Click a topic below for an index of articles:

New Material


Help us Win the Fight!

Alternative Treatments


Financial or Socio-Economic Issues

Health Insurance

Help us Win the Fight



Institutional Issues

International Reports

Legal Concerns

Math Models or Methods to Predict Trends

Medical Issues

Our Sponsors

Occupational Concerns

Our Board


Religion and infectious diseases

State Governments

Stigma or Discrimination Issues

If you would like to submit an article to this website, email us your paper to



any words all words
Results per page:

“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”

Hepatitis Information

(A through K)

We offer a monthly newsletter dealing with the various issues surrounding infectious diseases.  To find out more click HERE.



Main topics can be found within the left column; sub-topics and/or research reports can be found near the bottom of this page.  Thank you

Common Conditions

  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
  • Cognitive Dysfunction
  • Depression
  • Emotional lability
  • Indigestion
  • Inflammation of the liver
  • Lymphoproliferative disorders
  • Malaise
  • Mixed cryoglobulinaemia
  • Pain in the upper right quadrant
  • Poor peripheral circulation

Significant Conditions

  • Allergies
  • Alternating constipation and diarrhea
  • Cirrhosis of the liver
  • Diabetes
  • Edema/Fluid retention
  • Fibrosis of the liver
  • Glomerulonephritis
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Ischemia
  • Polyarthritis
  • Psoriasis and other skin disorders
  • Sjögrens Syndrome
  • Thyroid Disorders
  • Vasculitis

Less Common Conditions

  • Cutanea Purpura Tarda
  • Hemorrhage
  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Lichen Planus
  • Non Hodgkins
  • Thrombosis and Strokes


Document Name & Link to Document Description

File Size /Type**

10 year follow-up: post Treatment Medical conditions predisposing to epidural abscess include diabetes, intravenous drug use, alcoholism, and other immunocompromised states. Although cirrhosis is associated with an increased risk of infection in general it has not previously been identified as a condition predisposing to epidural abscess.


2 cases of Epidural Abscess-cirrhosis Sustained responses to interferon- occur in 10% to 25% of patients with chronic hepatitis C, but the long-term outcome is not well defined. We evaluated the long-term clinical, histological, and virological outcomes of 10 patients with chronic hepatitis C who were treated


99% Of Patients on Pegasysâ Remain 'Cured' of Hepatitis C Virus When Tested Three Years Later This study with PEGASYS demonstrates the only permanent and long-lasting results that have been reported for pegylated interferons after monitoring patients for several years following completion of therapy.


ABC of diseases of liver, pancreas, and biliary system

Increases in portal pressure cause development of a portosystemic collateral circulation with resultant compensatory portosystemic shunting and disturbed intrahepatic circulation. These factors are partly responsible for the important complications of chronic liver disease, including variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, ascites, hepatorenal syndrome, recurrent infection, and abnormalities in coagulation. Variceal bleeding is the most serious complication and is an important cause of death in patients with cirrhotic liver disease.


AIDS & Hepatitis Digest This paper is based on a talk given at the meeting of the British HIV Association and the Medical Society for the Study of Venereal Diseases in London Pdf 461 kb
Attitudes About Hepatitis C Education Campaign for People Newly Diagnosed with Hepatitis C This report presents the results of five focus groups conducted by Market Street Research, Inc. among people recently diagnosed with hepatitis C, including people in recovery and those who contracted the virus through a blood transfusion or organ transplant 226 kb pdf

Advances in Liver Disease

Highlights from the 54th Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, Portal hypertension, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Primary biliary cirrhosis, Hepatitis, Obesity, Variceal bleeding, Methotrexate, Lamivudine, Perinatal transmission, Adefovir

424 kb pdf


Alcohol potentiats Hepatitis C Alcohol consumption accelerates liver damage and diminishes the anti-hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus) effect of interferon alfa (IFN-alpha) in patients with Hepatitis C Virus infection. It is unknown, however, whether alcohol enhances Hepatitis C Virus replication and promotes Hepatitis C Virus disease progression.


Ascites Ascites is a pathologic accumulation of serous fluid within the abdomen. It may be caused by decompensated liver disease (alcohol- and virus-related cirrhosis), heart failure, abdominal carcinomatosis, tuberculosis, fulminant liver failure, pancreatic disease, pelvic inflammatory disease, connective tissue diseases and hypoproteinemia.


Associate conditions for HBV Associated conditions are those which appear statistically related, but do not have a clear cause or effect relationship. Whereas the complications are caused by Chronic Hepatitis B, and underlying causes may be causes of Chronic Hepatitis B, the following list shows associated conditions that simply appear with higher frequency in people who have Chronic Hepatitis B


Aubrey Ogin is living with Hepatitis C Aubrey Ogin of Pottstown likes to hang out with her friends, skateboard and play the guitar.  She’s a typical teen.  But a dubious distinction makes the quiet, attractive 15-year-old very different from most kids her age.  Aubrey has hepatitis C, contracted via a blood transfusion in infancy. 1,795 kb pdf

Australian discovery may lead to a hepatitis C vaccine

Researchers in Australia have discovered an antibody that has helped some people develop immunity against hepatitis C, and they hope to use the discovery as the foundation for an HCV vaccine


Australia: Drug firms fund Hepatitis C awareness

Pharmaceutical companies are pouring millions of dollars into patient advocacy groups and medical organizations to help expand markets for their products.


Barriers to access and effective use of anti-discrimination remedies for people living with HIV and HCV-Australia This paper identifies and analyses the barriers to access and use of anti-discrimination remedies for people living with HIV and hepatitis C virus.  It focuses particularly on the recent changes and proposed changes to remedies in the Commonwealth jurisdiction, and any impact these changes many have on the demand for or use of State remedies. Pdf 227 kb
Bleeding esophageal varices Bleeding esophageal varices, one of the most feared complications of portal hypertension, contribute to the estimated 32,000 deaths annually attributed to cirrhosis. Successful control requires knowledge of the pertinent anatomy, underlying pathophysiology of portal hypertension, and natural history of gastroesophageal varices. Drs Hegab and Luketic review these topics and discuss the various prophylactic and therapeutic approaches to management, including pharmacologic agents, endoscopic sclerotherapy, and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS).  
Blood Safety Transcripts

And this is what we have tried to do with the hepatitis C lookback. This is the same approach we've taken to the other challenges, I think, to blood safety and availability that we've encountered, and we hope to continue to do so.

But I do want to mention the latest effort in this regard because we have had discussions about sending a letter from the Surgeon General to every household in America about hepatitis C because of the magnitude of this silent epidemic affecting four million people. And the struggle, of course, has been that there's only one model for doing that, I guess, in the past and that was when Surgeon General C. Everett Koop sent a letter about the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

There have been some major changes since that time. At that time the Surgeon General's office had what we call franking privileges, and there was no problem in sending mail to all of the families in America

Can the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) Predict Post-Transplantation

Can indicators of liver disease severity before liver transplantation (OLT) predict the outcome following OLT? Can pretransplant data predict post-OLT outcomes? The researchers compared three indices of liver disease severity as predictors of posttransplant outcome:


Cardiac surgeon likely source of hepatitis in patients

A cluster of seven cases has been diagnosed in people who have only the physician in common.


Can Liver Fibrosis be Reversed

Treatment gives the liver a vacation or rest from inflammation caused by Hepatitis C Virus.  Providing that the cirrhosis is not at such an advanced stage that treatment is not an option, treatment is often used to improve the health of the liver even if the disease cannot be eradicated

17 kb pdf

CDC: Hepatitis information 2002

Guides set forth by CDC


CHEVRON U.S.A. INC., PETITIONER v. MARIO ECHAZABAL The court of appeals correctly held that respondent is a "qualified individual" under Title I of the ADA, but the court erred in invalidating the EEOC's regulations and precluding petitioner's defense that respondent's performance of the job posed a direct threat to his own health or safety. By addressing threat-to-self concerns as a regulatory defense to liability, the EEOC struck a proper balance between the rights of disabled individuals to work free of discrimination and employers' need to maintain a safe workplace. Under the EEOC's regulations, an employer need not hire an employee who poses a threat to self, but only if the employer demonstrates, on an individualized basis, a real threat to the employee's health.  

Children in Need and Blood-borne Viruses: HIV and Hepatitis


The emphasis within this guidance is on ensuring that the particular circumstances of children and their families at risk of or affected by blood-borne viruses should be addressed sensitively and positively. The aim is to encourage professionals involved with children and their families to work in partnership with them sharing information and sharing the implications for them. Pdf 286 kb

Chinese study Herb versus HBV

Traditional Chinese medicine is an established segment of the health care deliver system in China

PDF / 215KB

Chronic Hepatitis C: Current Disease Management The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the most important causes of chronic liver disease in the United States. It accounts for about 15 percent of acute viral hepatitis, 60 to 70 percent of chronic hepatitis, and up to 50 percent of cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and liver cancer. Almost 4 million Americans, or 1.8 percent of the U.S. population, have antibody to HCV (anti-HCV), indicating ongoing or previous infection with the virus. Hepatitis C causes an estimated 10,000 to 12,000 deaths annually in the United States.  

Chronic Hepatitis C-epidemiology & economic burden

Healthcare costs for Hepatitis C Virus include managing patients' symptoms, managing other organ involvement, treating Hepatitis C Virus with antiviral agents, and managing end-stage liver disease as well as the cost of liver transplantation.


Chronic Hepatitis C during Pregnancy

In a pregnant patient with chronic hepatitis C, will a scheduled cesarean section reduce the risk of vertical transmission? Is there a place for the use of pegylated interferon during the third trimester to reduce viral load?


Cirrhosis: How do I know if I have it?

A patient's history and symptoms, along with the results of a physical examination, are usually enough to determine a case of cirrhosis. Once the diagnosis has been made, the physician may order one or more liver function tests, which use blood samples to identify specific liver diseases and assess the organ's overall health.


Cirrhosis-QT interval, patho

Prolonged Q-T interval predicts severe arrhythmias and sudden death, and has been shown to occur in alcoholic liver disease and cirrhotic patients who are candidates for liver transplantation. This study first evaluated the prevalence of prolonged QT interval in a large population of unselected patients with cirrhosis, and assessed the relationship between abnormal QT, etiology, and severity of liver disease and mortality of patients


Clearer Liver Warning Urged for Painkillers

Experts are urging the federal government to mandate clearer and more consistent warning labels for acetaminophen, and the nation's leading maker of the pain and fever remedy has announced it is ready to do so.


Clinical Care for Hepatitis Power Point Presentation 2631 kb
Clinical Care Options for Hepatitis Symposium: Power Point Presentation 736 kb
Clinical Updates in HCV Treatment CCO Independent Conference Coverage Power Point Presentation 685 kb

Complications of Cirrhosis

Many of the severe complications of cirrhosis are secondary to portal hypertension, since it leads to the development of collateral flow from the portal venous system to the systemic circulation.


Complications of Liver Cirrhosis Series of different reports on cirrhosis of the liver  


Complications of Hepatitis C Viral Infection

Listing of the various health complication associated with Hepatitis C


Conditions linked to Hepatitis C

Common and significant conditions of Hepatitis C Virus


Connection between Hepatitis C and Anger

I don't know about you, but I've never run into a group of "unreasonably" angry people in my life like some of those I have encountered in Hep C support groups, both "live" and on the internet.


CONSEQUENCES OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS (HCV) COSTS OF A BABY BOOMER EPIDEMIC OF LIVER DISEASE Power Point Presentation-Annual medical costs for patients with HCV infection are expected to more than double, from $30 billion to over $85 billion over the next 15 years. 1727 kb

Controversies in Hepatitis C Therapy

"Controversies in Hepatitis C Therapy", is based on transcripts and slides of presentations as delivered by the faculty at the "Controversies in Hepatitis C Therapy: Point/Counterpoint Debates" satellite symposium held during the AASLD Annual Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts on November 3, 2002


Countries struggle with Hepatitis C contamination

Examines how France, Germany, Australia, the United States and Great Britain are tackling hepatitis C contamination through blood and blood products. Screening of blood donations; Recipients of blood transfusions; Questions on legal responsibility; Compensation for patients; Intravenous drug use.


Chronic hepatitis C virus infection: Prevalence of extrahepatic manifestations and association with cryoglobulinemia in Bulgarian patients Seventy six percent (104/136) of the patients had at least one extrahepatic manifestation. Clinical manifestations included fatigue (59.6%), kidney impairment (25.0%), type 2 diabetes (22.8%), paresthesia (19.9%), arthralgia (18.4%), palpable purpura (17.6%), lymphadenopathy (16.2%), pulmonary fibrosis (15.4%), thyroid dysfunction (14.7%), Raynaud’s phenomenon (11.8%), B-cell lymphoma (8.8%), sicca syndrome (6.6%), and lichen planus (5.9%). The biological manifestations included cryoglobulin production (37.5%), thrombocytopenia (31.6%), and autoantibodies: anti-nuclear (18.4%), anti-smooth muscle (16.9%), anti-neutrophil cytoplasm (13.2%) and anti-cardiolipin (8.8%). All extrahepatic manifestations showed an association with cryoglobulin-positivity, with the exception of thyroid dysfunction, sicca syndrome, and lichen planus. Risks factors for the presence of extrahepatic manifestations (univariate analysis) were: age ≥ 60 years, female gender, virus transmission by blood transfusions, longstanding infection (≥ 20 years), and extensive liver fibrosis. The most significant risks factors (multivariate analysis) were longstanding infection and extensive liver fibrosis.  
David Marks - Hepatitis C - Treatments and Beyond Marks, who was forced to leave the Beach Boys once again due to his battles with Hepatitis C, has founded a grass roots foundation called Artists Against Hepatitis, which is dedicated to providing services to the children of those suffering from Hepatitis. David Marks is also the National spokesman for the Hepatitis C Action Movement and participates in fundraising events. Along with the Hepatitis C Action Movement, David has been involved in lobbying members of Congress and elected officials on behalf of Hepatitis C related issues.  
Depression in Hepatitis C Patients and Interferon Treatment Power Point presentation 304 kb
Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C Set of guidelines and methods of treatment for each of the various classifications of HCV  
Differences in Knowledge of Hepatitis B Among Vietnamese, African- American, Hispanic, and White Adolescents in Worcester, Massachusetts Knowledge of hepatitis B was low overall. Vietnamese respondents were more likely than were other students to know that hepatitis B affects the liver (35.6% vs 22.6%). However, they were much less likely than were other students to correctly identify sex with an infected person as a risk factor for infection (13.7% vs 32.8%). Independent predictors of this knowledge were: white race; older age; attending high school versus middle school; having been taught about hepatitis B in school; knowing the definition of hepatitis B; reporting better grades; having a family member with hepatitis B; and being more highly acculturated  

Disease spread as blood test was delayed

In the 1970s, about 1,500 hospital patients participated in the Transfusion-Transmitted Viruses Study. Researchers concluded that ALT testing could slow the spread of hepatitis C. However, the blood testing was delayed for years


Do You Think It's Related? Over the past six years, similar questions have been posed to me by hepatitis C patients thousands of times. Too often, their doctors tell them their symptoms and other medical conditions are not related to hepatitis C, which causes frustration and confusion for patients. The fact that so many patients report similar symptoms and that a multitude of research has shown a remarkable number of Hepatitis C Virus patients with other conditions, makes it clear that there is more to the relation between these conditions than just coincidence.  
Drug Users’ Human Rights Harm reduction – the pragmatic view on the realization of drug users’ right to health Many drug users are occasional or opportunistic recreational user, thus they do not fit the category of “drug addict” Nevertheless, this does not save them from the related harms created by drug use such as, blood borne diseases, HIV infection, and viral hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) - as public health concerns. Policies and practices based on the principles of a right-based approach and a public health perspective toward drug use -such as harm reduction, are considered to be the best approaches on realizing drug users’ right to health and their human rights in general.  

EDITORIAL : Hepatitis C victims sue

The tale is tragic and depressing: It is the story of people who contracted a life-threatening illness through medical treatment.


Effects of Systemic Vascular Problems on the Liver

There is a striking effect on the liver in situations where significant cardiac dysfunction occurs. These effects will vary greatly depending on how acutely the hemodynamic changes occur and whether or not they are predominantly affecting the right or left side of the circulation (Figure 3-1). In most instances there will be a combination of events affecting the entire circulation occurring over a variable period of time, perhaps modified by pre-existing conditions in the host liver


Endoscopic Sclerotherapy

"Available evidence does not support emergency sclerotherapy as the first-line treatment of variceal bleeding in cirrhosis when compared with vasoactive drugs, which control bleeding in 83% of patients,"


Environmental Stability of HCV Virus

Background Epidemiologic studies of Hepatitis C Virus have indicated that transmission among patients in health care settings is associated with contaminated vehicles such as multi-dose medication vials and re-used needles and syringes and among injecting drug users is associated with contaminated drug paraphernalia such as cookers and cotton.


Esophageal varices

Large collateral veins located in the submucosa of the esophagus and stomach, most prominent in the distal esophagus, connecting the portal vein with the superior vena cava. These veins result from chronic high pressure in the portal vein and are particularly prone to rupture with associated gastrointestinal bleeding and often exsanguinations and death. Bleeding from varices is the single most common cause of death in cirrhosis of the liver.


Estimating the Numbers of Heroin Users in the Act

Knowing the  number of heroin users in the ACT is essential for planning, monitoring and evaluating a trial to provide opioids to dependent users in a controlled fashion

117 kb pdf

Evaluation of environmental bacterial contamination and procedures to control cross infection in a sample of Italian dental surgeries Research has shown that infective hazards are present in dental practice, because many infections can be transmitted by blood or saliva through direct or indirect contact, droplets, aerosols, or contaminated instruments and equipment. All dental personnel are at risk, including dentists, nurses, and hygienists, who may transmit infectious diseases to patients by the use of contaminated dental instruments or hands. This microbial cross contamination is particularly dangerous when considering immunodeficient patients  

European Journal of Dermatology

A 75-year-old woman was hospitalized for fatigue and a biological inflammatory syndrome. Her medical history included hepatitis C virus infection discovered six months prior to hospitalization, the means of transmission of which were not clearly apparent.


Fatigue and Liver Disease

Fatigue as a symptom which is commonly observed in patients seen in the clinic with chronic viral hepatitis, and fatigue can be incapacitating in some patients. However, the rigorous examination of fatigue as a symptom in viral hepatitis has only recently received scientific scrutiny.


FDA recommends approval of Hep B drug

FDA advisory committee unanimously recommends approval for Gilead Sciences drug adefovir for hepatitis B


Fibrosis to Cirrhosis

To clarify the characteristics of fibrosis developed in the process from chronic hepatitis C to cirrhosis, a morphometric analysis of liver biopsy samples was conducted on 25 chronic hepatitis C patients and 20 chronic hepatitis B patients (controls). Hepatitis C patients were followed up for 3 to 23 years




"Discrimination against people with hepatitis C is often motivated by stereotyped responses towards people on the basis of past, current or assumed injecting drug use. The evidence to this Enquiry clearly demonstrated that hepatitis C related discrimination is rife. It is often the result of an inadequate understanding of the transmissibility of hepatitis C, driven by irrational fears about hepatitis C infection." Pdf 479 kb
Guidance for the prevention, testing, treatment and management of hepatitis C in primary care Who is the guidance for? - This guidance is aimed at all general practitioners, practice nurses and other clinicians working in primary care. Also for all clinicians and others involved in the care of drug using patients. It has been developed specifically to increase knowledge about HCV, increase testing, prevention, referral for treatment and support the management of chronic hepatitis C in primary care. Pdf 727 kb
Health of America's Newcomers Newcomer health and health care are policy issues with major outcomes of cost shifting and enormous consequences for newcomers and the community health nurses who promise them care  
Hepatitis B, and prejudice, ravage a nation And even though the virus is impossible to transmit by casual contact and the government has repeatedly pledged to protect them, the carriers suffer from rampant discrimination. They are routinely fired from their jobs or forced out of universities or segregated in separate dormitories. Even kindergartens have sometimes barred them.  
Hepatitis C – a relationship with stigma PowerPoint Presentation 116 kb
Hepatitis C: An Overview: USA Public Health Response Power Point Presentation 5542 kb
Hepatitis C: Choices Homeopathy is a nontoxic form of medicine that was developed approximately 200 years ago by Dr. Samuel Hahnemann. The word homeopathy is derived from two words: homoios meaning similars and pathos meaning suffering. Homeopathy is a form of medicine that uses highly diluted pathogens or other potentially toxic substances as remedies. These remedies provoke healing responses in a person’s immune system, or provoke other body responses to treat the root causes of illnesses.  
HEPATITIS C is proving to be an occupational hazard for healthcare workers in India. In this study, the overall prevalence was found to be 4 per cent in the hospital. The prevalence was found high in haemodialysis units (8.33 per cent), blood banks ( 5.56 per cent) and haemodialysis laboratories ( 4 per cent). None of the subjects, however, were found positive in dental units and biochemical and other laboratories  
Hepatitis C…Overcoming the Barriers Presentation concerning HCV 534 kb pdf
Hepatitis C plagues mentally ill at rate 10 times national average Although the virus is found in about 1.8 percent of Americans, it infects almost 20 percent of those with severe mental illness, research suggests. That's because people with mental illness or substance abuse problems are exposed to some key risks for the blood-borne virus.  
Hepatitis C poses threat of big crisis "This is just the start of a tidal wave that is going to hit in 2015 to 2020," said Dr. Alain Litwin, an infectious-disease expert from Albert Einstein School of Medicine in the Bronx. Litwin and other doctors said they know an epidemic is in the making because hepatitis C is being diagnosed with increasing frequency, and is the No. 1 opportunistic infection causing death in people with AIDS throughout the city.  
Hepatitis C rate 'will soar' Hepatitis C Council of South Australia acting manager Kerry Patterson said yesterday "we need to take control and remove the barriers to accessing treatment". Every week, about 200 people are diagnosed with the virus in Australia. A national report, released yesterday, shows 17,200 South Australians have been exposed to hepatitis C, with 630 estimated to have been exposed last year. The current rate of infection in SA is 1.5 per cent of the population.  
Hepatitis C– Show me the numbers! Power Point Presentation Pdf 657
Hepatitis C: The Hidden Epidemic But there's no sure cure and no vaccine, and most people who get HCV remain carriers. Moreover, there's no way to predict whose infection will flare into a life-threatening liver disease and whose will simmer for decades. This year an estimated 10,000 to 12,000 people will die of hepatitis C. In June 2002 a National Institutes of Health panel predicted that this annual figure will triple in the next two decades unless a way is found to effectively treat or prevent the insidious disease, which has already created a health care burden of hundreds of millions of dollars a year.  

Hepatitis C-To Treat or Not to Treat? who should be treated

The difficult question of if and when to treat those infected with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) can be evaluated from a myriad of perspectives, including public health concerns, risk/benefit in corrections, legal issues, ethical issues, and personal physician-patient responsibility


Hepatitis C among predictors for Kidney Problems

Researchers have cited hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus) co-infection as well as several other factors for causing proteinuria and kidney failure in women infected with HIV, in a study published in the January 2002 issue of Kidney International


Hepatitis C and Complementary and Alternative Medicine: 2003 Update



Hepatitis C is a disease of the liver that is caused by the hepatitis C virus. The disease occurs in acute and chronic forms; symptoms can range from mild (or even no symptoms) to severe. There are conventional medical treatments available for hepatitis C, but some patients also try complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This Research Report answers some frequently asked questions on hepatitis C and CAM, reviews findings from scientific research on some dietary supplements that have been used as CAM treatments for hepatitis C (milk thistle, licorice root, ginseng, thymus extract, schisandra, and colloidal silver), and suggests sources for further information  

Hepatitis C and diabetes: two rising epidemics

An association between HCV infection and Diabetes Mellitus has been observed since a 1994 study by Allison and colleagues. In this study of 100 patients with cirrhosis, 50% of those with hepatitis C-related cirrhosis had diabetes, compared with only 9% of patients with cirrhosis unrelated to hepatitis C.


Hepatitis C diagnoses rise; health cost concerns spread

More patients with the hepatitis C virus, the leading cause of liver failure in the United States, are turning up in doctors offices across Metro Detroit with liver damage - a phenomenon likely to drive up health care costs over the next decade. The problem is not that the virus is spreading but that more people are finding out they're infected. The majority of people with hepatitis C - an estimated 4 million nationwide - don't know they have it. An estimated 180,000 Michigan residents are unknowingly infected with the virus, state data shows.


Hepatitis C in HIV-infected Individuals The presence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increases morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected patients and increases the risk of hepatotoxicity secondary to anti-retroviral medications. HCV, the newest opportunistic infection, should be treated with the hope of decreasing these adverse outcomes. As in immunocompetent patients, interferon-α monotherapy appears to be less effective than combination therapy in achieving a complete virologic response and should be abandoned for newer modalities. At present, though data is scarce, combination therapy using -interferon-α with ribavirin appears to be the most efficacious approach to treat this population. Patients are usually treated for 12 months with interferon/ribavirin combination therapy, though 18 months of therapy may be given to patients at greater risk of treatment failure. Pdf 161 kb
Hepatitis C—Fact Sheet Lists of conditions, statistics and trends from the Center for Disease Control 91 kb pdf

Hepatitis C symptoms-imagined or real


What is it about hepatitis C that makes so many of us complain about symptoms such as fatigue, nausea, body aches and pains, loss of appetite, and mood swings?  Are they real or imagined?

16 kb pdf

Hepatitis C-Silent Epidemic, must public Health respond


Report from congress committee on Hepatitis C Virus in the USA

6,043 kb pdf

Hepatitis C Symptom Emergencies

The side effects associated with medications for hepatitis C treatment can cause a range of side effects, from mild to severe and life threatening. In this article we review some of the most serious side effects, those that may require immediate medical attention.


Hepatitis C – The Next Psychiatric Epidemic?

If the AIDS epidemic has taught us anything, it is that there’s more to behavior than simple cognitive choice. Most people in the United States have been informed how to prevent contracting HIV. So who is still getting HIV? Many are people who are vulnerable to risky behaviors because of psychiatric illness. Who are they getting it from? HIV infected persons who are vulnerable to spread the virus, many because of psychiatric illnesses


Hepatitis C-overview of recent therapeutic advances

Hepatitis C used to be called Non A Non B hepatitis in the early 1970s because we had blood tests for Hepatitis A and B so anything left over was Non A Non B. The cause of most of these jaundice cases was found in 1989 and was called Hepatitis C virus or Hepatitis C Virus. When blood is passed from person to person, even in the minutest quantities. Hepatitis C Virus can be passed


Hepatitis C virus replication seen in patients with apparent viral clearance Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can persist and replicate in the livers of patients who have apparently cleared the virus from their blood after antiviral therapy, according to a report in the November 15th issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases.  
Hepatitis C virus-infected patients (41%) report communication problems with physicians "...The current study demonstrated that more than one-third of patients diagnosed with HCV infection perceived interaction difficulties with physicians. Nearly one-half of the patients with conflict reported being misdiagnosed or inadequately treated and questioned the competence of their physicians. In addition, patients perceived negative attitudes and a feeling of disrespect from their physicians. This led to a feeling of being stigmatized, mistreated, or abandoned in more than one-fifth of those reporting such difficult interactions....."  

Hepatitis C Virus Might Induce Fibromyalgia


A Portland Oregon study suggests hepatitis C may trigger fibromyalgia. The study is the first to show a link between the two illnesses. Fibromyalgia often arises after a traumatic event or an illness. Several infections have previously been proposed as potential inciters of fibromyalgia, including Lyme disease and the human herpes virus-6.  
Hepatitis C: waiting for the Grim Reaper Until the controversial Grim Reaper campaign alerted Australians to the seriousness of its newly recognised AIDS epidemic, citizens of the Lucky Country were complacent about infections. Fortunately, the HIV epidemic has been stabilised among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Australia by a harm reduction/public health approach to intravenous drug use. Now we have evidence of another important viral epidemic -- hepatitis C. Despite it being arguably the commonest life-threatening infection in Australia, alarm bells have not yet been rung for hepatitis C.  

Hepatitis cases in Boston surge

Hepatitis C cases soared by 300 percent in Boston during the past four years, mirroring state and national trends, the city's Public Health Commission reported yesterday.


Hepatitis: What Is It? Hepatitis is the term used to describe a nonspecific inflammation of the liver. The causes of hepatitis can be many, such as viral, parasitic, infiltrative, drug or alcohol induced, or non-specific. The initial clinical presentation of the acute phase of hepatitis may range from asymptomatic (without any noticeable signs) to severe fatigue, jaundice (yellow looking eyes or skin), nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.  
History of posttransfusion hepatitis The risk of hepatitis virus transmission from transfusions has declined dramatically from that of the 1940s when posttransfusion hepatitis (PTH) was first appreciated. Introduction of hepatitis B surface antigen screening and conversion to volunteer donors for whole-blood donations in the late 1960s and early 1970s led to substantial reduction in PTH cases. However, up to 10% of the recipients continued to develop PTH, most cases of which were attributed to an unknown non-A, non-B viral agent.  
HIV, Hepatitis-B, Hepatitis-C: Blood-borne Diseases

Nurses constantly balance occupational risks with their primary goal of providing quality health care to all persons. Because threats to personal well-being may affect practice, nurses must promote a safe and healthy work environment to protect themselves, their loved ones, patients, and coworkers.

As front-line providers of health care, nurses have long been exposed to blood-borne pathogens on the job. The AIDS epidemic has heightened awareness of this and has broadened our knowledge of other bloodborne diseases, notably hepatitis-B (HBV) and hepatitis-C (HCV).


HIV lessons used in Hepatitis C treatment

Now drug companies are beginning to test the first similar drugs for the hepatitis C virus, which can cause fatal liver disease and has infected far more people than H.I.V.




In promoting the health and well being of the members of the community, it is the policy of the University to take appropriate steps to minimise the risk of transmission of infectious diseases such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis.  The University is also committed to supporting and protecting staff and students living with HIV/AIDS and hepatitis from harassment or discrimination.  

Ibuprofen speeds Hepatitis C into Cirrhosis

Patients with chronic hepatitis C often take the over-the-counter non-steroidal drug Ibuprofen (otherwise known as Motrin or Advil) to combat the joint pain that often accompanies the disease. But even a low dose could lead to unsuspected liver damage.


Illegal Drug Users Need/Deserve Treatment for Hepatitis C

University of California-San Francisco (UCSF) researchers are recommending that illicit drug users should be eligible to receive treatment for the hepatitis C virus.


In a first, USC scientists show how Hepatitis C dodges medicinal firepower “Hepatitis C is a ticking time bomb…It creates tremendous social and health pressure, and is one of the most important infectious diseases in this country.” 175 kb pdf

Impact of a positive hepatitis C diagnosis on homeless injecting drug users: a qualitative study


Increasing numbers of injecting drug users are presenting to primary care and a growing number of general practices are specifically providing care for homeless people. Injecting drug users are at the greatest risk of hepatitis C infection and homeless drug misusers, because of their drug-taking behaviour and patterns, have been identified as being at greater risk of harm of blood-borne diseases than the general population. However, little work has been conducted with injecting drug users or homeless people who have hepatitis C and little is known about how the virus may affect them.  

Increasing Awareness about Hepatitis C


While education and awareness raising among injectors was seen to be important, respondents felt that the main priority in terms of prevention should be on reducing the re-using and sharing of injecting equipment. However, respondents pointed to variation and inequity in existing service provision across Scotland and called for action to establish standards for needle exchange services, as well as action to improve the accountability of NHS Boards in relation to the planning and delivery of these services. The view was expressed that the distribution of sterile injecting paraphernalia (swabs, citric acid, filters, etc.) should be routine in all needle exchange services.  
Job-related hepatitis C infections are hard to prove Many people with hepatitis C suffer from a double whammy: They have a potentially deadly virus, which can simmer undetected for decades - and that makes it hard for them to prove how they got it. As a result, veterans, health-care workers, firefighters and others who think they got hepatitis C by being exposed to blood on the job can't easily trace it.  


** In order to view PDF files, you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader installed on your computer. Many computers already have this software; however, if you need it, a free copy is available for download at this site: Click here to get Adobe Acrobat Reader.