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“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”

Strategic Plans


We offer a monthly newsletter dealing with the various issues surrounding infectious diseases.  To find out more click HERE.


Main topics can be found within the left column; sub-topics and/or research reports can be found near the bottom of this page.  Thank you

"In order for AIDS programs and interventions to be effective, they need the support and involvement of leaders from all levels and sectors of society. The creation of a supportive environment for HIV/AIDS programs involves not only the formulation of appropriate policies and the allocation of resources but also the mobilization of a broad political consensus that such programs are necessary for the well being of society. Political support is defined broadly to include much more than just senior government leaders and civil servants. Political commitment implies the support of a broad range of civil and community leaders, at all levels of society. This includes the public sector, the private sector, nongovernmental organization leaders, religious leaders, and other influential citizens at national and local levels. Leaders are the role models in society: it is not only their votes but also their personal actions and behavior that send strong signals about what is important." AIDS Impact Model (AIM) Approach

"Perhaps the cruelest irony of all concerning the global AIDS epidemic is that the human impact is decimating countries' ability to act at the very time that increased services to respond to the crisis are required. Extraordinary pressures are being place on government management capabilities, budgets and already fragile social safety nets. Civil society organizations and individual citizens are organizing and taking on additional responsibilities even though, for most, resources and capabilities were limited before this additional challenge emerged. Responding to the epidemic demands the best we have to offer-from all sectors.

USAID's democracy and governance sector has a perspective and associated tools to offer to those working on HIV/AIDS. Over the past decade, USAID has increased its attention to the political aspects of programming and to the dynamics of the process of change. It has recognized that political dynamics and participation are integral to achieving and sustain development results and has created and accumulated approaches and tools to respond. Those participatory democratic practices in the public/political realm can have both short- and long-term effects for HIV/AIDS, health, education or other sector objectives."

—Strategic Management Tools to Support HIV/AIDS Policy Change

Document Name & Link to Document


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Improving State Law to Prevent and Treat Infectious Disease This study surveys communicable disease statutes in 50 states and two U.S. territories, examines and evaluates the current state of the law, and proposes practical, cost-effective reforms to improve public health responses to infectious disease…Infectious disease law in the United States has been passed piecemeal, in response to specific disease threats. This body of law consists of three broad, and often overlapping, types of statutes: sexually transmitted disease laws, communicable disease laws, and disease-specific statutes. Most states have enacted laws under each category, leading to a patchwork of laws, standards, and procedures within and among the states.  
Lagging Policy response & impact. Lagging policy response and impact on children: the case of Cote d’Ivoire 590 kb pdf

Leadership forum on HIV prevention.

Now entering its third decade, the HIV/AIDS pandemic has given few signs of slowing in its progression across the globe.  By the end of 2000, there were approximately 36 million people living with HIV/AIDS.

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Let the world know: make your cause news--a beginner's guide to getting media coverage

Flip through the news and you probably won't see or hear much about nonprofit organizations and activists. Why? Part of the answer is as simple as it is ironic: Most activists are too busy saving the world to tell journalists about it.


Local agricultural knowledge key to fighting HIV/AIDS and food insecurity

The explosive impact of HIV/AIDS on food security in Africa is now well recognized. But little has been done to empower rural communities with local resources to cope with this crisis, a report has found.



Programs that deliver

Programs that deliver


Table of contents

Executive Summary


Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6  

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Chapter 9



The Importance of Logistics in HIV/AIDS Programs

Central Information system

Financing & Procurement

Logistics Management Information

No Product-No Program

Warehousing & Consolidated shipping

Logistics Indicators Assessment Tool

Logistics’ Contributions to better health in developing Countries : Although it (this report) contains tips for managers, this publication is not a how-to guide for logistics practitioners.  Instead, it was written to persuade the policymakers and senior managers of government ministries, service delivery organizations, and donor agencies to accept on simple truth—Health and family planning programs cannot succeed unless the supply chain delivers a reliable, continuous supply of contraceptives and essential products to customers













It is hard to overstate the importance of a central information system for supply chain management of HIV/AIDS products—without one; a worldwide commodity provision effort is not possible.








Worksheet to assess time and needs of logistics analysis, along with questions that need to be asked

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Logistics and Supply Chain Management of HIV Tests Frequently asked Questions 165 kb pdf
Managing the impact of HIV/AIDS in Education in KwaZulu Natal A presentation to the national teacher’s Union Advocacy Conference on HIV/AIDS 829 kb pdf

Mapping HIV/AIDS Service Provision for Most At-Risk and Vulnerable Populations

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In Southeast Asia, there is a narrow window of opportunity to prevent AIDS from having a more severe impact on the region. Two decades of experience have demonstrated that successfully reducing the number of new HIV infections and providing support to those already infected requires focusing prevention and care efforts on those most at risk. It requires implementing wideranging programs and addressing the economic, social, and structural conditions which facilitate risk. Achieving success also entails strengthening human capacity and increasing and maximizing financial resources. Those countries and regions that have chosen to provide prevention services on a large scale to those most in need have been able to turn their epidemics around and, in some instances, significantly delay the onset of a future epidemic. Pdf 2760 kb
Measuring Capacity Building Capacity building has become central to USAID health sector assistance strategies.  Experience suggests that achieving better health outcomes requires both an injection of resources and adequate local capacity to use those resources effectively 135 kb pdf

Meeting the Global Challenge of AIDS.

More people have dies from HIV/AIDS over the last twenty years than from any other disease in human history.

Pdf 594 kb

MEN AND THE HIV EPIDEMIC There has been increasing awareness that prevailing relationships within and between the sexes, or gender relations as they are more usually called, affect not only the development of the epidemic, but the manner in which individuals, groups and communities respond  

Men of Quality are not afraid of equality.

Besides deep changes in society, what we need is a deeply spiritual transformation in the identity of men

Pdf 2,619 kb

Methods and procedures for estimating HIV/AIDS and its impact-2001 This paper describes the general process by which the estimation and modeling procedures have been refined and improved over time.  The paper also discusses the limitations and weaknesses of the procedures and the data used to make the estimates, and suggests areas where further improvements need to be made Pdf 123 kb
Missing the Target-A report on HIV/AIDS treatment access from the Frontlines In every country surveyed there were concerns about inadequate leadership at the national level and the subsequent failure to dedicate sufficient resources or mobilize governments. Pdf 537 kb
Modelling HIV/AIDS epidemics in Botswana and India: impact of interventions to prevent transmission The interventions directed at sex workers as well as those dealing with sexually transmitted infections showed promise for long-term prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, although their relative ranking was uncertain. In India, a sex worker intervention would drive the epidemic to extinction. In Botswana none of the interventions alone would achieve this, although the prevalence of HIV would be reduced by almost 50%. Mother-to-child transmission programmes could reduce HIV transmission to infants, but would have no impact on the epidemic itself. In the long run, interventions targeting sexual transmission would be even more effective in reducing the number of HIV-infected children than mother-to-child transmission programmes  

Money matters-financing the global epidemic.

Sectoral Impact: what we know, don’t know and need to know: the true cost of AIDS

Pdf 295 kb

National AIDS Coordinating Authorities: A synthesis of lessons learned and taking learning forward

This paper briefly outlines some of the key challenges facing National AIDS Coordinating Authorities (NACAs) in fulfilling their roles in promoting better harmonisation and alignment of national responses to HIV AND AIDS. The paper suggests that some of the underlying problems facing NACAs stem from broader governance issues concerning the transferability of institutional models and political incentives for doing something about AIDS. Without further analysis of the political economy of AIDS responses many of the existing challenges faced by NACAs are likely to persist. This paper draws on a number of institutional reviews of NACAs undertaken by DFID’s Health Resource Centre, country reviews of the application of the Three Ones principles commissioned by UNAIDS, and independent reviews of the World Bank’s strategy for HIV and AIDS. Pdf 368 kb
National Association of People with AIDS Supports Founded in 1983, the National Association of People with AIDS (NAPWA-US) promotes the benefits of HIV testing as part of a comprehensive strategy to combat HIV/AIDS. We recognize that HIV testing acceptance is a critical step in the lives of people with HIV. Receiving an HIV-positive test result can be a scary and difficult experience. But for many people, the decision to know is also a path toward a better, healthier, and longer life. Pdf 184 kb
National HIV/AIDS Transport Sector Coordinating Committee TRANSPORT SECTOR STRATEGIC HIV/AIDS PLAN The HIV-AIDS epidemic has impacted dramatically on all spheres of human life within the SADC region. Its continuing spread is a cross-border issue of critical significance for the transport industry. We recognise that there are many competing demands on government and private sector social responsibility resources – but we see this as a challenge to our collective creativity. The National Department of Transport has therefore fully committed itself to the development of a coordinated cross-sectoral HIV-AIDS strategy that will mobilise every available public and private resource to combat the further spread of the epidemic through the veins and arteries of our transport system.  
Nationalism, Sexuality, and the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Modern Greece This examination of the HIV/AIDS situation in Greece focuses on the administrative policy of the state and its relationship to the public conception of the disease.  This paper incorporates a holistic perspective that considers the country’s unique geographical, political, and cultural position and extends beyond health statistics to consider how conceptions of sexuality and nationality have influenced and been influenced by the relatively recent epidemic  
New report reveals: Education could save seven million young people from HIV Seven million cases of HIV could be prevented in a decade if all children in the world received a complete primary education, reveals a ground-breaking new report released today by the Global Campaign for Education.  
NGO code of Good Practice-responding to HIV/AIDS Today, human security is being threatened by HIV/AIDS, as the virus destabilizes society and the state in various ways—as the economically active succumb to AIDS-related illnesses, families, households, workplaces, and communities are disrupted, income levels are reduced, the social fabric undermined, and economies are weakened 248 kb pdf
Overview of the Impact & best responses. Impact and best practice response in favour of children in a world affected by HIV/AIDS 261 kb pdf
Overcoming Political Impediments to Effective AIDS Policy In the case of HIV/AIDS, the policies that will best protect the average citizen are not necessarily popular. Politicians and government officials, who may themselves be unsure of the best policies for confronting the epidemic, have the difficult task of explaining to the public why taxes should be spent subsidizing condoms and STD treatment for prostitutes and clean needles for injecting drug users. Conservative social and religious groups, perhaps not fully appreciating the great harm that can arise from failing to prevent the spread of HIV, may oppose efforts to reduce the risks involved in commercial sex or injecting drug use, or to encourage condom use generally, out of concern that these efforts will encourage behavior they regard as immoral. Business interests, having immediate profits in mind, may apply the kind of pressure to government that was dramatized in Henrik Ibsen’s 1883 play An Enemy of the People: a physician who discovers that his Norwegian town’s polluted public baths are a threat to tourists’ health is pressured to keep silent by the democratically elected mayor and his supporters, and ultimately declared to be an “enemy of the people” himself.  
Peer education and HIV/AIDS: Concepts, uses and challenges This paper introduces the goals and objectives of the consultation, discusses the definition of and the theory behind peer education, and presents the findings of prior efforts to analyse HIV/AIDS peer education programmes.  The paper also presents the results of the needs assessment and the literature review, and concludes with recommendations aimed at further defining a set of best practices in the area of HIV/AIDS PEER EDUCATION. 323 kb PDF
Peer influence groups: identifying dense clusters in large networks Early social network theorists argued that the power of social networks lies in large-scale connectivity.  The extended effects of social networks are clear when we consider the spread of diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, that have crossed the globe through an intimate but far-reaching social network. 743 kb pdf
Policy and advocacy in HIV/AIDS prevention This handbook provides suggestions for getting involved in policy development. It is written for program managers and policy advocates and others who are interested in advocacy work and in the policy aspects of HIV/AIDS prevention 97 kb pdf
Politicians Leadership, both political and public, appears to be a fundamental requirement for an effective response to HIV/AIDS, yet in countries around the world it is frequently identified as inadequate or absent 402 kb pdf
Positive Development Book


Chapter 1


Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4


Chapter 5

Chapter 6


Chapter 7

This manual has been written for people working in groups: support and self-help groups of and for people with HIV and AIDS, groups which also include families, friends and carer; and groups that are educating, campaigning or lobbying for the rights of people with HIV.  

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POSITIVE PREVENTION This guide is intended as a resource to help nongovernmental organisation (NGO) staff and HIV service providers working across the spectrum of HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services to take steps towards integrating HIV prevention for, by and with people living with HIV. It is hoped it will also be of use both to individual people living with HIV and to their partners. The guide does not intend to discuss or review all HIV prevention strategies. Rather, it is a starting point from which to consider different strategies to assist NGO staff and HIV service provider organisations to support HIV positive people to live well with HIV and have safer sexual relationships within a full and healthy life. This guide focuses largely on the sexual transmission of HIV. Pdf 1691 kb

Potomac Statement on Investment in Routine Health Information in developing countries.

What is the role of routine health information in securing adequate health system performance in developing countries?

Pdf 117 kb

Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers: Do They matter for Children and Young People made Vulnerable by HIV/AIDS? In order to break this cycle, there is a strong need to strengthen the poverty reduction content of PRSPs by addressing the specific needs and rights of the people affected by HIV/AIDS, especially those of vulnerable children, orphans and women. As highlighted in this review, despite their implications for poverty reduction, orphans and vulnerable children receive less attention than prevention amongst young people, PMTCT, and care and support to children and families living with HIV/AIDS. This may be attributable to subsuming orphans and vulnerable children within the context of care and support for families living with HIV/AIDS. Care and support interventions are largely limited to the health sector, while orphans and vulnerable children need multi-sectoral support. The limited attention given to these social groups may also be attributed to the fact that most National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plans (NSPs) give minimal attention to the issue of orphans and vulnerable children, despite the magnitude of this problem in some countries. Pdf 550 kb
Primary School Teachers' Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on HIV/AIDS, Life Skills, Gender and Sexuality The study revealed that a significant number of teachers did not have adequate general knowledge of the sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS, while others had either incorrect or little information. Approximately, 85% of teachers said that they encountered problems in finding appropriate responses to questions related to HIV and AIDS with more female teachers (88%) than male teachers (78%) indicating greater difficulties. In addition, less than 20% of the in-service female and male teachers were able to give correct estimates of HIV prevalence  
Quantitative Evaluation of HIV Prevention Programs The epidemic of HIV, the cause of AIDS has led to the infection of an estimated 58 million people worldwide, 22 million of whom have already died.  HIV and AIDS have reduced life expectancies by more than 10 years in hard hit countries such as Burkina Faso and Cote d’Ivoire, and by 22 years in Zimbabwe.  The impact of this epidemic reaches beyond those directly infected with HIV.  Children with HIV-infected parents become orphans, while networks of friends and families suffer as loved ones become infected and ill.  Economies are stripped of productive participants, and scarce societal resources must be redirected from other public pursuits toward HIV/AIDS-specific activities such as medical care for HIV- and AIDS-afflicted persons. 1117 kb pdf
Rapid Assessment of the HIV/AIDS Crisis in Racial and Ethnic Minority Communities Data from the first 3 cities provided critical information about changing the dynamics of the HIV/AIDS epidemic at the local level, including program and policy changes and infrastructure redeployment targeted at the most serious social and environmental conditions Pdf 188 kb
Rapid HIV Screening at the Point of Care-Legal and Ethical Questions Early in the HIV/AIDS epidemic, a concerted effort was made to address the issues surrounding HIV-antibody testing and confidentiality in a way that would respect the human rights of individuals, yet at the same time promote the goals of protecting public health. 712 kb pdf
Report of the National Conference on Human Rights and HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS is not merely a medical problem: the manner 
in which the virus is impacting upon society reveals the 
intricate way in which social, economic, cultural, political 
and legal factors act together to make certain sections of 
society more vulnerable. The epidemic exposes the 
method and the impact of marginalisation and inequality 
in clear terms
Resiliency Approach to Adolescent Reproductive Health Power Point Presentation 171 kb pdf
Response to the Report of the 3rd Meeting of the Strategic and Technical Advisory Committee for HIV/AIDS (May 2006) The plan sets out the strategic directions and priority health sector interventions which will guide normative work and technical support across the whole organization, including 30 HQ departments and the 6 regional offices and country offices for the next four years.  The plan promotes a comprehensive health sector response to HIV/AIDS based on a model essential package of health interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care, while at the same time contributing to the broader strengthening of health systems.  The plan includes specific products and services for the period 2006-2007 and indicative activities and deliverables for the period 2008-2010.  
Reversing the Tide: Priorities for HIV/AIDS Prevention in Central Asia  (Large report-increase download time) This study aims to identify strategies for ensuring early and effective intervention to control the AIDS epidemic in Central Asia at national and regional levels, considering priorities based on global evidence. 3641 kb pdf

Right to Know (Large report-increase download time)

In recent years, communities across the world have faced a disturbing fact: AIDS has become a disease of the young

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Right to Know Initiative-Global

The Right to Know (RTK) Initiative is a global youth communication and outreach initiative designed to address the need for information, knowledge, and understanding of HIV/AIDS and related issues among young people around the world.


Role of core and bridging groups in the transmission dynamics of HIV and STIs The potential for exposure of low and high risk women to HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) through unprotected sex with male clients of female sex workers in Cotonou could account for most if not all of the estimated yearly numbers of HIV infections in Cotonou women (1000). As ongoing transmission of HIV, and also of the most predominant STIs such as gonorrhoea and HSV-2, appears to be largely fuelled by transmission within core and bridging groups in Cotonou, interventions targeted at both female sex workers and their male clients remain of the utmost importance and could have a significant effect on the evolution of HIV/STI epidemics in Benin.  
Routes to HIV transmission and intervention: an analytical framework Research and intervention strategies on HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa are increasingly recognizing the socio-cultural, economic, environmental and political dimensions of the epidemic. Gender inequality, manifesting itself in double sexual standards for males and females; the general vulnerability of women which partly accounts for a wide range of female reproductive health problems; and variation in socio-economic and political status by gender, have emerged as some of the factors increasing the spread of HIV infection in parts of Africa. Lack of male circumcision has also been suggested as a possible reason for elevated rates of female-male infection in parts of Africa. Other factors such as poverty, type of residence, mobility, displacement as a result of wars and social as well as political unrest have been associated with the spread of HIV among some groups of people has noted that HIV infection in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, among for instance street children, ‘may be the result of multiple infections under conditions of poor nutrition due to poverty’. Pdf 45 kb


The human rights of people living with HIV, the availability of affordable HIV-related commodities, improved human resources and systems to deliver services, and .financing that can be counted on: these were the key issues discussed by the Global Steering Committee on scaling up towards universal access during its .rest meeting in Washington, DC. Co-chaired by UNAIDS and DFID, the Global Steering Committee made preliminary proposals for actions to overcome these obstacles, and also suggested principles for countries to set their own targets to scale up HIV prevention, treatment, care and support between 2006 and 2010. Pdf 183 kb
Setting Government Priorities in Preventing HIV/AIDS Public policy has proved to be an effective weapon in containing the HIV/AIDS epidemic.  Governments can have the greatest impact by providing incentives for those most likely to spread HIV to adopt safer behavior Pdf 510 kb

Sexual Activity and Youth


Unfortunately, the long-term trends in sexual activity among youth until recently have not been promising – the rates of sexual activity have climbed steadily for over two decades, though the latest data gives us hope. About 20 percent more males and females are having sex today by the age of 18 than were in the early 1970s.1 Very few young adolescents are sexually active, but as age increases so does the risk of engaging in sexual activity.

Pdf 221 kb

Sexually transmitted infections in male clients of female sex workers in Benin Since most STIs are asymptomatic in this population, case finding programmes for gonorrhoea and chlamydia could be useful. The performance characteristics of the LED test in this study suggest that it could be useful to detect asymptomatic infection by either C trachomatis or N gonorrhoeae in high risk men  
Ryan White Act Short version of the US law 26 kb pdf
Ryan White Act 1996 Amended Changes in the US law 143 kb pdf
Sermon ideas for World's AIDS day-2000 As people of faith we believe that it is just to fight against discrimination, to fight for a just sharing of resources so that all people wherever they happen to live on this globe have the same access to prevention, care and treatment. This conviction should also give us the courage to stand up and persistently approach those who oppose just solutions, whether in the churches, the industry or the government.  
Social Policy Strategies to combat income poverty of children and families in Europe In the EU there is growing concern about poverty among children, and among families with children. 378 kb pdf

Strategic Management tools to support HIV/AIDS policy change

(Large report-increase download time)

This project has developed an implementation task framework along with a series of tools and approaches for managing each of the critical implementation tasks

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Strategy on HIV/AIDS and Investigative Journalism

It is a defining attribute of democracy that people should not merely have voice on how but they must and should be able to exert influence on the public process in which they deserve the best information on HIV/AIDS epidemic, they must be aware of developments, findings and research not only at home, but to have regular flow of information from abroad and be able to present the nature of its problems to the officials that will deal with them


Strategies to Tackle Social and Labour Implications of HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS is undoubtedly the single most important and daunting health problem facing Africa. Globally too, this is one of the most serious health, medical and social preoccupations of our time… The true cost of this pandemic is almost incalculable and its repercussions in terms of deteriorating child survival, diminishing life expectancy rates, overburdened health care systems, increasing orphanhoods and substantial financial losses in the business world are enormous.  

Structural factors in HIV prevention: concepts, examples, and implications for research

HIV-prevention behavior is affected by the environment as well as by characteristics of individuals at risk. HIV-related structural factors are defined as barriers to, or facilitators of, an individual's HIV prevention behaviors; they may relate to economic, social, policy, organizational or other aspects of the environment. IMPACT OF STRUCTURAL INTERVENTIONS


Targeting HIV-prevention efforts on truck drivers and sex workers: implications for a decline in the spread of HIV in Southern Africa The role of mobile populations in the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been documented in several countries worldwide.1-4 The role of truck drivers and sex workers in the spread of HIV has been studied in Africa,5 India,6 and the USA.7 Due to the migratory nature of their occupation, truck drivers tend to have multiple sexual partners.    
THE ABC Disaster Since the introduction of ABC there has been scepticism, but almost of an apologetic sort. What could be heard was that abstinence is "of course" the ideal but since the reality is different, the messages should be targeting sexually active people. All couples being faithful is "of course" what we all would like to see, but since the reality is different, we need to talk a lot about condoms. Over the years, the A and B of the ABC tend to get a lot more emphasis than the C (clearly reflected in the materials and manuals where condoms feature on the last one or two pages of the teachers' guide). Something else also happened in the process: a whole generation of teachers, counsellors, and others involved in educating young people, who themselves enjoyed an at that time unprecedented sexual freedom in their adolescent years, are preaching abstinence without even confronting their own history, desires and practices within what they preach  

We offer a monthly newsletter dealing with the various issues surrounding infectious diseases.  To find out more click HERE.

The ABCs of HIV Prevention Abstaining from sexual activity, mutual monogamy, and condom use are three key behaviors that can prevent or reduce the likelihood of sexual transmission of the AIDS virus. These behaviors are often included together under a comprehensive "ABC" approach - A for abstinence (or delayed sexual initiation among youth), B for being faithful (or reduction in number of sexual partners), and C for correct and consistent condom use, especially for casual sexual activity and other high-risk situations.  

The African Religious Leaders Assembly on Children and HIV/AIDS 

The purpose of this meeting was to discuss the impact of HIV/AIDS on children and to launch a continent-wide campaign to further engage religious communities in efforts to expand care and to reduce the stigma often associated with AIDS. Specifically, the Assembly was convened to galvanise the commitment and engagement of African religious leaders on behalf of children and to encourage them to mobilise their entire religious communities


The effectiveness of HIV prevention strategies under alternative scenarios: evaluation with the STDSIM model In developing countries sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection are a major cause of acute and chronic disease and of premature death 173 kb pdf
The Globalization of Disease Annan warned that AIDS leaches profits out of economies and businesses and raises new barriers to development and economic growth. He cautioned that the widening gaps between wealthy and poor, which AIDS and other diseases are expanding, could accelerate the growing backlash against globalization. While global markets have created unprecedented economic opportunities and growth, the benefits have not been equally distributed, and the risks—especially the health risks—of an increasingly interlinked and interdependent world have not been thoroughly considered.  
The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Civil Society Assessing and mitigating impact-tools and models for NGOs and CBOs 561 kb pdf

The negotiating strategies determining coitus in stable heterosexual relationships

Heterosexual behavior is a complex subject and one which is aggravated by confounding variables.

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The ‘So What?’ Report A look at whether integrating a gender focus into programs makes a difference to outcomes 864 kb pdf
The Sound of Silence-Difficulties in communicating on HIV/AIDS in schools Education and HIV/AIDS.  Two issues which have often fallen under different spheres of responsibility, yet they are so interlinked: goals of universal primary education are increasingly unattainable as AIDS epidemics force children to drop out of school, and education is a necessary part of any response to abate HIV incidence. 476 kb pdf

Trainers’ Handbook on HIV & AIDS Mainstreaming

This Handbook is part of ACORD’s effort to strengthen its capacity and that of its partners in mainstreaming HIV & AIDS in development programs. It is designed for use mainly, but not exclusively, by development programs.  The Handbook gives information that will support facilitators using ACORD’s Generic Trainers Guide on HIV & AIDS Mainstreaming. Trainers are encouraged to seek more information from other sources to further strengthen their knowledge of the concept highlighted in this Handbook. Pdf 642 kb

The Way Forward.

The Context of HIV and Human Development: Policy Challenges for South Asia

Pdf 142 kb

Teaching aid for Children-discussing AIDS Set of exercises used for this discussion 404 kb pdf
Tool to Assess site Program readiness for Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy The tool can also be used for site self-assessment, to assist sites and donors to identify areas in need of technical assistance and to assist programs in determining sites for ART introduction and scale up. 112 kb pdf
UK working group on education and HIV/AIDS Approaches to examining the impact of HIV/AIDS on teachers-Policy and Research 307 kb pdf
'UNLESS THERE IS A FUNDAMENTAL CHANGE IN BEHAVIOR, THERE WILL BE NO DRASTIC CHANGE IN THE EVOLUTION OF THE EPIDEMIC' The statistics indicate what few officials are willing to admit: that this region faces a crisis of shattered mores, where sexuality is no longer guided by traditional norms. In an environment where old rules have clashed with, or been eclipsed by, rapid social change, African men are killing themselves - and their women and children - with sex.  Hiding behind a historical reluctance to speak openly about sex, African political and religious leaders have failed to acknowledge this deeper cultural crisis at the root of the AIDS epidemic. And international experts, averse to sounding judgmental or racist, tread lightly on the epidemic's behavioral undercurrents. Behavior, consequently, has been narrowly defined as simply having safe sex. But as effective as condoms are in stopping the transmission of HIV, they do not stop epidemics.  
Various Roles of Economics in Addressing the HIV/AIDS Pandemic Policymakers need a reasonably complete picture of resource flows from sources to uses that finance HIV/AIDS prevention, care, support, and treatment.  Without that picture, they risk misallocation, waste, and faulty strategic planning. 548 kb pdf

VASAI Shows the Way: Vasai Region AIDS Control Society VRACS

At the end of 2002, the estimated HIV infected population in India is at 4.58 million; a significant leap from the 3.97 million in 2001. Of this 61.5% are males. Pregnant women account for a full 1 percent of the infected population, a clear indication of the movement of the epidemic into the general population


Viewing HIV/AIDS from a development perspective One of the major development challenges we face is that of tackling the growing HIV/AIDS pandemic. The pandemic is not just a public health issue but has implications far beyond the health sector. This makes it necessary – more than ever before – to adopt a participatory and holistic approach towards halting the spread of the pandemic. Promoting partnerships and collaboration among different State and non-State actors will have to be an important element of this approach.  
Voluntary Counseling & Testing Operational Guidelines 2004 Voluntary Counseling and Testing provides for all segments of the population, an opportunity to access complete and accurate information on HIV/AIDS.  This is a critical entry point to prevention, care, support and treatment for all people, and particularly for those already infected and affected. 339 kb pdf
Voluntary testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a prison population with a high prevalence of HIV Voluntary testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a prison population with a high prevalence of HIV… However, the alternative, mandatory HIV testing of prisoners, can be construed as discriminatory and unethical when similar screening is not imposed on the population at large  

We have AIDS-

Access to Medication and care

AIDS and the Marketplace



Choking the seeds of learning

Compassion in the Midst of crisis


Food Security Spiral



The Role of Gender


Youth…part of the Solution


How can a country that cannot afford to feed its own people and assure them of food security, spend money on medication and care?

Most of the 40 million people infected with HIV are in the prime of their working lives.  The effects are momentous—not just on workers and their families, but on enterprises and entire national and regional economies.  AIDS has become a crucial workplace issue and a massive development challenge.”

In the most affected countries, the loss of teachers due to AIDS is expected to outstrip the ability of training colleges to provide new qualified teachers.

Many of us don’t even know someone personally who is infected with HIV or AIDS, even though there are a lot of people suffering with the disease in out neighborhoods and even in our churches

Food security, described as your-round access to sufficient food of appropriate nutritional value, is a basic human need.  It is dependent on availability, stability, and accessibility of food supplies.  All of these are diminished when HIV/AIDS enters a community

The relative lack of power that women experience and conditions of poverty go hand in hand with behaviors to create the conditions ripe for a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS in women.

Tanzanian girls are taught to submit to men, so if a man asks them for sex they feel that they cannot refuse or even insist on protecting themselves.


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What HIV/AIDS Can Do to Education, and What Education Can Do to HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS is conceptualised as having the potential to affect education through ten different mechanisms: reduction in demand, reduction in supply, reduction in availability of resources, adjustments in response to the special needs of a rapidly increasing number of orphans, adaptation to new interactions both within schools and between schools and communities, curriculum modification, altered roles that have to be adopted by teachers and the education system, the ways in which schools and the education system are organised, the planning and management of the system, and donor support for education.  
What Works in HIV Prevention for Youth As each generation comes of age, there is a substantial increase in the rate of infection as individuals enter their late teens and early twenties, with infection rates peaking in the mid-to-late twenties. Sustained, targeted prevention for each group entering young adulthood is what will keep these waves from developing.  

Why focusing on stigma is important.

Stigma often leads to discrimination and this, inturn, leads to human rights violations for people living with HIV/AIDS and their families.

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Why is Uganda interesting? Uganda is one of the few African countries where rates of HIV infection have declined, and it is seen as a rare example of success in a continent facing a severe AIDS crisis. Uganda's policies are credited with helping to bring adult HIV prevalence (the proportion of adults living with HIV) down from around 15% in the early 1990s to around 5% in 2001. At the end of 2005, UNAIDS estimates that 6.7% of adults were living with the virus. The country is seen as having implemented a well-timed and successful public education campaign  
Working in Groups


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Benefits and methods of working in groups—HIV and AIDS usually raise difficult and personal issues such as health, relationships, financial security, death or feelings about sexuality.

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World AIDS Youth Debate-Global

In the context of World AIDS Day (December 2002), the World Bank and UNESCO organized a series of youth-led discussion forums on HIV/AIDS and human rights. Six video conferences were held - one each in French, English, Russian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Arabic - in an effort to better understand both the source of fears surrounding HIV/AIDS and what life is like for young people infected with the virus


Young people-we care. (Large report-increase download time) A book of ideas to help young people supporting each other in their communities 1,255 kb pdf

Youth in action-Right to Know Initiative.

The Right to Know Initiative makes use of the creative and transformation power of youth around the world, in addressing their critical need for information, knowledge and understanding on HIV/AIDS and related issues

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Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance: National College Health Risk Behavior Survey -- United States, 1995 Data from the 1995 survey indicated that many college students throughout the United States engage in behaviors that place them at risk for serious health problems. Almost one third (29.0%) of college students were current cigarette smokers. One third (34.5%) of college students reported episodic heavy drinking during the 30 days preceding the survey, 27.4% reported drinking alcohol and driving during the 30 days preceding the survey, and 30.5% of students who had gone boating or swimming during the 12 months preceding the survey had drunk alcohol while boating or swimming. One in five (20.4%) female college students had been forced to have sexual intercourse during her lifetime. Only 29.6% of students who had had sexual intercourse during the 3 months preceding the survey had used a condom at last sexual intercourse, and 34.5% had used birth control pills.  

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