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“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”



Main topics can be found within the left column; sub-topics and/or research reports can be found near the bottom of this page.  Thank you


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Document Name & Link to Document


File Size

AIDS surveillance in Europe-English & French European case definition for AIDS surveillance in Children-revision 1995 in both English and French 3,319 kb pdf

Best Practices in Monitoring & Evaluation-Turkey

The USAID Turkey M&E plan utilized a variety of data sources, including national population-based surveys; administrative, service and financial statistics, self-administered assessments for NGOs and questionnaires

Pdf 202 kb

Burkina Faso Suivi et evaluation des programmes nationaux be lutte contre le sida: examen de l’experience du Burkina fasc, 1987-1998 194 kb pdf
Chronische Hepatitis C und Methadonsubstitution Adobe presentation 65 kb pdf
Comunicacion en Salud: Lecciones Aprendidas y Desafios en el Desarrollo Curricular Comunicacion en Salud: Lecciones Aprendidas y Desafios en el Desarrollo Curricular 510 kb pdf

Eastern Europe-assessing impact

Since 1989 the countries of Eastern Europe have undergone a period of unparalleled change…it is not all certain that the majority of citizens would regard this as ‘reform’.

Pdf 71 kb

El Cambio del Comportanmiento en la Practica Power point presentation 1,463 kb
Encuesta Nicaraguense de Servicios de la Comunidad ENCO 2001 El objetivo general es obtener una base de datos que permita brindar informacion sobre las caracteristicas basicas y la disponibilidad de servicios publicos en los segmentos censales incluidos en la muestra de la Encuesta Nicaraguense de Demografia y Salud 230 kb pdf


Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health problem and cause of infectious disease mortality worldwide.


Estudio formative para obtener-Analisis de Las informaciones recopiladas en la tercera ronda de entrevistas a los hogares Este infore de investigacion corresponde a la tercera ronda del studio formative cuya finalidad es obtener una serie de insumos que permitan il diseno de una estrategia comunitaria de lucha contra el dengue en la Republica Dominicana 457 kb pdf
Etude sur les utilisateurs-l’information et de la communication sur la traite des etres humains aux fins d’exploitation sexuelle La traite des femmes et des enfants aux fins d’exploitation sexuelle est un probleme de droits de l’homme qui se pose au niveau mondial. 622 kb pdf
Europe’s Untouchables: Roma Sex Work after Communism In this research project, it will examine the phenomenon of Roma (Gypsy) sex work in the countries of East Central Europe following the collapse of communism Pdf 204 kb
Evaluation of environmental bacterial contamination and procedures to control cross infection in a sample of Italian dental surgeries Research has shown that infective hazards are present in dental practice, because many infections can be transmitted by blood or saliva through direct or indirect contact, droplets, aerosols, or contaminated instruments and equipment. All dental personnel are at risk, including dentists, nurses, and hygienists, who may transmit infectious diseases to patients by the use of contaminated dental instruments or hands. This microbial cross contamination is particularly dangerous when considering immunodeficient patients  
Europap 2000-2002: Training and evaluation, policy, infection risks
To support and develop interventions to reduce HIV, STD and 
other communicable diseases in prostitution by maintaining and 
further developing the unique European-wide network of projects
for the exchange of information and experience
110 kb pdf
European framework to decrease the burden of TB/HIV Tuberculosis in Europe is declining in countries in western and central Europe, but the burden is still high and increasing in eastern Europe.  HIV/AIDS is increasing dramatically in eastern Europe.  HIV-related tuberculosis morbidity and mortality are expected to accelerate significantly in the future 298 kb pdf
Evaluacion de la Calidad de Registros de. Se requieren mejores herramientas y metodos para efectuar el monitoreo del progreso de la salud maternal y neonatal.  Los indicadores basados en la poblacian y utilizados por la mayoria de paises resultan inapropiados. 660 kb pdf

European Journal of Dermatology

Cutaneous sarcoidosis, Sjögren's syndrome and autoimmune thyroiditis associated with hepatitis C virus infection


Expanding Access to Opioid Substitution Therapy for Injecting Drug Users in Eastern Europe and Central Asia The dual epidemics of HIV and IDU pose a public health emergency, associated with physical, mental and social harm. This is compounded by morbidity and mortality created by other public health consequences of injecting drug use including blood-borne viral infections like hepatitis B and C, tuberculosis and other infectious diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, negative impacts on reproductive health, mental health disorders, increased crime and social dysfunction. Pdf 136 kb
Finnish Male Clients and Russian and Baltic Prostitution This papers aim to approach the subject of prostitution by discussing the ways Finnish buyers of sex reproduce masculinity and ethnicity as well as related gendered power expressions. More than trying to uncover the reasons for the men’s practices, the author is interested in how the men buying sex experience a prostitution encounter and how this is interrelated with their ‘other life’ and surroundings. Pdf 195 kb
Hepatitis C: Historia natural y estado actual de su manejo A poco mas de diez anos de su descubrimiento en 1989 y de su ubicacion con respecto a la hepatitis no-A no-B, en Mexico existen relativamente pocos articulos que evaluen la historia natural del virus de la hepatitis C en las que se incluyan: virologia, epidemiologia, factores de riesgo, clinica y autoinmuniidad, deteccion de anti VHC, aminotransferasas, deteccion del virus, pronostico, stratamiento y pre-cauciones universals. 263 kb pdf

Hepatitis spread in Romania due to nurses' practices

Romanian nurses' failure to use proper injection and infection-control techniques could explain many cases of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among young children in that country, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia.


HIV in central and eastern Europe We describe recent trends in the HIV epidemic and the differences between eastern and central Europe, using surveillance data, and published and unpublished reports. During the past 5 years, most countries of the former Soviet Union have been severely affected by HIV epidemics that continue to spread as a result of injecting drug use. With an estimated 1 million individuals already infected—mostly injecting drug users—and high rates of syphilis, the region may soon also face a large-scale epidemic of sexually-transmitted HIV infection. Indeed, data indicate that an HIV epidemic, fuelled by heterosexual transmission, is emerging; its expansion will depend on the size of so-called bridge populations that link high-risk groups with the general population. The lack of evidence to indicate increased rates of HIV as a result of homosexual transmission could indicate the social vulnerability of homosexual and bisexual men in the region rather than the true epidemiological picture. In view of the current levels of HIV prevalence, eastern Europe will soon be confronted with a major AIDS epidemic. By contrast, rates of HIV in central Europe remain low at present, but behaviours that promote HIV transmission are present in all countries. Improved measures to prevent further HIV spread are urgently needed. Pdf 196 kb

HIV prevalence in the Blood Supply-Europe

Power Point Presentation  
HIV/AIDS in Hungary In Hungary today, drug users share needles and gay men have unsafe sex…but the reported number of HIV/AIDS cases is still very low.  It seems that Hungary has simply been, so far, ‘geographically’ protected from the HIV epidemic while it has been spreading across Europe. 361 kb pdf

Hungary curbs drug company advertising

"The era of uncontrolled drug advertising, unsupervised vaccine programmes, leaflets promoting pharmacies, and medications jamming mailboxes is over,"


L'impact de I'utilisation des nouvelles technologies de communication et d'information sur la traite des etres humains aux fins d'exploitation sexuell  Role des agencies matrimoniales dans la traite des femmes et Trafic d’images d’exploitation sexuelle 415 kb pdf
Les risques de transmission virale dans le cabinet dentaire Outre les pathogènes à diffusion hématogène (PDH) — virus de l’immunodéficience humaine (VIH) et virus des hépatites B et C (VHB et VHC) — d’autres virus soulèvent l’inquiétude dans le cabinet dentaire, notamment : les virus de la rubéole, des oreillons et de la rougeole; les virus herpétiques (herpes simplex [HSV] de types 1 et 2, le virus varicelle-zona, le virus Epstein-Barr [EBV], le cytomegalovirus et le virus herpétique humain 6); les papillomavirus; l’adénovirus; les virus Coxsackie; et les virus des voies respiratoires supérieures (virus grippaux A et B, parvovirus B19 et virus respiratoire syncytial). La prévalence de la plupart de ces virus est de loin supérieure à celle des PDH, et beaucoup posent un risque particulier pour la femme enceinte non vaccinée1 et le patient immunodéprimé2. La vaccination des travailleurs de la santé non immunisés est recommandée afin de réduire les risques de contracter la rougeole, les oreillons, la rubéole, la polio, la grippe, le varicelle-zona et le VHB3. Le vaccin contre le varicelle-zona, récemment commercialisé, est fortement recommandé pour ceux qui doivent traiter des enfants et des patients immunodéprimés  
Mapa de competencies de la comunicacion para el desarrollo y el cambio social Conocimientos, habilidades y actitudes en accion 520 kb pdf
Nationalism, Sexuality, and the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Modern Greece This examination of the HIV/AIDS situation in Greece focuses on the administrative policy of the state and its relationship to the public conception of the disease.  This paper incorporates a holistic perspective that considers the country’s unique geographical, political, and cultural position and extends beyond health statistics to consider how conceptions of sexuality and nationality have influenced and been influenced by the relatively recent epidemic  

Opioid Substitution Therapy in Selected Countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Until the mid-1990s, opioid use was rare in the post-Soviet countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Opium-based drugs were generally homemade concoctions prepared from the opium poppy, usually injected intravenously. Some users used medical opioids, most commonly morphine, omnipon and codeine. Between 1995 and 1997 the black market was flooded with cheaper heroin, making it available to many lower-income youth. Opioid users now represent 80-90% of the registered drug users seeking medical care. Pdf 183 kb
Opioid Substitution Therapy: The missing link to curbing HIV in Eastern Europe and Central Asia An estimated 3.7 million people in EECA inject drugs, the vast majority of whom are dependent on heroin or related opioid drugs. This is close to four times higher than the overall prevalence of injecting drug use (IDU) worldwide. Sixty-two percent of the HIV epidemic in this region is attributable to injecting drug use; over 35% of HIV positive women were infected through sharing of contaminated injecting equipment; and another 50% of women living with HIV were infected via unprotected sex with an infected IDU  

Orphan drugs need foster parents

European pharmaceutical companies need to guarantee commercial returns from the new drugs they develop - so tough luck if you suffer from a rare illness or live in a developing country. But experience in the USA, Japan and Australia shows 'orphan' drugs can be profitable.


Portugal Debates setting up Heroin injecting rooms

A recently released government report recommends Portugal set up heroin injection rooms in prisons, where widespread drug use is leading to rising HIV rates among the nation's 14,000 inmates. Nearly one in two Portuguese prisoners uses drugs and of those who do, 26.8 percent use injecting drugs like heroin, said the report.


Portugal-HIV medicine 2003

HIV Medicine is an ever-changing field.  The authors have made every effort to provide information that is accurate and complete as of the data of publication


Portugal-setting up heroin injecting rooms in prison A recently released government report recommends Portugal set up heroin injection rooms in prisons, where widespread drug use is leading to rising HIV rates among the nation's 14,000 inmates  
Reproductive & Child Health Programs. The Moroccan health system still has numerous challenges in maternal and child health.  One of the major challenges is to correct inequality of care and health care coverage 1481 kb pdf


The PHS system for HIV/AIDS infection developed in parallel with increased possibilities of clinical confirmation at country and national reference laboratories

Pdf 1,440 kb

Romanians Dangerously Stuck on Syringes

The country that gave us Count Dracula has a real-life enchantment with inserting sharp objects into the skin. Officials find this unhealthful, even if a goodly number of Romanians think it's for their own good.


Structural Collapse Sets the Scene for the Rapid Spread of HIV/AIDS Among Young People in Eastern Europe

Children and young people in Eastern Europe and Central Asia are increasingly sharing drug-injecting equipment and engaging in unprotected commercial sex as early as 12 years of age. With the economy in many countries continuing to crumble and with unemployment rates soaring, the young are increasingly relying on alternative sources of economic and emotional sustenance.


Surveillance of infectious diseases in IDUs across the EU: information from the EU expert network Prevalence of HCV in injecting drug users (IDUs) is high overall in the European Union (30-90%), but may be slowly declining, while HIV shows marked variation in prevalence (1-30%) and trends between countries (5). However, high prevalence in new and young injectors demonstrates recently recent transmission (Figures 1-3) and increases in HIV and HCV prevalence or incidence are again reported in several areas, including some where prevalence was historically low (5,6,8). Absolute numbers are also large, as IDUs may constitute up to a half percent of the adult population in the EU  
Teenagers’ Sexual Behavior in Sweden, Europe Exploring sexuality and experimentation is a normal behavior in adolescence. The results of this study, however, indicate that there are substantial groups of teenagers who practice sexual risk-taking. In addition to general sexual education, programs should also be directed to define sexual risks and its consequences. Pdf 98 kb

The changing face of the HIV epidemic in western Europe: what are the implications for public health policies?

In this review, we describe changes in dynamics of HIV transmission and shifts in affected populations in western Europe using HIV/AIDS surveillance data and published and unpublished reports. Despite substantial reductions in HIV-related morbidity and mortality since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral treatment, HIV continues to pose a major public health problem in western Europe. More than half a million people are living with an infection that remains incurable and requires costly lifelong treatment; many people remain unaware of their infection, and thousands of new infections continue to occur every year. Migrants from countries with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, notably sub-Saharan Africa, bear a disproportionate and increasing share of HIV throughout western Europe and, in most countries, account for the majority of heterosexually acquired HIV infections diagnosed in recent years. Prevention, treatment, and care must be adapted to reach migrant populations. Following a resurgence of risky sexual behaviour, HIV transmission may now be increasing among homosexual and bisexual men, and renewed safer sex campaigns are urgently needed. Pdf 310 kb

The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the European Union

Power point presentation


The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the WHO European Region-HIV testing rates

Power point presentation


The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the WHO European Region-HIV prevalence among patients with sexually transmitted infections and STI clinic attendees

Power Point Presentation


The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the WHO European Region-HIV prevalence among sex workers

Power point presentation


The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the WHO European Region-HIV testing rates

Power point presentation


Tokoh Agama Jangan Mengisolasi Pengidap HIV/AIDS
Tokoh agama jangan mengisolasi dan mengambil garis hitam terhadap 
pengidap HIV/AIDS. Agama, melalui para tokoh agama, bertanggung 
jawab mempersiapkan umatnya menghadapi HIV/AIDS. Untuk itu, 
mereka perlu membuka dan menambah wawasan tentang HIV/AIDS.
Transnational AIDS/STD Prevention Among Migrant Prostitutes in Europe Migrant prostitution is by definition a transnational phenomenon.  For health promotion programmes with a goal to reach this target group in Europe, it is therefore vital to establish cooperation across Europe 673 kb pdf
UNGASS: MONITORING CIVIL SOCIETY PERSPECTIVES-LATVIA Key successes of the programme include free provision of ARVs to PLWHAs, improved access to HIV testing and delivery of focused prevention programmes for IDUs, e.g. needle exchange programmes. As a result, based on official data of newly-registered people with HIV infection (AIDS Prevention Centre, 2005a), it appears that the rate of new infections in Latvia has slowed since 2002. However, there could be other explanations for these findings and these findings need to be confirmed from other data, e.g. from bio-behavioral surveys among vulnerable populations.  

Values and social representations of HIV/AIDS in Central and Eastern Europe: A multi-method investigation in five nations Part 1 

(Large report-increased download time)

 The HIV/AIDS epidemic is a relatively recent phenomenon in Eastern Europe, only beginning in the early 1990s. However, WHO AIDS surveillance figures indicate a rapid growth in both HIV and AIDS in Central and Eastern Europe over the past five years (European Centre for Epidemiological Monitoring of AIDS in Europe, 1999). Between 1995 and 1997 the former socialist economies of Eastern Europe and Central Asia saw HIV infection rates rise six-fold


Values and social representations of HIV/AIDS in Central and Eastern Europe: A multi-method investigation in five nations Part 2 

(Large report-increased download time)

The HIV/AIDS epidemic is a relatively recent phenomenon in Eastern Europe, only beginning in the early 1990s. However, WHO AIDS surveillance figures indicate a rapid growth in both HIV and AIDS in Central and Eastern Europe over the past five years (European Centre for Epidemiological Monitoring of AIDS in Europe, 1999). Between 1995 and 1997 the former socialist economies of Eastern Europe and Central Asia saw HIV infection rates rise six-fold    
XXth EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON PHILOSOPHY OF MEDICINE AND HEATLH CARE “Medicine, philosophy and the humanities” Organised by The European Society for Philosophy of Medicine and Healthcare (ESPMH) and the Finnish Society for Philosophy of Medicine.  
Young People and Sexual Exploitation: a European Issue The last decade has seen an increasing awareness of the need for practitioners from social work and other related child case professions to respond to the diverse range of problems and issues facing young people exploited through prostitution. 124 kb pdf


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