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“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”


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Main topics can be found within the left column; sub-topics and/or research reports can be found near the bottom of this page.  Thank you


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1999 World AIDS Campaign with Children and Young People - Challenges for Latin America and the Caribbean

It is tragic that HIV should single out a youthful and otherwise relatively healthy population group. But it is hardly a coincidence, given the daily circumstances of many young people’s lives. As we have learnt from two decades of experience with this epidemic, the path of HIV is eased by poverty, lack of skills, violence, and harmful social norms such as machismo and early sexual debut.


Agriculture and HIV/AIDS

This can be explained by the fact that the objective was to demonstrate to a reluctant agriculture sector that HIV/AIDS was having an impact on agriculture production, food security and rural development. It is now time to go beyond this kind of demonstration and explore possible ways in which the agricultural sector can contribute to preventing and mitigating the HIV/AIDS epidemics


Aids activists lose patience with allies

The group says it chose direct action after its message had fallen on deaf ears at many demonstrations, protests and pickets.


Aids Activists to Launch Protest

South African Aids activists said yesterday they would start a nation-wide civil disobedience campaign to try to force the government to provide life-prolonging anti-retroviral drugs.


AIDS and Democracy: What do we know?

It is essential to note from the outset the paucity of substantive data and primary research on the topic of HIV/AIDS and democracy

94 kb pdf

AIDS and Development: The Role of Government Power Point Presentation 1477 kb

AIDS economic hit underestimated

Scholars have seriously underestimated the economic impact of HIV and AIDS, which could cause economies in the worst-hit nations to collapse in two generations unless countries take urgent steps to fight the disease, according to a World Bank study released yesterday.


AIDS funding Cuts The House Appropriations Committee is considering $1.77 billion in cuts to the foreign aid portion of the fiscal year 2004 budget, which could affect funding for the president's global AIDS initiative,  
AIDS in Prisons Presentation by K. C. Goyer 21 kb pdf

AIDS Impact Model (AIM) Approach

Building political Commitment for Effective HIV/AIDS Policies and Programs

774 kb pdf

AIDS orphans "to double"

The number of children orphaned by Aids will almost double to 25m by the end of the decade, experts predict.


AIDS Surveillance in the Americas AIDS Surveillance in the Americas as of 2001.  The goal of PAHO’s Regional Program on HIV/AIDS and STIs is to promote, design, and facilitate technical activities and policies to improve the capacity of Member States to reduce the number of future infections and to provide timely and adequate care for people living with HIV/AIDS/STI. 276 kb pdf

AIDS takes an Economic & Social Toll

In Southern Africa, as elsewhere in the continent, the AIDS epidemic is not just a health crisis. It is also "a major threat to development and to human society,"


Aids to Hit Workforce in '03

South Africa's economy will be hard hit in 2003 as hundreds of thousands of HIV-infected workers develop full-blown Aids, and few companies have prepared for this.


AIDS, Hunger, Terror Threaten the World Security

Even as the world gears up for another major world conflict the UN says world security is threatened not only by the crises currently dominating the headlines but by AIDS, hunger and the "dreams of obscure vengeance" from political terrorists "whose only achievements are the sudden screams of innocent people."


AIDS-CIA stats on number of people infected

CIA report


Allocating HIV-Prevention Resources: Balancing Efficiency and Equity

The primary goal of HIV prevention is to prevent as many infections as possible. This requires allocating HIV-prevention resources according to cost effectiveness principles: those activities that prevent more infections per dollar are favored over those that prevent fewer.


Allocating HIV-Prevention Resources The primary goal of HIV prevention is to prevent as many infections as possible. This requires allocating HIV-prevention resources according to cost effectiveness principles: those activities that prevent more infections per dollar are favored over those that prevent fewer.  96 kb pdf
An Introduction to HIV/AIDS

(Large report-increased down-load time)

The possible responses to the epidemic are well documented. Risk of sexual transmission can be reduced by use of condoms and/or cutting down on numbers of partners and treating other sexually transmitted infections. Blood and blood products can be made safer through screening of donors and their blood. Drug users can be encouraged to sterilise or exchange needles. Work on developing means of reducing mother to child infection is underway. One of the crucial points that has to be made about the HIV/AIDS epidemic is that it is different from most other epidemics and diseases, and consequently requires a different and much broader response - one which must encompass far more than the health sector

Are Country Reputations for Good or Bad AIDS Leadership Deserved? Power Point Presentation 541 kb

ASSA AIDS and Demographic Models

(Large report-increased download time)

Although some actuarial or demographic background will be helpful in understanding the intricacies of the model’s construction, the model is designed to be useful to actuaries and non-actuaries alike. Users who have no need to make changes to the model and its assumptions, for example those who only want to use the output, may want to skip the detail in sections 3 and 5. Users who want to change the assumptions underlying the model must, however, read through this detail as their changes may otherwise have unintended effects.


Assess the Value of American Investment in Medical Research

How does a venture capitalist decide where to invest his money? He compares the potential for return against the risk, and when the return appears to be significant and the risk isn't too great, he invests.


At What Cost? HIV and Human Rights Consequences of the Global “War on Drugs”

(Large file-Increase download time)
While drug control policies have indeed been strengthened in many countries of the world, there is little evidence that they have succeeded in significantly reducing supply of illicit drugs or the numbers of people who use them. Abundantly evident, however—and now acknowledged by the Executive Director of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, as well as virtually every credible independent authority on the subject—is that drug control has had multiple, unintended negative consequences. Whether you are talking about Pakistan or Phnom Penh, Manipur or Moscow, the “war on drugs” has frequently devolved into a war on drug users, resulting in increased incarceration, human rights violations, and disease. Pdf 3068 kb

Best Practices in Monitoring & Evaluation-Turkey

The USAID Turkey M&E plan utilized a variety of data sources, including national population-based surveys; administrative, service and financial statistics, self-administered assessments for NGOs and questionnaires

Pdf 202 kb

Challenge of HIV/AIDS for Food Security and Nutrition

The connection between food availability and HIV/AIDS arises from the age cohort specific effects of a heterosexually transmitted infection whereby morbidity and mortality is concentrated in those age groups which would normally supply most of the labour needed in labour intensive agricultural systems.


Childcare and work: Joint decisions among women in poor neighborhoods of Guatemala City

Recognizing that mother’s work status may depend on the availability childcare, decisions to participate in the labor force and to use formal day care are modeled to allow for the possibility that they may be jointly determined

283 kb pdf

Containing Costs While Maintaining Quality

Methods that Insurance carriers use to reduce costs


Countries struggle with hepatitis C contamination. Examines how France, Germany, Australia, the United States and Great Britain are tackling hepatitis C contamination through blood and blood products. Screening of blood donations; Recipients of blood transfusions; Questions on legal responsibility; Compensation for patients; Intravenous drug use.  

Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS "Global Crisis — Global Action"

Deeply concerned that the global HIV/AIDS epidemic, through its devastating scale and impact, constitutes a global emergency and one of the most formidable challenges to human life and dignity, as well as to the effective enjoyment of human rights, which undermines social and economic development throughout the world and affects all levels of society — national, community, family and individual;


Democracy, Dictatorship and Infant Mortality

The effect of economic development in reducing hunger is widely know, but what is the effect of a country’s political regime on the basic welfare of its inhabitants

94 kb pdf

Eastern Europe-assessing impact

Since 1989 the countries of Eastern Europe have undergone a period of unparalleled change…it is not all certain that the majority of citizens would regard this as ‘reform’.

Pdf 71 kb

Economic Consequences of HIV in Russia

Results of AIDS in Russia

37 kb pdf

Economics of HIV/AIDS Impact Mitigation: Responding to Problems of Systemic Dysfunction and Sectoral Capacity

The adverse economic impact of HIV/AIDS is becoming increasingly evident. In high- prevalence countries the growth rates of gross domestic product are slowing down, the manpower losses in key sectors are mounting, the number of orphans is increasing and household poverty is deepening.

286 kb pdf

Endnotes Stigma

Diagram of effects of HIV/AIDS in Africa

51 kb pdf

Epidemics-Philippines This provisional report, coauthored by the MAP Manila Symposium participants and produced in some 24 hours, reflects a consensus of the analysis, determinations, projections and recommendations brought forward during the symposium. Its aim is to provide information that can be used by international as well as local bodies to briefly review the most important aspects of the history of the HIV/AIDS epidemics in the Asia-Pacific region to date, recognize the current status of and trends within these epidemics, and take immediate action to affect the course of these epidemics in the future.  
Epidemiological Fact Sheet on HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections – 2000 Update Global Surveillance of HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections is a joint effort of WHO and UNAIDS…The primary objective of the working group is to strengthen national, regional and global structures and networks for improved monitoring and surveillance of HIV/AIDS and STIs. 410 kb pdf
Estudio formative para obtener-Analisis de Las informaciones recopiladas en la tercera ronda de entrevistas a los hogares Este infore de investigacion corresponde a la tercera ronda del studio formative cuya finalidad es obtener una serie de insumos que permitan il diseno de una estrategia comunitaria de lucha contra el dengue en la Republica Dominicana 457 kb pdf
Etude sur les utilisateurs-l’information et de la communication sur la traite des etres humains aux fins d’exploitation sexuelle La traite des femmes et des enfants aux fins d’exploitation sexuelle est un probleme de droits de l’homme qui se pose au niveau mondial. 622 kb pdf

GAO - Debt Management: Insights and Tools from Selected Nations

Report from the Government Accounting Office (GAO)

289 kb pdf

Gender Differences in the Timing of First Intercourse: Data from 14 Countries Early initiation of intercourse and the context within which sexual activity begins are key indicators of adolescents' potential risk for unplanned pregnancy, abortion and sexually transmitted diseases. Comparative information on the sexual behavior of male and female adolescents in different countries assists health planners and service providers in meeting adolescents' needs.  
Globalization and Disease: The Case of SARS’ The economic costs from a global disease such as SARS goes beyond its direct damages incurred in the affected sectors in the disease-infected countries.  This is not just because the disease spreads quickly across countries through networks related to global trade, but also any economic shock to one country is quickly spread to other countries through the increased trade and financial linkages associated with globalization 753 kb pdf
Globalization, Sex and profits-Are governments doing enough to prevent the global expansion of the sex industry Globalization has increased human interaction around the world due to technological advances and the diminishing significance of state and territory borders.  This increased interaction has required governments to cooperate more extensively than ever before to overcome some of the negative effects of globalization 154 kb pdf
Globalization, International Law, and Emerging Infectious Diseases The global nature of the threat posed by new and reemerging infectious diseases will require international cooperation in identifying, controlling, and preventing these diseases. Because of this need for international cooperation, international law will certainly play a role in the global strategy for the control of emerging diseases. Recognizing this fact, the World Health Organization has already proposed revising the International Health Regulations. This article examines some basic problems that the global campaign against emerging infectious diseases might face in applying international law to facilitate international cooperation. The international legal component of the global control strategy for these diseases needs careful attention because of problems inherent in international law, especially as it applies to emerging infections issues.  

Guidelines for preparation and execution of studies of the social and economic impact of HIV/AIDS.

A forthcoming study described by Keith Jefferis and Robert Greener about the impact of HIV/AIDS in Botswana incorporated some of the above concerns, including an examination of issues in rural areas, and a consideration of the impact of prevailing capital/labor ratios on future economic performance. The study will also examine the impact of HIV/AIDS on household-level issues of poverty and economic inequality. 


Guidelines for Preparation and Execution of Studies of the Social and Economic Impact of HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS is now widespread in much of the developing world. Because it results in exceptional levels of illness and death in the mature adult population it has many social and economic implications

193 kb pdf

High prevalence of HIV infection among youth in a South African mining town
is associated with HSV-2 seropositivity and sexual behaviour

In this study published in AIDS, the authors found an extremely high prevalence of HIV among young women (34%) and men (9%) aged 14-24 years from a township in the Carletonville district of South Africa. HIV prevalence among women aged 24 was 66%, one of the highest rates ever reported in a general population.


HIV-Related Stigma and Discrimination-the Epidemic Continues The article summarizes the present situation as described in reports from numerous countries throughout the world. It reviews the institutional, non-institutional, and structural dimensions of HIV-related discrimination. It also identifies some essential components of anti-discrimination efforts: legal protection; public, workplace, and health-care programs; community mobilization; and strategizing on the determinants of health.  

HIV and AIDS-related stigmatization, discrimination and denial: forms, contexts and determinants

From the moment scientists identified HIV/AIDS, social responses fo fear, denial, stigma and discrimination have accompanied the epidemic

198 kb pdf

HIV, AIDS, and the Changing Burden of Disease in Southern Africa: A brief note on the evidence and implications.

Even in the absence of long-term, comparable data, however, empirical evidence on burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa directly contradicts this claim. As the AIDS epidemic has matured, it has clearly had devastating and appreciable demographic and epidemiological effects


HIV Prevention is Achievable One reason why these countries have been successful is that they have formulated prevention policies on the basis of sound science. This has enabled them to combat the many myths that have characterized this pandemic. This includes the myth of complacency ("we won't / don't have the problem), the myth that condoms are not effective, that sex education in schools leads to youth having more sex, that syringe exchange programs increase drug use, that sexual behavior cannot be changed and that we need to wait for a vaccine before I-HV will be prevented (a vaccine will help, but all experts agree that it is at least a decade away).  

HIV/AIDS and Globalization - What is the epidemic telling us about economics, morality and pragmatism?

Disease epidemics have been related as both cause and effect to increasing integration of human economies, societies and cultures throughout history. It is well known that infectious disease is not equally distributed between different societies and different sections of the same society. This clear on a global scale where disparities in exposure to infection and access to public health provision and health care are acute.


HIV/AIDS and Globalization: What is the epidemic telling us about economics, morality and pragmatism?

It may not be possible to supply the former category of good though markers, depending on whether a relationship, which is the good, is provided through a market. For example a foster parent provides care and support, a parent provides love as well. Can money buy love, can you cost a cuddle?

48 kb pdf

HIV/Aids Awareness Programmes Increased

An international aid organisation in Ethiopia has announced it is stepping up HIV/AIDS awareness, as the country is gripped by drought, to ensure the virus does not further hamper relief efforts.


HIV/Aids Barometer - March 2003

Unsafe sex: The World Health Organisation (WHO) and UNAids have rejected claims that injections with reused needles are responsible for many cases of HIV infection in Africa.


HIV/AIDS has changed the world: Food insecurity and disease-what we need to know

It will require new agricultural techniques, appropriate to a depleted work force.

134 kb pdf

HIV/AIDS Impact Studies-Some progress Evident

Through a series of regression analyses… Bonned concludes that the effect of AIDS on GDP will be severe.

34 kb pdf

HIV/AIDS in Prison: Problems, Policies and Potential

Presentation about this issue

159 kb pdf

Hungary curbs drug company advertising

"The era of uncontrolled drug advertising, unsupervised vaccine programmes, leaflets promoting pharmacies, and medications jamming mailboxes is over,"


Income Diversification in Zimbabwe: Welfare implications from urban and rural areas

There are important differences in the level of diversification within the rural and urban areas, depending on wealth: while the relatively better-off households have a more diversified income base in rural areas, it is the poor that pursue multiple income sources in urban areas

297 pdf

Kazakh health workers jailed in HIV+ infants case A group of medical workers went on trial in the southern city of Shymkent in January on charges of criminal negligence for allowing the children to be infected, mainly through blood transfusions in hospitals. Campaigners accuse the oil-producing former Soviet state of doing too little to improve hospitals, raise medical standards and root out discrimination against HIV-positive patients.  

Low agro output Blamed on AIDS

AGRICULTURE and Cooperatives Minister Mundia Sikatana has attributed the low production levels in agriculture to the effects of the deadly HIV/AIDS pandemic which has ravaged the sector.



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