bisexual men, and renewed safer sex campaigns are urgently needed. Pdf 310 kb

The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Retailers

A scan of press releases and research reports relating to HIV/AIDS and the retail sector reveals one simple truth… Retailers have done very little to protect themselves against the harmful effects of the epidemic. The business community and general population typically have the same attitude towards the threat of HIV/AIDS. There is denial amongst those most at risk, refusal to talk openly about the issues and safeguards. Most individuals prefer not to know the full extent of the problem and there is a general failure to change behaviour and recognise that each institution is as vulnerable as the next. It is important that retailers identify the impact that HIV/AIDS will have on an individual business. An effective response to the epidemic can only be achieved by convincing all stakeholders of the severity of the problem. A greater understanding of the impact is also required in developing an appropriate response to the epidemic. Pdf 306 kb
THE EXPERIENCE OF SPECIFIC POPULATIONS This section of the Paper aims to describe stigma and discrimination as experienced by specific populations affected by the HIV epidemic in Canada. The differentiation of populations affected by HIV/AIDS is a social and cultural construction. Such differentiation may itself contribute to discrimination, as when drug users or sex workers are vilified as "vectors of disease." On the other hand, the failure to recognize and acknowledge publicly the experiences of a particular population in the course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has also led to neglect and avoidance of that population's needs, as gay men have found in the "de-gaying" of AIDS  
The Face of AIDS Through a Child’s Eyes One of the tragic side effects of poverty is hopelessness.  And when you add a disease like HIV/AIDS on top of poverty, hopelessness is compounded to the point of abject despair.  “This disease really brings out who we are as Christians.” 478 kb pdf

The Globalization of Disease

Annan warned that AIDS leaches profits out of economies and businesses and raises new barriers to development and economic growth. He cautioned that the widening gaps between wealthy and poor, which AIDS and other diseases are expanding, could accelerate the growing backlash against globalization. While global markets have created unprecedented economic opportunities and growth, the benefits have not been equally distributed, and the risks—especially the health risks—of an increasingly interlinked and interdependent world have not been thoroughly considered.


The Growth of AIDS Orphans and Policy Solutions Due to the typical 10-year lag between infection and death, the number of orphans will continue to rise for a decade even if new HIV infections ceased. Parents who are infected will continue to die for the next 10 to 20 years. In Uganda, HIV prevalence peaked in the 1980s around 14%, then declined dramatically to 5% in 2001 due to government programs (UNICEF, 2002a).


The Hidden Battle: HIV/AIDS in the Family and Community The AIDS epidemic will cause significant increases in illness and death in prime age adults. This will affect both households and communities. Prime age adult illness and death will manifest itself through negative social, economic and developmental impacts

76 kb pdf

The HIV/AIDS Hour More treatment and preventive health care options are available with early detection of the disease, but a person may be HIV positive and in the communicative state for years prior to showing any obvious signs or symptoms.  Public fears and state medical costs have both been raised, secondary to the unique methods of transmission of HIV and its inevitably fatal course.  
The Impact of HIV/AIDS on the Education Sector in Southern Africa Since the onset of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa the virus has killed approximately 15 million people, and it is estimated that another 25 million people are infected, representing almost three-fourths of the world's HIV infections. AIDS morbidity and mortality is concentrated among working-age individuals, resulting in a devastating impact on human capital resources in the world's most affected countries. The education system, which is the primary mechanism for the development of the future human resources, has not been spared the effects of the epidemic. Not only are enrollments declining as AIDS orphans can no longer afford to attend school, but the loss of teachers and even education administrators to the illness is undermining the very structure of education systems in sub- Saharan Africa.  
THE IMPACT OF HIV/AIDS ON NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT This article attempts to project into public domain, by means of authentic and honest analysis of the practical realities on the ground, the devastating consequences of HIV/AIDS on our collective social existence, growth and national development.   
The Lost Children of AIDS

At least 60 percent of US foreign aid funding never leaves the US, but is instead spent on office overhead, travel, procurement of American-made cars, computers, and other equipment, as well as salary and benefit packages so generous that just one of them would be enough to feed, clothe, and educate hundreds of African children for years.[2] Some of the money that arrives in Africa is well spent, but much of it is wasted on ill-conceived projects designed by foreign technocrats with little sense of African realities. In the high-stakes scramble for funding, the best projects-those that truly meet the needs of local people so that they can eventually support themselves-are often overlooked. People used to joke that there were two kinds of AIDS in Uganda: "slim AIDS" and "fat AIDS." Those with "slim AIDS" grow thinner and thinner and thinner until they finally disappear. "Fat AIDS" afflicts development agency bureaucrats, foreign consultants, and medical experts who attend lavish conferences and workshops in exotic places, earn large salaries, and get fatter and fatter.  
The Next Wave of HIV/AIDS: Nigeria, Ethiopia, Russia, India, and China The number of people with HIV/AIDS will grow significantly by the end of the decade.  The increase will be driven by the spread of the disease in five populous countries—Nigeria, Ethiopia, Russia, India, and China—where the number of infected people will grow from around 14 to 23 million currently to an estimated 50 to 75 million by 2010.[1]  This estimate eclipses the projected 30 to 35 million cases by the end of the decade in central and southern Africa, the current focal point of the pandemic.  
The politics of AIDS in South Africa: beyond the controversies With an estimated five million people infected, South Africa has the highest number of people with HIV in the world. The most striking epidemiological fact is the extremely rapid growth in HIV seroprevalence, for example from 0.7% in pregnant women in 1990 to 24.5% in 2000, reaching 36.2 % in KwaZulu Natal. The impact on adult mortality has been dramatic. In 2000 AIDS accounted for 25% of all deaths, and mortality was 3.5 times higher than in 1985 among 25-29 year old women and two times higher among 30-39 year old men. This rapid evolution, unprecedented even on the African continent, is often seen as yet another symptom of South African "exceptionalism," a phenomenon often referred to in the social sciences  
The role of social cohesiveness in promoting optimum child development Recent concern about the impact of the massive social changes experienced in the last half century on patterns of child health and well being…

242 kb pdf

The Social Impact of AIDS in the United States The U.S. health care system stands alone among advanced industrial countries in lacking a national program to ensure universal or nearly universal health insurance coverage. The various public and private insurance plans and delivery systems (such as the Veterans Administration health system) reflect what John Iglehart  characterizes as ''society's profound ambivalence about whether medical care for all is a social good, of which the costs should be borne by society, or a benefit that employers should purchase for employees and their dependents, with government insurance for people outside the work force." This ambivalence, and the resulting lack of any political consensus on how to finance and deliver health services, has resulted in an odd assortment of programs that does provide health insurance to about 85 percent of the population, but leaves some 36 million people uninsured. The uninsured are primarily full-time workers and their dependents who are employed in small firms at a low or the minimum wage.  
The socio-economic Impact of HIV/AIDS on Children in a low Prevalence Context HIV/AIDS appeared to have a strong impact on self-perception, emotional stability and the construction of individual and family identities, among adults as well as among children

92 kb pdf

The third phase of HIV pandemic: Social consequences of HIV/AIDS stigma & discrimination & future needs


An overview of social responses to AIDS, characterized by high levels of stigma, discrimination central to the global AIDS challenge, as related to human dignity is described. Stigma is conceptualized as a problem of ‘they’ and ‘us’, or interactions perspective. Causes and consequences to enable the varied perspectives in understanding this third epidemic of social impact of HIV/AIDS are described. In the absence of an effective medical intervention, the social factors like stigma and discrimination attached to HIV/AIDS are a major obstacle in the curtailment of the disease requiring urgent action. The different forms of stigma associated with other diseases are compared. Ignorance about the disease, fear of discrimination and consequent denial for testing and treatment, contribute to spread of the disease. The disease status adds to vulnerability especially in women. The disease is often identified with groups like intravenous drug users (IDUs), and homosexuals who face a double stigma as a result of HIV. Research scenario on stigma associated with HIV/AIDS is reviewed to understand the future needs. Initiatives of ongoing intervention to reduce stigma exist globally. Emerging issues in research priorities have been highlighted to counter consequences of pandemic from social perspective of human dignity and rights. Pdf 71 kb

Two rare cases of family HIV transmission between adults reported

Two similarly unusual but unconnected cases of HIV transmission within two Australian families are reported in the September 5th issue of AIDS, providing a sobering reminder that HIV can occasionally be acquired by surprising routes. These also appear to be the first reports of one adult family member infecting another that involve a source patient with unrecognised HIV infection.


UNICEF report on Africa's orphaned generations

The HIV/Aids epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa has already orphaned a generation of children - and now seems set to orphan generations more.


Urban poverty in developed countries.pdf Our results indicate that only in few countries the greatest poverty rates are found in central cities, while in all other developed countries poor persons are still relatively more frequent in rural areas. 254 kb pdf
Use of Rape as a Weapon of War Rape as a weapon of war has a long history and only recently has been expressly punished under codified international law…it is disquieting for governments and civil society throughout the world to have witness the extensive application of rape as a weapon of war in the current ongoing conflict in Darfur, Sudan. 758 kb pdf
Viewing HIV/AIDS from a development perspective One of the major development challenges we face is that of tackling the growing HIV/AIDS pandemic. The pandemic is not just a public health issue but has implications far beyond the health sector. This makes it necessary – more than ever before – to adopt a participatory and holistic approach towards halting the spread of the pandemic. Promoting partnerships and collaboration among different State and non-State actors will have to be an important element of this approach.  
The spread of HIV/AIDS within families brings up an 
interesting concern with addressing inconsistencies 
between intent and experience within the family: How 
do certain family structures create greater vulnerability?
 The first part of this presentation will look at an 
interesting paradox: the family, that institution through 
which human beings expect and receive their greatest 
nurturing, is the same institution that can create the 
greatest vulnerabilities in the spread of HIV/AIDS for 
women and children. When the structure of family itself 
causes vulnerability, critical examination is even more 
in order to construct ways that civil society can empower 
family members to challenge the abuses that occur within 
families. However, some see the very idea of 
challenging “family” as a disruption in social well being. 
Ultimately my question is: How can families empower all 
members equally despite vulnerability due to age or gender.
What Works in HIV Prevention for Youth As each generation comes of age, there is a substantial increase in the rate of infection as individuals enter their late teens and early twenties, with infection rates peaking in the mid-to-late twenties. Sustained, targeted prevention for each group entering young adulthood is what will keep these waves from developing.  

Yes, you're positive, but there is nothing we can do for you

What can the National AIDS Control Programme achieve in the absence of integration of HIV-related services into the health system as a whole? The second in a series assessing the HIV/AIDS situation in India


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