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“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”


Hepatitis: Sources of Transmission


We offer a monthly newsletter dealing with the various issues surrounding infectious diseases.  To find out more click HERE.



Main topics can be found within the left column; sub-topics and/or research reports can be found near the bottom of this page.  Thank you

Because Hepatitis C Virus goes unnoticed for such long periods, the source of a person's infection is often hard to know. But there are several well-known risk factors. Anyone who received a blood transfusion before 1992 could easily have been exposed. The danger was especially high in the 1960s, when blood banks paid donors and screening was lax. Hepatitis C Virus infected a third of all transfusion recipients between 1960 and '65, according to Dr. Adrian Di Bisceglie of St. Louis University, and the infection rate is close to 100 percent among hemophiliacs who received clotting factors before the mid-1980s

Health workers with a history of accidental needle sticks are also at risk. No U.S. clinic would operate today without a secure receptacle for used medical implements, but plastic garbage bags were still the norm when Andi Thomas worked as a medical assistant in the late 1970s. She jabbed herself often during her two years at a multispecialty clinic in Miami Beach. Her ALT levels shot up in 1979, but when antibody tests for hepatitis A and B came back negative, her doctor guessed that social drinking was to blame. Her Hepatitis C Virus went undiagnosed until 1996, when another doctor saw her enzyme levels and recommended testing.

Today, thanks to blood screening and other safeguards, the risk of getting hep C is negligible in Western medical settings. But IV drug abuse poses an overwhelming risk. Hepatitis C Virus replicates rapidly, reaching high concentrations in the blood of infected people. And because a small amount of blood can harbor a large dose of virus, a nearly sterile syringe can easily spread the infection. The odds of contracting the AIDS virus from a single prick with a tainted needle are less than one in 300, notes Dr. Stuart Ray, an infectious-disease specialist at Johns Hopkins. The odds are 10 times that high if the needle harbors Hepatitis C Virus. In Baltimore, where Hopkins researchers have followed IV drug users for the past dozen years, 20 percent are infected with HIV-80 percent with hep C. Most contract Hepatitis C Virus within six months of their first encounter with a needle." Hepatitis C: The Insidious Spread of a Killer Virus

While many believe that Hepatitis is only contracted through IV drug use, there are many other sources for the infection: from sharing a toothbrush, electric razor, poor medical treatment and there are many others. Hepatitis is far more contagious than HIV/AIDS and yet many are unaware of the potentially fatal disease.


Document Name & Link to Document Description

File Size /Type**

 A Comprehensive Approach to Preventing Blood-Borne Infections Among IV drug users

Many health departments, community-based organizations, agencies, and providers are working hard to reach and work with IDUs to help them change their behaviors and reduce or eliminate their risk of acquiring or transmitting infection. The problem of injection drug use and transmission of blood-borne disease persists, however. Solutions are hampered by society's pervasive negative attitudes toward IDUs, a lack of understanding of drug addiction as a treatable biomedical and psychological disease, limited funding for prevention and treatment, restrictive laws and regulations, and polarized philosophical viewpoints among various organizations and providers.


3 articles for Hep C-not related to IVDU

Articles that show that there are other means of contracting the virus


A review of hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus) vertical transmission: risks of transmission to infants born to mothers with and without Hepatitis C Virus viraemia or human immunodeficiency virus infection

Hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus) vertical transmission studies have reported conflicting findings, possibly due to differences in Hepatitis C Virus transmission risk factors among maternal populations, or to methodological differences.


All About Hepatitis C

This site, All About Hepatitis C, is designed to help you learn more about hepatitis C, including its causes, how hepatitis C is spread its consequences, how to prevent hepatitis C, and how hepatitis C is diagnosed and treated


AMA-Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus) infection is the most common chronic bloodborne infection in the United States. During the 1980s, an average of 242,000 new infections occurred every year


At least 5 related, but distinct, hepatitis C viral genotypes

Journal article about the different genotypes of Hepatitis C Virus

PDF / 1.3MB

Autoimmune Hepatitis Blood Tests

List of several different blood tests for Hepatitis C Virus and their values


Blood tainted by Hepatitis C used in transfusion

The Japanese Red Cross Society has confirmed the first case in which donated blood containing the hepatitis C virus passed its screening tests and was used in a blood transfusion, according to officials of the organization.


Californians Support Needle Exchange, Condoms for Prisoners

According to a survey conducted by the state Department of Health Services and the University of California-Berkeley, the majority of Californians support access to clean needles for injection drug users and condoms for prisoners to fight the spread of HIV.


Chronic Hepatitis C During Pregnancy

In a pregnant patient with chronic hepatitis C, will a scheduled cesarean section reduce the risk of vertical transmission? Is there a place for the use of pegylated interferon during the third trimester to reduce viral load?


Clearer Liver Warning Urged for Painkillers

Experts are urging the federal government to mandate clearer and more consistent warning labels for acetaminophen, and the nation's leading maker of the pain and fever remedy has announced it is ready to do so.


Clinical Features of Hepatitis C-Infected Patients With Persistently Normal Alanine Transaminase Levels in the Southwestern United States

Approximately one third of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus) infection have normal alanine transaminase (ALT) levels.


Controversial Issues in Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C, its pathogenesis, natural history, and approaches to treatment were certainly a focal point of this year's meeting of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases in Dallas, Texas. Many of the seminal presentations concerning this virus and its clinical sequelae will be reviewed throughout the remainder of this meeting coverage. This summary will specifically review data presented on a variety of controversial areas in the world of clinical Hepatitis C Virus.


Current Information on Hepatitis C

This report provides additional and new information to the May 2000 article Update on hepatitis C treatment. The year 2000 report includes information about possible drug interactions between Chinese herb formulas and interferon treatment and other important information that is not repeated here.


Dental-Parenteral inoculation with patient material: Risk of viral hepatitis Abode presentation for Dentist on the various methods of transmission of Hepatitis 1720 kb pdf

Diagnostic Tests for Liver and Gallbladder Disorders

Among the most important are a group of blood tests known as liver function tests. Depending on a patient's suspected problem, a doctor may also order certain imaging tests, such as an ultrasound scan, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.


Dialysis inked to Hepatitis C spread alarming About 2.2 percent of patients who underwent dialysis in 2001 were infected with the hepatitis C virus because some facilities apparently failed to take proper precautions to prevent infection  

Dirty Needles Research Rejected

The United Nations has disputed the findings of United States researchers which says most HIV infections in Africa result from dirty medical needles.


Disruption of the diurnal rhythm of plasma melatonin in liver cirrhosis

To assess the 24 hr plasma melatonin profile as a marker of the output rhythm from the circadian clock and to study sleep diaries as reflection of subjective sleep quality in patients with liver cirrhosis .



Doctor Denies Blame in Hepatitis C Outbreak 

Dr. Tahir Javed, who is accused of using unsanitary practices that caused the hepatitis C infections of 99 patients at his Nebraska cancer clinic has denied any wrongdoing. The patients, who were receiving treatment at Javed's Fremont Cancer Clinic, contracted hepatitis C between March 2000 and December 2001. One of the infected patients has died.


Doctors Gun-Shy on Newborns' Hepatitis Shot

A large percentage of newborn babies aren't getting the recommended hepatitis B vaccination (HBV) because hospitals were thrown off their routine by a precaution that was intended to be temporary, doctors say.


donor testing A high incidence of liver dysfunction has been found to occur among recipients of blood transfusion.  Some 10 to 12% of recipients develop elevates of liver enzymes. 787 kb pdf

Drug-related AIDS & Hepatitis C Among African Americans and Latinos .pdf

We have watched people die from this diseases; now they must learn how to live with HIV/AIDS.  But why can’t we help prevent this disease by providing clean needles?

Pdf 148 kb

Electric Razors as a Potential Vector for Viral Hepatitis

The rate of viral hepatitis is significantly higher among patients in the Veterans Affairs medical system than it is in the general population. As many as 24 percent of nonalcoholic patients in Veterans Affairs facilities who do not have liver disease have antibodies to hepatitis B, and 3.0 percent have antibodies to hepatitis C.


Factors associated with prevalent Hepatitis C: Differences among young Adult Injection Drug Users in Lower and Upper Manhattan, NYC

Journal Article

PDF / 107KB

Fatty Liver When ALT is Normal

"Clinical and histologic spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease associated with normal ALT values"


FDA Recommends Approval of Hepatitis B Drug

FDA advisory committee unanimously recommends approval for Gilead Sciences drug adefovir for hepatitis B (S) A Food and Drug Administration advisory committee unanimously recommended approval yesterday for the Gilead Sciences drug adefovir for hepatitis B



The intravenous immune globulin preparation Gammagard was solely responsible for a hepatitis C virus outbreak which occurred between 1993 and 1994, according to a report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).


Gastroenterology And Hepatology: Alcoholic Liver Disease, Liver Failure, and Chronic Liver Disease

University of Iowa Family Practice Handbook, Fourth Edition


H.I.V. Lessons Used in Hepatitis C Treatment

Now drug companies are beginning to test the first similar drugs for the hepatitis C virus, which can cause fatal liver disease and has infected far more people than H.I.V.



Dental Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus


We offer a monthly newsletter dealing with the various issues surrounding infectious diseases.  To find out more click HERE.

Hepatitis C Virus Genotype Testing Offers Cost-Effective Treatment Strategy

Patients confronted with a diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus) infection, along with their families, often struggle to understand a confusing array of new medical terms. What exactly does "viral load" mean? What does ALT stand for, and why does it matter? What’s the difference between fibrosis and cirrhosis?


Hemodialysis and Hepatitis C

According to the authors' abstract of an article published in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, "Background: Despite the advent of screening of blood products for anti-hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus), the incidence of Hepatitis C Virus infection among haemodialysis (HD) patients is alarmingly high and suggests transmission within the HD unit.


Hepatitis C is deadly: Many emergency workers around country afraid to
be tested or treated

However, she said the CDC recognizes that anyone exposed to blood-borne pathogens, through needle-sticks and other sharp objects, are at increased risk, but the risk is not high enough to merit screening. The CDC has not studied firefighters or paramedics, and she admitted that more research needs to be done.


Hepatitis B-Fact List

Fact list


Hepatitis B in Children

Based upon CDC statistics, an estimated 80,000 persons in the USA were infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) in 1999. People of all ages, including children, can get hepatitis B and about 5,000 die per year from sickness caused by HBV


Hepatitis B Vaccine Brand Changed

The CDC considers both Engerix-B® and Recombivax HB® to be safe and effective in the prevention of hepatitis B infections.1 The immune response using one or two doses of a vaccine, followed by one or more subsequent doses from a different manufacturer, has been demonstrated to be comparable to a full vaccination series with a single product.


Hepatitis C a Growing Killer Among People With HIV

Liver disease is emerging as a leading killer of people with HIV because many are also infected with the liver-damaging hepatitis C virus. Newly available hepatitis C drugs offer the greatest promise yet for the prevention of liver damage and death. But treatment remains complicated for people infected with both viruses, a top researcher says.


Hepatitis C Among Drug Users: Deja Vu all Over Again?

Following HIV / AIDS, hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus) is the next emerging infectious disease epidemic to strike persons who inject psychoactive drugs.' Like HIV; Hepatitis C Virus is transmitted through the sharing of needles and syringes, and the majority of new Hepatitis C Virus infections in the United States are associated with injection drug use.


Hepatitis C Among Predictors for Kidney Problems in Women With HIV

Researchers have cited hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus) co-infection as well as several other factors for causing proteinuria and kidney failure in women infected with HIV


Hepatitis C from Gammagard®, An Intravenous Immunoglobulin [IGIV]

1994 Baxter Healthcare Corporation withdrew from world markets Gammagard®, an immunoglobulin administered intravenously to those with acquired or congential immune disorders, after 112 people in the U.S. were reported having symptoms of hepatitis C, the most fatal form of the this liver disease.


Hepatitis C Haunts Baby Boomers

It might have seemed like a good idea at the time, but those intravenous drugs that some baby boomers played around with in the '60s and '70s could come back to haunt them.



Hepatitis C in Egypt In Egypt, the situation for Hepatitis C Virus infection is far worst than the rest of the world. 11 kb pdf

Hepatitis C may be transmitted via toothbrushes

The viral infection hepatitis C could possibly be transmitted by common household items such as toothbrushes, researchers warned here at Digestive Disease Week, an annual meeting of gastroenterologists.


Hepatitis C…Meeting the Challenge: A guide for adults with hepatitis C  (Large report-increased download time) This booklet is for adults with haemophilia, or a related bleeding disorder, who have been infected by hepatitis C – or by hepatitis C and HIV – through using infected blood products 1275 kb pdf

Hepatitis C Risk Not Limited to Injection Drug Users

A study in New York City has found a higher than expected prevalence of hepatitis C infection among non-injecting drug users. In this study, as many as 17 percent of the subjects who denied a history of injection drug use were found to be infected, compared to a 2 percent infection rate in the general population.


Hepatitis C The Insidious Spread of a Killer Virus

This stealthy disease can incubate for decades. Now thousands of people are getting sick. By 2010 it may strike down more Americans each year than AIDS


Hepatitis C virus and interferon resistance

Interferon is the only therapy for Hepatitis C Virus virus infection; however, many virus isolates are resistant.

PDF / 373KB

Hepatitis C Virus Infections in Dialysis Centers in The Netherlands: a National Survey by Serological and Molecular Methods The prevalence of HCV infections among dialysis patients is generally much higher than that among healthy blood donors. Studies in selected dialysis centers from different countries all over the world revealed that prevalences range from 2 to 3% to 60%. To a certain extent this may reflect the different prevalences of HCV-infected individuals among the general population in these countries. However, the dialysis process itself and the level of hygienic standards may influence the risk of HCV infection. This may explain differences found between dialysis centers in one country  

Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Spouses of Patients with Type C Chronic Liver Disease

Survey for markers of hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus) infection in spouses of patients with Hepatitis C Virus-related chronic liver disease.


Hepatitis C Virus Infection in the Mothers and Infants Cohort Study

Objectives. To estimate the hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus) vertical transmission rate, the effect of potential risk factors, and the pattern of Hepatitis C Virus antibody response and viremia in Hepatitis C Virus-infected infants.


Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Young, Low-Income Women: The Role of Sexually Transmitted Infection as a Potential Cofactor for Hepatitis C Infection

Objectives. We evaluated risk for hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus) infection in women residing in low-income neighborhoods of northern California.


Hepatitis C Virus Resistance to Antiviral Therapy

Research produces highly efficient antiviral drugs-the viruses develop sophisticated strategies to evade their actions

PDF / 199KB

Hepatitis C Virus Transmission From an Anesthesiologist to a Patient

An anesthesiologist was diagnosed as having acute hepatitis C 3 days after providing anesthesia during the thoracotomy of a 64-year-old man (patient A). Eight weeks later, patient A was diagnosed as having acute hepatitis C.


Hepatitis C: The Silent Epidemic

Hepatitis C (Hepatitis C Virus) is being called the silent epidemic because as many as 70% of those infected with this virus don't know even know it.  According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, nearly 4 million people in the United States are infected with the virus. Hepatitis C Virus now causes 8,000 to 10,000 deaths a year and this number may increase to 30,000 in the next two decades. 


Hepatitis viruses: Changing patterns of human disease

Changes in human ecology and behavior have had discernable effects on the epidemiology of the hepatitis viruses in different ways and to different degrees

PDF / 1.4MB


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