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“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”

Strategic Plans

We offer a monthly newsletter dealing with the various issues surrounding infectious diseases.  To find out more click HERE.


Main topics can be found within the left column; sub-topics and/or research reports can be found near the bottom of this page.  Thank you

"In order for AIDS programs and interventions to be effective, they need the support and involvement of leaders from all levels and sectors of society. The creation of a supportive environment for HIV/AIDS programs involves not only the formulation of appropriate policies and the allocation of resources but also the mobilization of a broad political consensus that such programs are necessary for the well being of society. Political support is defined broadly to include much more than just senior government leaders and civil servants. Political commitment implies the support of a broad range of civil and community leaders, at all levels of society. This includes the public sector, the private sector, nongovernmental organization leaders, religious leaders, and other influential citizens at national and local levels. Leaders are the role models in society: it is not only their votes but also their personal actions and behavior that send strong signals about what is important." AIDS Impact Model (AIM) Approach

"Perhaps the cruelest irony of all concerning the global AIDS epidemic is that the human impact is decimating countries' ability to act at the very time that increased services to respond to the crisis are required. Extraordinary pressures are being place on government management capabilities, budgets and already fragile social safety nets. Civil society organizations and individual citizens are organizing and taking on additional responsibilities even though, for most, resources and capabilities were limited before this additional challenge emerged. Responding to the epidemic demands the best we have to offer-from all sectors.

USAID's democracy and governance sector has a perspective and associated tools to offer to those working on HIV/AIDS. Over the past decade, USAID has increased its attention to the political aspects of programming and to the dynamics of the process of change. It has recognized that political dynamics and participation are integral to achieving and sustain development results and has created and accumulated approaches and tools to respond. Those participatory democratic practices in the public/political realm can have both short- and long-term effects for HIV/AIDS, health, education or other sector objectives."

—Strategic Management Tools to Support HIV/AIDS Policy Change

Document Name & Link to Document


File Size /pdf

A conceptual framework and basis for action.

The World AIDS Campaign for the years 2002-03 will focus on stigma, discrimination and human rights.  The main objective of the campaign is to prevent, reduce and ultimately eliminate HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination, wherever it occurs and in all it forms

Pdf 348 kb

A Cultural Approach to HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care

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The major issues and recommendations were:

·   Taking a cultural approach to strategy building and project design

·   Designing and delivering culturally appropriate IEC messages and materials

·   Capacity building and developing subsequent data collection and research within the framework of the cultural approach to HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care

·   Bridging the gap between western and indigenous models of development to achieve sustained development

·   Building viable partnerships and functional networks among stakeholders at all levels

·   And many other issues
Pdf 5024 kb
A guidebook for resettlement agencies serving refugees with HIV/AIDS The purpose of this publication is to assist resettlement agencies in preparing for and providing care to refugees who are living with HIV/AIDS 69 kb pdf
A multi-sectoral approach to managing and mitigating HIV/AIDS impact: the management challenge The sectoral impact of the most vicious and widely acknowledge pandemic in human history is widely underestimated and even ignored in many pasts of SSA 682 kb pdf

ABC Model (Allocation by Cost-Effectiveness)

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Excel model—a resource allocation Model for HIV/AIDS in Honduras, very good information.  This model serves as a didactic instrument and as a tool for the elaboration of policies and budgets, and the analysis of HIV prevention program design. 4,393 kb
Abstinence Failure Menstuff® has compiled the following information on abstinence failure. There is potential failure with all forms of prevention, which often comes from not having the knowledge of how to use the protection. That's why it is so important to know as much about "safer sex" before ever experiencing even petting. Without that knowledge, the chances of acquiring an STD or having an unplanned pregnancy, increases dramatically. Nonpartisan researchers have been unable to document measurable benefits of the abstinence-only model. Columbia University researchers found that although teenagers who take "virginity pledges" may wait longer to initiate sexual activity, 88 percent eventually have premarital sex  
Abstinence-Only Education Policies and Programs: A Position Paper of the Society for Adolescent Medicine The Society for Adolescent Medicine (SAM) supports abstinence from sexual intercourse as “a healthy choice for teenagers” but critiques government policies and programs that promote abstinence-only or abstinence until marriage as the only prevention message for teenagers.  SAM recommends that “ ‘Abstinence-only’ as a basis for health policy and programs should be abandoned.”    
Access to Condoms and HIV/AIDS information HIV/AIDS is a preventable disease, yet approximately 5 million people were newly infected with HIV in 2003, the majority of them through sex.  Many of these cases could have been avoided, but for state-imposed restrictions on proven and effective HIV prevention strategies, such as latex condoms…scientific data “overwhelmingly confirm that male latex condoms are highly effective in preventing sexual HIV transmission.  Many governments around the world either fail to guarantee access to condoms or impose needless restrictions on access to condoms and related HIV/AIDS information Pdf 293 kb

According to Need? Needs assessment and decision-making in the humanitarian sector.

The focus of the study has been on the international humanitarian system, understood here to comprise governmental and multilateral donors, and international NGOs.  The relative lack of attention to the role of national or local authorities in the countries concerned does not imply that this is considered of secondary importance, but reflects the nature of the Humanitarian Financing initiative, of which this study forms on part

480 kb Pdf

Action Planning Handbook for States and Communities-Comprehensive and Integrated Chronic Disease Prevention The Handbook is intended to provide tools for health departments to use in assessing and identifying improvement strategies for their chronic disease prevention efforts.  Specifically, it is aimed at helping you to find distinct opportunities for greater comprehensiveness and integration within a health department’s existing chronic disease prevention efforts. 388 kb pdf
ADDRESSING HIV TESTING, INFORMED CONSENT AND COUNSELING In an effort to reduce the number of people unaware of their positive status, and in hope of preventing future transmissions by this population, the CDC has developed a number of new recommendations to encourage and increase HIV testing around the country.  
Addressing Stigma in Implementing HIV/AIDS Unless stigma is addressed, effective implementation of an HIV/AIDS policy is impossible. This paper describes the experience of ACORD Uganda in their efforts to implement an effective workplace policy. It focuses in particular on the importance of addressing stigma within the organisation - both as an objective of the policy itself and as a prerequisite of its effective implementation. Pdf 257 kb
Adolescence education newsletter. 22 learning and earning opportunities for adolescents in slum areas—23 upgrading standards of health care services. 697 kb pdf
Adolescent Health Adolescents comprise 20% of the total world population, 85% of whom live in developing countries. Low education and high unemployment often compound the problems of developing world adolescents. Furthermore, the adolescent population in developing countries is burgeoning, with the number of urban youth growing a projected 600% between 1970 and 2025 (WHO Fact Sheet #186, 12/97). For the most part, young people’s problems have been ignored, with little understanding of the potential impact of a generation at risk on the future. If today’s young people are to realize their adult potential, new solutions must be found. These solutions will be based on understanding the complexities of adolescent cultures, how they experience risk and what factors contribute to their vulnerabilities.  
Adolescents and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: The Role of the Pediatrician in Prevention and Intervention Half of all new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in the United States occur among young people between the ages of 13 and 24. Sexual transmission accounts for most cases of HIV during adolescence. Pediatricians can play an important role in educating adolescents about HIV prevention, transmission, and testing, with an emphasis on risk reduction, and in advocating for the special needs of adolescents for access to information about HIV.  

Advocacy for Action on Stigma and HIV/AIDS in Africa

We are all living with or affected by the epidemic.  We also recognize that stigma—characterized by silence, fear, discrimination and denial—fuels the spread of HIV/AIDS.

Pdf 516 kb

African Media Women Professional, HIV/AIDS and the Cultural Factor This report is of a presentation and recommendations.  The main objective of this seminar was to examine the cultural, professional and social constraints media women professionals encounter in Africa within their traditional environment…the seminar aimed to determine the impact of reporting on HIV/AIDS in specific contexts in Africa and to in order to determine whether the way HIV/AIDS treated in the media contributes to intensifying or reducing the stigmatization of people living with AIDS 1342 kb pdf
AIDS and Development: The Role of Government Power Point Presentation 1477 kb
AIDS and Democracy: What do we Know? The vast majority of sources discussed in this paper are theoretical or conceptual pieces which speculate with varying degrees of expertise 94 kb pdf

AIDS and Stiigma-1999 Survey Items.

Basic concept behind Gregory Hereks’ research studies

Pdf 104 kb

AIDS battle reaches new climax in Asia with aggressive condom policy

In an aggressive policy to stem the growing HIV/AIDS problem, the World Health Organisation (WHO) wants sex workers in Asia to adopt this uncompromising stand when facing clients.


AIDS Communication-an international view

What appears to be different/particular about communication for development when the issue is HIV/AIDS?


AIDS Impact Model (AIM) Approach Building political commitment for effective HIV/AIDS policies and Programs 774 kb pdf
AIDS Prevention

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At the World Summit held at the United Nations in September 2005, leaders pledged to fully implement the Declaration of Commitment of HIV/AIDS adopted in 2001, by scaling up efforts for prevention, treatment, care and support so that every person, without exception, has access to these life-saving programmes. In Kofi Annan’s address on World Aids Day on 1 December 2005 he said that “It is a time to recognize that although our response so far has succeeded in some of the particulars, it has yet to match the epidemic in scale. It is a time to admit that if we are to reach the Millennium Development Goal of halting and beginning to reverse the spread of AIDS by 2015, then we must do far, far more. That mission concerns every one of us.” Pdf 2335 kb
AIDS, Stigma and the Media There is an emerging global consensus among governments, international organizations and the private sector to focus more attention and resources on HIV/AIDS…Perhaps the most underutilized force for scaling up is the media, especially when it comes to reaching young people.  Media can also play a critical role in breaking the silence about HIV in countries with emerging epidemics and reluctant leaders. 414 kb pdf
Applying social franchising techniques to youth reproductive health,/HIV services This Youth Issues Paper examines what role social franchising might have in expanding reproductive health and HIV services for youth. 335 kb pdf
BASIC CONCEPTS OF SOCIAL WELFARE “Social welfare generally denotes the full range of organized activities of voluntary and governmental agencies that seek to prevent, alleviate, or contribute to the solution of recognized social problems, or to improve the well-being of individuals, groups, or communities.”  
Balbir case study-approach to reducing AIDS An innovative approach to reducing HIV/AIDS prevalence through targeted mass media communications in Mumbai, India-2003 1,085 kb pdf
Bioterrorism-Coordination & Preparedness Report Report before subcommittee on government efficiency 1,229 kb pdf

Building African AIDS Care from the Ground Up

The mystifying disease appeared at higher rates there than any place else in the United States, and Sande and his staff helped pioneer its clinical treatment. Within the next decade, physicians in the United States learned how to treat HIV infection and AIDS as pharmaceutical companies launched drugs that controlled the infection without curing it.


Can we reverse the HIV/AIDS pandemic with an expanded response? HIV/AIDS has reached pandemic proportions, and is one of the leading causes of death worldwide.  In 2001, the Declaration of Commitment of HIV /AIDS set out several aims with respect to reducing the effect and spread of HIV/AIDS, and an expanded response in low-income and middle-income countries was initiated. Pdf 83 kb
CBO/FBO Capacity Analysis: A Tool for Assessing and Building Capacities for High Quality Responses to HIV/AIDS This tool can be used with community organizations to identify capacity-building needs, plan any technical support needed by the organization, and monitor and evaluate the impact of capacity-building support. Pdf 180 kb
Celebrating Youth: Uncovering those things which help prepare youth for life and its challenges Power Point Presentation  

Challenging HIV Related Stigma & Discrimination in Southeast Asia.

Literature Review

Pdf 146 kb


The central element in the CHANGE project’s original mandate was to identify, develop, test and apply tools and approaches to improve behaviors relevant to maternal health, child health and nutrition

Pdf 516 kb

Changing the Burden of Disease in Southern Africa

Discussion around President Mbeki’s recent AIDS panel has focused on his decision to include the views of “HIV dissidents” including Peter Duesberg and others, who maintain that HIV is benign.  “African AIDS,” according to Duesberg, “is caused by malnutrition, parasitic infection and poor sanitation. . . [T]here is no scientific evidence for the correlation between HIV and African AIDS, only guesses.” (“Peter Duesberg on AIDS” website,  Implicit in this claim, of course, is the contention that the AIDS epidemic has not had a qualitative impact on the burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa.


Charter for Social Justice

Deeply concerned with  the lack of respect for human rights  and social justice due to the high levels of HIV/AIDS related stigma, discrimination, and human rights violations and abuse directed against MSM, particularly those of us who are feminised;


Churches gather to coordinate action plan against HIV/AIDS

A coalition of Finnish and African churches has been meeting in Dar es Salaam over the past week to try and pool resources and create a strategy in the battle against HIV/AIDS.


Competencies report for communications. Mapping competencies for communication for development and social change: Turning knowledge, skill, and attitudes into action 840 kb pdf
Components of Successful HIV/AIDS Case Management in Alaska Native Villages HIV and AIDS may have a potentially devastating impact in Alaska Native villages and it is critical that effective social service and medical responses be developed that are both culturally and geographically responsive to this vulnerable populations 407 kb pdf
Concern over spread of HIV/AIDS
A symposium here on Wednesday has expressed concern over 
therising incidence of HIV/AIDS in Asian countries. It called for 
implementing preventive measures and creating awareness 
about the modes of transmission of the disease.
Condom is mainstay of fight The condom has been the mainstay of the fight against HIV/AIDS and widespread distribution of free condoms by local family planning clinics has succeeded in a massive reduction in the spread of the virus.  
Concept of Health & Disease. In the last 19 years the controversy over the concept of health and disease has been revived in some Latin American circles. 910 kb pdf
Contributions of non formal education to HIV preventive education in Nigeria: Case study and inventory of NGO practices This paper is concerned with the need to address the fact that with over 5% of the population of Nigeria infected with HIV, and the adult mortality rate continuing to rise, Nigeria is now at a potentially explosive stage of the epidemic. In particular it is concerned with the role of Non- Formal Education (NFE) in combating the spread of HIV/AIDS. Pdf 667 kb

Consumer/Survivor Information

This section is intended to give you the information you need to guide your message to its destination.


Cost-effectiveness of HIV/AIDS interventions in Africa: a systematic review of the evidence Cost-effectiveness is, however, highly relevant.  African governments fact difficult choices in striking the right balance between prevention, treatment, and care, all of which are necessary to deal comprehensively with the epidemic.  Reductions in drug prices have raised the priority of treatment, though treatment access is restricted. Pdf 115 kb
Cultural Approach to HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care The world faces many threats today.  One of the most significant threats to the future of mankind is the human immunodeficiency virus.  HIV/AIDS is not merely a public health problem of staggering magnitude but a condition that has already seriously impinged on the overall development and economic stability of many nations. 481 kb pdf
Cultural Approach to HIV/AIDS-Prevention and Care, India A cultural approach to HIV/AIDS care and prevention has to deal with a set of complex issues.  It has to take into account the diversity in religion, language, values and social laws that are part of people’s lives in India.  This handbook takes up some of the issues that are comprised in the cultural matrix and are relevant to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. 278 kb pdf
Cultural Change in the Face of a Pandemic Flu Virus - Can We Do It? New technologies like vaccines and drugs are all plausible responses to the serious threat of a flu pandemic.  However, what these high-tech measures all have in common is high costs with no guarantee of 100% success.  Therefore, in the face of a potentially lethal threat to our lives, and even to our society, should we not consider supplementing high tech innovations with small cultural adaptations?  For example, the elimination of our "hand-shaking culture" would be relatively painless and would reduce the risk of getting and spreading a lethal flu virus. The cost of this "cultural" change would be zero dollars!   
Culturally Competent HIV/AIDS Prevention for American Indians and Alaska Natives The purpose of this review is to summarize the published literature on culturally competent HIV/AIDS prevention for AIAN.  Because there was so little found on this subject, publications regarding cultural competence and related public health issues were also included 107 kb pdf
Defeating HIV/AIDS through Education For too long we have been standing by—timid, confused, uncertain, feeling that we were powerless, wanting to do something constructive but not quite sure what. And all the time, men, women and children continued to be infected in their millions, to fall sick in their millions, to die in their millions. We work in the middle of the AIDS killing fields. We have daily experience of the passive genocide of our most productive people.  We live through a silent holocaust that makes the Jewish Holocaust in Nazi Germany pale by comparison. We have let two decades slip through our hands when our response to HIV/AIDS was little more than a scrappy rearguard action against what we saw as an almost insuperable enemy.  
Description of Indicators. Accuracy of logistics data for inventory management 725 kb pdf
Determinants of HAART discontinuation among infection drug users The objective of this study was to identify psychosocial determinants of, and self-reported reasons for, HAART discontinuation among HIV-positive injection drug users. 92 kb pdf
Directions in HIV Service Deliver & Care Reducing Barriers to Care.  This report offers several different and yet similar research reports about the barriers to care for people with prolong or chronic illnesses 217 kb pdf
Donor participation in Education Sector After almost thirty years of independence and a fast population growth rate, the quality of education in terms of learning outcomes has not kept pace with the level of public investment in Ghana. The critical challenges to the education sector relate to increasing access, improving teaching and learning outcomes, the supervision and management of schools, financial decentralisation and the sustainability of the reforms.  
Early Effects of a School-Based Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Sexual Risk Prevention Intervention To determine the short-term effect of a middle and high school-based human immunodeficiency virus and sexuality intervention (Rochester AIDS Prevention Project for Youth [RAPP]) on knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior intention  
Educational Tip Sheet-HIV/AIDS and Older Adults Between 1991 and 1996, AIDS cases in the over-50 population rose more than twice as fast as those among younger adults. 16 kb pdf
Effectiveness of Various IEC in Improving Awareness and Reducing Stigma Related to HIV/AIDS Among School going Teenagers Stigma is defined as a ‘significantly discrediting attribute’ possessed by a person with an ‘undesired difference’.  Stigma is a common human reaction to disease.  Throughout history many diseases have carried considerable stigma, including leprosy, tuberculosis, cancer, mental illness and many STDs. Now HIV/AIDS is the topmost in the list of diseases to be stigmatized. Pdf 259 kb
Empowering Communities to Reduce the Impact of Infectious Diseases Infectious diseases continue to cause ill health and deaths to millions worldwide, despite advances in public health over the last 100 years — advances that include the development of vaccines and antibiotics and improvements in sanitation. In many developing countries, women face particular difficulties in warding off infection because of social and economic obstacles to accessing health information and services. To reduce the impact of disease on women, some infectious-disease prevention programs are employing community-based approaches conducted by women  

We offer a monthly newsletter dealing with the various issues surrounding infectious diseases.  To find out more click HERE.

Evaluating HIV and Development

Evaluating HIV and development: guidelines and suggestions  Evaluating HIV and AIDS: Why capacity development is central to assessing performance


Evaluating Programs for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care in Developing Countries

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Evaluation is too often an afterthought in the process of program implementation.  This Handbook is dedicated to the premise that evaluation must be a critical part of the initial phases of planning effective HIV/AIDS prevention and care programs Pdf 1242 kb

Evolution of Thailand’s strategy to cope with the HIV/AIDS epidemic


HIV/AIDS is the highest-ranking cause of death among working-age adults in Thailand. The disease has led to incalculable human suffering and social disruption, as well as huge economic costs. Yet, through an innovative, comprehensive strategy, Thailand has become the first country in the developing world where declines in HIV prevalence are seen nationally and the HIV epidemic has been successfully controlled through a prevention strategy. Pdf 165 kb
Fear-based appeals in HIV prevention
Fear appeals that are designed to change behaviors in
 ‘unconverted’ populations result in a process of motivated 
reasoning that discounts the source information, message 
information and message relevance, making them ineffective 
and potentially dangerous.
428 kb pdf
Federal HIV Testing Initiatives Can Only Succeed with Expanding the offer of voluntary HIV counseling and testing services in healthcare settings is good public health policy. Routinely offered HIV testing will help reachmore individuals who may be unaware of their HIV-positive status as well as those who are HIV-negative but engaging in high-risk behaviors. Encouraging individualsto learn their status will help slow the spread of HIV and assist those who are HIV positive live healthier, longer lives.  
Fighting HIV/AIDS: is success possible? The fight against HIV/AIDS poses enormous challenges worldwide, generating fears that success may be too difficult or even impossible to attain.  Uganda has demonstrated that an early, consistent and multisectoral control strategy can reduce both the prevalence and the incidence of HIV infection. Pdf 154 kb

First nationally representative survey results of HIV prevalence.

The survey ‘provides the most systematic and comprehensive view yet available of how HIV/AIDS is affecting South Africans.

Pdf 17 kb

From Awareness, to action plan, to program implementation. In spite of developments in drug therapy for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and vaccine against HIV, prevention of HIV infection still remains the priority objective for HIV/AIDS control globally, more so in developing and underdeveloped regions, like West Africa. It will be quite some time before currently in use HIV anti-retroviral drugs become readily available, accessible and affordable generally, in the countries of West Africa. And within the interval, HIV/AIDS will have caused so much devastation of the socio-economic systems of the countries that little may be redeemable. The cost of managing an AIDS epidemic is enormous and so it makes every economic sense to apply the scarce resources of the West African countries to prevention of HIV infection in the populations against the option of paying more attention to drug management of AIDS cases. Past and present experiences with syphilis and gonorrhea teach us that not all epidemics can be controlled effectively through and emphasized strategy of chemotherapy.  
GLOBAL HEALTH INITIATIVE Private Sector Intervention Case Example Rapidly assess needs, establish a programme with an experienced partner, then analyse and refine the programme

• What level of prevalence and business impact analysis is required to fiscally justify offering comprehensive treatment including Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Treatment (HAART)?

• What level of internal project management and technical expertise is necessary to ensure that the programme is sustainable after the initial public-private partnership ends?

• How can the impact and effectiveness of community interventions be assessed?


Global Task Team on Improving AIDS Coordination Among Multilateral Institutions and International Donors The analytical work of the Global Task Team takes a broader perspective, encompassing a wide range of stakeholders in the fight against AIDS. The full set of “multilateral institutions and international partners” (i.e., multilateral organizations, the bilateral agencies of governments, foundations, and international nongovernmental organizations, private sector companies and academic institutions) is included, out of a recognition that it is not possible to understand the challenges that must be addressed without taking a holistic view of the situation. Moreover, the recommendations are framed in such a way that international partners beyond the multilateral system can participate in implementation. Pdf 760 kb
Guidelines for preparation and execution of studies of the social and economic impact of HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS results in exceptional levels of illness and death in the mature adult population if has many social and economic implications 193 kb pdf
Guidelines for repeated Behavioral Surveys in Populations at Risk of HIV
Successful HIV prevention depends on changing risk 
behaviors.  This includes increasing condom use and 
reducing the numbers of sex partners among sexually 
active people, reducing needle-sharing behavior
 among injecting drug users, and delaying the onset of first 
intercourseamong young people—to name only a few.
1739 kb pdf
Harm Reduction, HIV/AIDS, and the Human Rights Challenge to Global Drug Control Policy The global HIV/AIDS pandemic has added to the list of harms associated with unsafe drug use and provided yet further evidence that the dominant, prohibitionist approach to illicit drugs is not only ineffective but also counter-productive. Pdf 141 kb
HIV Prevention is Achievable One reason why these countries have been successful is that they have formulated prevention policies on the basis of sound science. This has enabled them to combat the many myths that have characterized this pandemic. This includes the myth of complacency ("we won't / don't have the problem), the myth that condoms are not effective, that sex education in schools leads to youth having more sex, that syringe exchange programs increase drug use, that sexual behavior cannot be changed and that we need to wait for a vaccine before I-HV will be prevented (a vaccine will help, but all experts agree that it is at least a decade away).  
HIV prevention Strategic Plan Through 2005 CDC estimates that approximately 40,000 people per year in the United States continue to become infected with HIV, a number that has remained relatively stable—but unacceptably high—for much of the past decade.  And although the number of new infections has been static, the epidemic itself has not.  In addition to the groups that have been at highest risk since the beginning of the epidemic—men who have sex with men and injection drug users—new populations are increasingly at risk for HIV infection, particularly racial and ethnic minorities, women, and adolescents. 493 kb pdf
HIV/AIDS: Epidemic Update 1991-2005 The development of new knowledge from HIV-related research also has helped to clarify aspects of the human immune response, behavioral interventions, public health strategies, and social and ethical approaches that contribute to the understanding and management of other diseases and health conditions. Healthcare professionals will continue to play a major and significant role in preventing the spread of HIV infection and in caring for those who are infected or affected by HIV  
HIV/AIDS: Implications for Poverty Reduction How do countries reduce the proportion of people living in poverty when up to a quarter of households are decimated by AIDS?  How do countries deliver on policies aimed at equity in access to economic opportunities and social services when AIDS widens economic differentials and undermines service delivery? How do countries deliver on promises to improve quality of life for coming generations when 40 million children will grow up orphaned by AIDS? 485 kb pdf
HIV/AIDS and Education Presentation by Alan Whiteside, Director, Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division 425 kb pdf


In promoting the health and well being of the members of the community, it is the policy of the University to take appropriate steps to minimise the risk of transmission of infectious diseases such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis.  The University is also committed to supporting and protecting staff and students living with HIV/AIDS and hepatitis from harassment or discrimination.  
HIV/AIDS and Municipalities Although AIDS has become very common it is still surrounded by silence. People are ashamed to speak about being infected and many see it as a scandal when it happens in their families. People living with AIDS are exposed to daily prejudice born out of ignorance and fear.  
HIV/AIDS and work: global estimates, impact and response (Large Document-increased download time) HIV/AIDS is a human crisis but it is also a threat to sustainable social and economic development.  The loss of life and the debilitating effects of the illness lead to a reduced capacity to sustain production and employment which, in turn, undermines efforts to reduce poverty and promote development 2260 kb pdf

HIV/AIDS in Africa: South Africa's Leadership is Crucial

The recent announcement that South Africa's government will roll out a comprehensive anti-retroviral treatment program by the end of September 2003 is a major step in the right direction for the estimated 5 million South Africans living with HIV/AIDS


HIV/AIDS in India

India has had a sharp increase in the estimated number of HIV infections, from a few thousand in the early 1990s to a working estimate of about 3.8 million children and adults living with HIV/AIDS in 2001. With a population of one billion, the HIV epidemics in India will have a major impact on the overall spread of HIV in Asia and the Pacific and indeed worldwide.


HIV/AIDS Mainstreaming: A Definition, Some Experiences and Strategies A resource developed by HIV/AIDS focal points from government sectors and those that have been working on HIV/AIDS mainstreaming Pdf 1044 kb
HIV/AIDS Technical Assistance Guidelines The impact of HIV/AIDS in the workplace is felt in many areas, for example the loss of productivity, increased cost of employee benefits, high production costs and lower workplace morale due to prolonged staff illness, increased absenteeism and mortality rates.  This, in turn, impacts negatively on the economy of the country as it slows down economic growth with less economically active persons able to contribute to the economy. 274 kb pdf
HIV/STD Prevalence and Risk Factors among Migrant & non-migrant Males-Nepal
International evidence indicates that since migration brings 
about immediate changes in the occupation, social condition
 and economic status of the people, it could be one of the 
leading factors linked to high-risk sexual behavior and STI/HIV
1604 kb pdf
How Does Educational Attainment Affect the Risk of Being Infected by HIV/AIDS? Rates of return to education, as traditionally calculated, only account for labor market earnings.  It is though, however, that education may increase people’s life expectancy.  This paper tests this hypothesis in the context of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa. Pdf 1583 kb
Human Resource Managers Human Resource Managers are at the forefront of the HIV/AIDS response in the work place 1,034 kb pdf

Human rights approach to AIDS prevention.

In 1992 HIV and AIDS was not considered to be an important issue by any of the governments of the southern African region. Sudden political developments had created the possibility for a united strategy against the region’s twin evils, poverty and underdevelopment.

Pdf 425 kb

I am a person who matters: a support group for children whose parents have HIV or AIDS  articles

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The children’s support group is designed to help children cope with the emotional issues involved when a parent has HIV or AIDS.  The aim is to assist children first in coping, second in protecting themselves and others from becoming positive, and third, to bringing their insight to advocacy work to fight for social change. Through their participation in the group, children obtain  a forum in which to articulate their experiences, to reduce isolation through participation, to enhance self-esteem, and to identify options.  


Impact of HIV on Teachers Power Point Presentation  
Implementing AIDS Education: The world has been challenged by the AIDS epidemic for 15 years. In 1985, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, allocated funds to all state departments of education to assist schools in the development of AIDS education policies and programs. Yet, these policies do not ensure that all students receive effective AIDS education. On September 21, 1991, the Arizona Legislature passed Senate Bill 1396, which requires public schools to annually provide AIDS education in grades K-12. The bill was rescinded in 1995. With prohibitive curriculum guidelines, limited teacher training opportunities and tremendous instructional demands, this educational policy was implemented in disparate forms. By examining the perspectives of the Arizona educators (representing three school districts), this qualitative study reveals how teachers ultimately controlled the delivery and nature of AIDS instruction based upon personal values, views of teacher roles, and their interpretation of the mandate itself.  
In Their Own Right-Addressing the Sexual and Reproductive Health needs of Men Worldwide Addressing the sexual and reproductive behaviors and health of men creates a win-win situation: The more informed and more effective men become in living safer sexual and reproductive lives, the better it will be for them and for their partners and children 947 kb pdf
Informed choices among youth: The content and sources of information The case studies examined, to some degree, the levels of sexual and reproductive knowledge of youth, and the sources of that knowledge. Some case studies went beyond simple inquiries about awareness (generally the ability to name or list contraceptive methods or diseases) to inquiring about common misconceptions or more in-depth knowledge. Results suggest that, while youth are generally well informed, in-depth knowledge of sexual health issues tends to be quite patchy, and misconceptions concerning safe practices are quite widespread.  
Injection Drug Use and HIV/AIDS: Legal and Ethical Issues This paper considers some policy aspects of seven priority issues related to HIV prevention for injection drug users, and to the access of HIV-positive injection drug users to care, treatment, and support.  The companion papers in this volume provide a similar exploration of the same issues from a legal and an ethical perspective respectively. 441 kb pdf
Integrating family planning with services to prevent or treat sexually transmitted diseases For many women, sexual relationships are often linked directly or indirectly to economic security. For example, a woman may want to become pregnant because children provide marital stability or status within the community.2 Consequently, she may avoid using condoms despite a need for disease prevention. For some women, sex is a means of economic survival. A study in Haiti, conducted by FHI's AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) project, found many women feared that their partners would withhold money for rent, child care, food and other items if they refused sexual relations  
Innovative Approaches Towards Peer Ed. Peer education is a popular concept that implies an approach, a communication channel, a methodology, a philosophy, and a strategy.... 110 kb pdf
Interim findings on the National PMTCT Pilot sites Summary of lessons and recommendations 1,199 kb pdf
International Research Ethics Power Point Presentation  
Integrating Gender Issues into HIV/AIDS Programs One of the key lessons learned from the fight against HIV/AIDS is the need to address gender inequality, which is “a contributing factor to the epidemic and needs to be addressed in the long term.” 573 kb pdf
Integrating Gender into Reproductive Health Interventions: So What? Power Point Presentation  
Intervention Strategies that work for Youth What kinds of programs work in their attempts to promote youth reproductive health and HIV prevention?  What factors make some programs successful and others less so? 322 kb pdf

Keeping up with the Movement-Preventing HIV Transmission in Migrant Work Settings

(Large report-increase download time)
Historically, prevention efforts have been dominated by the perspective of AIDS as a disease affecting specific groups of individuals, with particular high-risk behaviors.  However, it is now more widely understood that individual behaviors and their health outcomes are strongly affected by the larger socials, political and economic contexts in which these individuals live and work. Pdf 1913 kb

Knowledge and Attitude on HIV/ AIDS and Sexual Behaviour of Street Teenagers in Kathmandu Valley

The study found that teenagers have heard about AIDS and nearly sixty percent (57.8%) had good level of knowledge. However, significant number of respondents had misconception that one could contract HIV through mosquito bites and kissing. A significant number of teenagers (43%) had experienced risky sexual behavior according to the definition used in this study. Mean age of first sexual contact was 13.13 years. Most of the respondents inconsistently used the condom (79.1%). An overwhelming majority (70%) of the teenagers had multiple sexual partners. Both quantitative as well as qualitative findings confirmed existence of homosexual relationship, though minimal in number. Pdf 148 kb

Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of maritime college students concerning HIV/AIDS

Research findings show good knowledge levels about HIV and AIDS. The general level of awareness regarding HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention has been satisfactory among maritime college students included in the study. However, there are a number of misconceptions and myths such as the one that HIV infection can be cured by anti-retroviral drug treatment. These misconceptions and myths should be corrected so that we will be able to prevent the transmission of HIV/AIDS. The results can be used in planning and implementing health education for maritime students. Pdf 257 kb

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