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“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”


Hepatitis: Sources of Transmission


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"Because Hepatitis C Virus goes unnoticed for such long periods, the source of a person's infection is often hard to know. But there are several well-known risk factors. Anyone who received a blood transfusion before 1992 could easily have been exposed. The danger was especially high in the 1960s, when blood banks paid donors and screening was lax. Hepatitis C Virus infected a third of all transfusion recipients between 1960 and '65, according to Dr. Adrian Di Bisceglie of St. Louis University, and the infection rate is close to 100 percent among hemophiliacs who received clotting factors before the mid-1980s

Health workers with a history of accidental needle sticks are also at risk. No U.S. clinic would operate today without a secure receptacle for used medical implements, but plastic garbage bags were still the norm when Andi Thomas worked as a medical assistant in the late 1970s. She jabbed herself often during her two years at a multispecialty clinic in Miami Beach. Her ALT levels shot up in 1979, but when antibody tests for hepatitis A and B came back negative, her doctor guessed that social drinking was to blame. Her Hepatitis C Virus went undiagnosed until 1996, when another doctor saw her enzyme levels and recommended testing.

Today, thanks to blood screening and other safeguards, the risk of getting hep C is negligible in Western medical settings. But IV drug abuse poses an overwhelming risk. Hepatitis C Virus replicates rapidly, reaching high concentrations in the blood of infected people. And because a small amount of blood can harbor a large dose of virus, a nearly sterile syringe can easily spread the infection. The odds of contracting the AIDS virus from a single prick with a tainted needle are less than one in 300, notes Dr. Stuart Ray, an infectious-disease specialist at Johns Hopkins. The odds are 10 times that high if the needle harbors Hepatitis C Virus. In Baltimore, where Hopkins researchers have followed IV drug users for the past dozen years, 20 percent are infected with HIV-80 percent with hep C. Most contract Hepatitis C Virus within six months of their first encounter with a needle." Hepatitis C: The Insidious Spread of a Killer Virus

While many believe that Hepatitis is only contracted through IV drug use, there are many other sources for the infection: from sharing a toothbrush, electric razor, poor medical treatment and there are many others. Hepatitis is far more contagious than HIV/AIDS and yet many are unaware of the potentially fatal disease.


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Identifying high-risk carriers of infectious diseases is worth the effort

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) call for discrimination. Containing the spread of an STD by focusing on promiscuous individuals, who are most likely to pass it on, should be cheaper and more effective than large-scale random campaigns, according to two new mathematical analyses1,2.


Illegal Drug Users Need/Deserve Treatment for Hepatitis C

University of California-San Francisco (UCSF) researchers are recommending that illicit drug users should be eligible to receive treatment for the hepatitis C virus.


Incidence of seroconversion to positivity for hepatitis C antibody in repeat blood donors in England, 1993-5

Objective: To estimate the rate of seroconversion to positivity for hepatitis C antibody in repeat blood donors in England and to describe the probable routes of infection in these donors.


Incidence of seroconversion to positivity for Hepatitis C antibody in repeat blood donors in England

To estimate the rate of seroconversion to positivity for Hepatitis C Virus antibody in repeat blood donors in England

PDF / 221 KB

Information on Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a virus that infects the liver and usually causes progressive damage by bringing the immune cells into the liver and invoking an inflammatory response. The general word "hepatitis" indicates the presence of this inflammatory response. Once the inflammation (presence of pus cells) begins, fibrosis (scar tissue) may form and eventually a patient may develop cirrhosis liver failure and liver cancer. Liver transplantation is a possible treatment for hepatitis B induced liver failure but recurrence of the infection in new the new liver is still a problem in some patients.


Japanese woman dies after hepatitis B infection from tainted blood

A Japanese women died last June after being infected with hepatitis B from a tainted blood donor, a report said, adding to renewed concerns over laxity in the nation's blood screening process.


Lack of evidence for the heterosexual transmission of hepatitis C The importance of sexual transmission in the epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is still controversial. To assess the risk of heterosexual HCV transmission, we examined eighty patients with chronic HCV-associated liver disease and their spouses in a cross-sectional clinical and serological cohort study.  

Liver Injury Associated with Hepatitis C Infection

The role of the host immune response in determining clinical outcome following hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is well recognized.1 In patients infected with hepatitis B, therapies, diseases, or conditions that impair specific lymphocyte responses lead to a high rate of chronic infection; in addition, the vigor of the host T-cell response to HBV-encoded antigenic peptides appears to correlate directly with the degree of acute hepatocellular injury and inversely with levels of HBV viremia


Medscape-Controversies in Hepatitis C

The World Health Organization has recognized Hepatitis C Virus as a major public health problem. Over 170 million cases of chronic Hepatitis C Virus infection are present throughout the world, with over 4 million chronic carriers in the United States. Therefore, it is imperative that we find a successful treatment for this often-fatal disease.


Needle Use Soars In Young Heroin Users

The number of young heroin addicts in New Jersey who said they injected the drug spiked sharply in the last decade, state health officials say. And they suspect the problem isn't unique to the Garden State


Needle-Exchange Program Cut Hepatitis C Transmission Rate

According to a report presented to the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease, injection drug users who began injecting drugs after the 1993 legalization of a safe needle program in San Francisco had a much lower risk of contracting hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus) than those who started earlier.


One in Four Heroin Injectors Infected With Hepatitis C

A new report in the Journal of Infectious Diseases (2000;182:1588-1594) indicates that approximately 25 percent of Chicago-area injection drug users are infected with the hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus). Researchers found that the risk of contracting the disease is greater the longer and more frequent a person uses injection drugs.


Opportunistic Infections and Coinfections: Focus on Fungi and Hepatitis

One of the most prominent features of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era has been the positive impact on opportunistic infections (OIs). In particular, among patients with good immunologic and virologic responses to HAART, it has proved possible to stop primary prophylaxis and maintenance therapy in patients with previously active infections.


Outbreak of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in a Hemodialysis Unit: Potential Transmission by the Hemodialysis Machine?

To identify the routes of transmission during an outbreak of infection with hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus) genotype 2a/2c in a hemodialysis unit.



You should make sure your piercer uses clean and sterilized equipment because it's possible to contract HIV and Hepatitis B and C, among other blood borne diseases, from a piercing needle. Hepatitis B can survive outside the body for days, so your chances of contracting it from a contaminated needle is greater than your risk of HIV, which dies quickly once outside the body.


Prevalent Hepatitis C: Differences Among Young Adult Injection Drug Users in Lower and Upper Manhattan, New York City

Several differences in factors associated with prevalent Hepatitis C Virus infection existed among 2 populations of young injection drug users from the same city. Indirect transmission of Hepatitis C Virus may occur.


Recommendations for Prevention and control of Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Hepatitis C -related Chronic Disease

Report from the Center for Disease Control

PDF / 490KB

Snorting drugs and Hepatitis C transmission- where's the link? Research in the UK among HIV positive gay men who have recently acquired hepatitis C has shown intranasal cocaine use to exist alongside other potential risk factors for hepatitis C transmission, including unprotected sex and having untreated sexually transmitted infections.  

Shots Snafu Puts Newborns at Risk

A temporary change in vaccine recommendations for infants has lasted longer than intended and could be endangering newborns, the government says.


Sources of Hepatitis C Infection (Large file-please allow extra time for download) Power Point Presentation 1585 kb pdf
Spousal Transmission of the Hepatitis C Virus? In the face of this uncertainty, how should the HCV-infected person be counseled regarding routine behavior in the household setting and with respect to sexual activities? Undoubtedly, any practice that promotes transfer of blood or blood-contaminated body fluids should be entirely proscribed. This would include the sharing of toothbrushes, dental appliances, razors, and nail-grooming equipment. Little evidence implicates shared eating utensils, glassware, or crockery in the transmission of this virus. By far the greater concern is what advice to offer regarding sexual practices.  

STD Screening, testing, case reporting, and clinical and partner notification practices

This study presents results from a national survey of US physicians that assessed screening, case reporting, partner management and clinical practices for syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia and HIV HIV infection

PDF / 115KB

The Hepatitis Report: A Critical Review of the Research and Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus (Hepatitis C Virus) and Hepatitis & HIV Coinfection

Physicians and patients must carefully weigh the risks (which are clinically significant in the case of treatment with interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin), the benefits (moderate in this instance), and the cost (substantial in this instance) of any treatment option for a disease that has emerged as an important public health problem.


The Significance of Liver Enzyme Elevations

Abnormal laboratory values and Carbohydrate deficient Transferrin

PDF / 48KB

Transmission of Hepatitis C by blood splash to eyes The risk of transmission of hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus) infection is an important problem for the health care worker. Hepatitis C Virus transmission by blood splashing into eyes is very rare  
Transmission of Hepatitis Viruses To prevent and control transmission within populations, effective vaccines exist for two of the hepatitis viruses. The challenge is to develop effective strategies for vaccine delivery.  

Two Moms Want Shots Deep-Sixed

In a case that could set a precedent in the ongoing battle over immunization rights, two Arkansas women are suing in federal court to stop the state from forcing their children to be vaccinated.


U.S. Travelers Clueless About Hepatitis Risk

With more Americans traveling to exotic locales, a new survey shows few seem to understand the risks for serious liver diseases that await them.



"Universal precautions," as defined by CDC, are a set of precautions designed to prevent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and other bloodborne pathogens when providing first aid or health care. Under universal precautions, blood and certain body fluids of all patients are considered potentially infectious for HIV, HBV and other bloodborne pathogens.


Vaginal laceration is a risk factor for Hepatitis C transmission in childbirth

Children delivered vaginally and whose mothers sustained a perineal or vaginal laceration had a six-fold higher risk of hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus) than vaginally delivered children whose mothers had no laceration, according to a retrospective study of 73 Hepatitis C Virus-positive pregnant women who gave birth to 75 children.


viral hepatitis & drug use

Millions of Americans have viral hepatitis.  It is particularly significant problem among injection drug users.  Growing awareness of this problem is leading to new initiative, but efforts to prevent these diseases and reduce their medical, financial, and social costs face challenges.

Pdf 61 kb


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