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Mortality Charts for the United States

Mortality Charts for the entire United States by: State, Year, Race, and Gender.


33% of HCV positive are in prisons, jails

An estimated one-third of the nearly four million people with documented hepatitis C pass through a correctional institution in a given year, putting corrections at the very epicenter of the nation's HCV epidemic


Adolescents and Young Adults: the Overlooked Core of Hepatitis C Virus

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Adverse Effects of US Jail and Prison Policies on the Health and Well-Being of Women of Color

Evidence of the negative impact of incarceration on the health of women of color suggests strategies to reduce these adverse effects. Correctional policies contribute to disparities in health between White women and women of color, providing a public health rationale for policy change.
 Specific roles for health professionals include becoming involved in alliances addressing alternatives to incarceration, creating programs that address the needs of women in correctional facilities, and identifying the pathways by which correctional policies damage health.


aid for AIDS

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AIDS Law Project of Pennsylvania Wins Case for Client Who Was Wrongfully Thrown Out of Personal Care Home Because She Has HIV

“We were able to prove by direct evidence that Kademanis medically and scientifically unsupported fears of contracting HIV motivated her to demand that G.D. be removed from the personal care home,” said Sarah Schalman-Bergen, of counsel to the AIDS Law Project of Pennsylvania and an associate at Berger & Montague, PC.

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An Unhealthy America: The Economic Burden of Chronic Disease Charting a New Course to Save Lives and Increase Productivity and Economic Growth

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More than half of Americans suffer from one or more chronic diseases. Each year millions of people are diagnosed with chronic disease, and millions more die from their condition. By our calculations, the most common chronic diseases are costing the economy more than $1 trillion annually— and that figure threatens to reach $6 trillion by the middle of the century. Yet much of this cost is avoidable. This failure to contain the containable is undermining prospects for extending health insurance coverage and for coping with the medical costs of an aging population. The rising rate of chronic disease is a crucial but frequently ignored contributor to growth in medical expenditures. pdf 4719 kb

Associated Health Costs - United States

The average lifetime cost for hepatitis C, in the absence of liver transplant, has been estimated to be about $100,000 for individual patients.


At Least 3 Percent of D.C. Residents Have HIV or AIDS, City Study Finds; Rate Up 22% From 2006

The District's report found a 22 percent increase in HIV and AIDS cases from the 12,428 reported at the end of 2006, touching every race and sex across population and neighborhoods, with an epidemic level in all but one of the eight wards. Black men, with an infection rate of nearly 7 percent, carry the weight of the disease, according to the report, which also underscores that the District's HIV and AIDS population is aging. Almost 1 in 10 residents between the ages of 40 and 49 has the virus.


CA study outcomes: HCV in the California Prisons & Reinfection in IDUs

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California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation

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This report concludes that Corrections fails to track, maintain, and use data that would allow it to more effectively monitor and manage its operations pdf 3456 kb

CDC fact sheet "Do you know about hepatitis C in the African American Community?"

While African Americans represent only 12% of the U.S. population, they make up about 22% of the chronic Hepatitis C cases. In fact, African Americans have a substantially higher rate of chronic Hepatitis C infection than do Caucasians and other ethnic groups.


Changing trends in hepatitis C-related mortality in the United States, 1995-2004

The disease burden and mortality from hepatitis C are predicted to increase in the United States as the number of persons with long-standing chronic infection grows. We analyzed hepatitis C mortality rates derived from US Census and multiple-cause-of-death data for 1995-2004. Deaths were considered hepatitis C–related if: (1) hepatitis C was the underlying cause of death, (2) chronic liver disease was the underlying cause and hepatitis C was a contributing cause, or (3) human immunodeficiency virus was the underlying cause and chronic liver disease and hepatitis C were contributing causes.

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Changing Trends in Hepatitis C–Related Mortality in the United States, 1995-2004

The disease burden and mortality from hepatitis C are predicted to increase in the United States as the number of persons with long-standing chronic infection grows. We analyzed hepatitis C mortality rates derived from US Census and multiple-cause-of-death data for 1995-2004. Deaths were considered hepatitis C-related if: (1) hepatitis C was the underlying cause of death, (2) chronic liver disease was the underlying cause and hepatitis C was a contributing cause, or (3) human immunodeficiency virus was the underlying cause and chronic liver disease and hepatitis C were contributing causes. A total of 56,409 hepatitis C-related deaths were identified.


Chronic Conditions in the U.S. Implications for Service Delivery and Financing

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Case status refers to whether or not the case meets the surveillance case definition as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE). Cases that do not meet the confirmed case definition may be reported with one of three other case statuses as defined by the NYSDOH, including probable, suspect or unknown. Cases may be entered in the registry with an unconfirmed case status and may be upgraded to a confirmed case status at any time as additional test results and/or clinical information become available for the case. The data in this report represents only those cases that meet the confirmed case status.

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Consequences of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV): Costs of a Baby Boomer Epidemic of Liver Disease

Baby boomers account for two out of every three cases of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the United States. As baby boomers infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) age, their disease may progress from asymptomatic infection to advanced liver disease. This population and disease progression dynamic will result in large financial ramifications throughout our health care system. Receiving treatment for HCV infection prior to the onset of severe complications can reduce long-term, life-threatening consequences. However, we estimate that only approximately 22% of those infected with HCV are diagnosed. With current treatment side effects, long treatment duration, and limited efficacy associated with current antiviral therapies, even fewer patients receive treatment.

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Traditionally, the experience of serious illness has been approached in two ways: (1) a gloomy perspective of resignation, self-denial, and helplessness, or (2) a Pollyanna approach that denies altogether that there has been a real trauma. Both of these perspectives distort and disguise the reality of chronic illness.


Descriptive epidemiology of hepatitis C virus among male heroin abusers in Taiwan.

The overall prevalence of anti-HCV antibody positivity was 74.9%, with 89.8% among injecting heroin abusers and 33.8% among smoking heroin abusers (P < 0.0001). The multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that needle sharing was independently related to HCV infection (odds ratio = 5.25, 95% confidence interval = 2.48-11.12).


Dying of a Curable Disease—hepatitis C

Awareness about HCV including prevention, diagnosis and treatment is alarmingly low among PLHIV and PUD as well as health professionals treating HIV

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Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection

Hepatitis C virus remains a large health care burden to the world. Incidence rates across the world fluctuate and are difficult to calculate given the asymptomatic, often latent nature of the disease prior to clinical presentation. Prevalence rates across the world have changed as well with more countries aware of transfusion-related hepatitis C and more and more evidence supporting intravenous drug use as the leading risk factor of spread of the virus. This article reviews current hepatitis C virus prevalence and genotype data and examines the different risk factors associated with the virus.


Estimating the mortality rate of hepatitis C using multiple data sources

The New York State hospital discharge database and the multiple cause-of-death file were used to estimate the mortality rate of hepatitis C in New York State excluding New York City in 1997. The mortality rate with hepatitis C was severely underestimated when each data source was used alone. Applying the capture–recapture method using the hospital discharge database and the multiple cause-of-death file appears to be an efficient method to estimate the mortality rate with hepatitis C.

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From Corrections to Communities as an HIV Priority Given the historic risk profile of inmates, an initial concern was an estimation of rates of HIV infection in the correctional setting and whether the burden of HIV infection would increase substantially over time. Several studies at the beginning of the HIV epidemic indicated that once HIV rates among injection drug users in the communities of New York, Milan,  

Guidance for People Living with HIV Who Are At Risk of, or Are Facing, Criminal Prosecution for HIV Nondisclosure or Exposure

Thirty-six states and territories have laws that criminalize HIV exposure and/or nondisclosure of HIV status for sexual contact, needle-sharing, and/or contact with “body fluids” such as saliva. Even in states that do not have specific laws on HIV exposure or disclosure requirements, people living with HIV have been prosecuted under general criminal laws, such as assault or attempted murder.

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Guide to Hepatitis B for people Living with HIV

Because HIV and hepatitis viruses are transmitted in similar ways, having both HIV and hepatitis B (known as HIV/HBV coinfection) is possible. This guide focuses on coinfection with HIV and hepatitis B, but since most of our understanding of hepatitis B comes from research studies done in people without HIV, most of the information provided here should also be useful for people who have HBV alone.

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Health Insurance and Mortality in US Adults

The United States stands alone among industrialized nations in not providing health coverage to all of its citizens. Currently, 46 million Americans lack health coverage. Despite repeated attempts to expand health insurance, uninsurance remains commonplace among US adults.

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Hepatitis A, B and C: A Public Health Perspective

Generally, hepatitis is defined as inflammation of the liver. The inflammation can result from multiple sources such as infection, exposure to alcohol, certain medications, chemicals, or poisons, or an immune-compromising disorder.  Although currently, there are five distinct hepatic viruses, for purposes of this chapter, I will only discuss the hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV).


Hepatitis B in the Greater San Francisco Bay Area: an integrated programme to respond to a diverse local epidemic

This landmark San Francisco HBV screening, vaccination and management programme will promote not only local and regional but also national and international awareness and can set targets for other cities in the US and potentially elsewhere. The proposed opportunistic translational research will similarly form a hub of interest for hepatologists and HBV researchers throughout the US and around the globe. The combined results of this type of integrated approach to CHB may significantly help to turn the tide against this disease, preventing infection, improving the lives of affected individuals and greatly reducing the associated healthcare burden.

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Hepatitis C: A Correctional-Public Health Opportunity It must be noted, however, that the cost savings that may accrue from treatment of prisoners are primarily to society as a whole. While treatment of incarcerated individuals for hepatitis and HIV is the right thing to do and can tremendously benefit the public health, it is not realistic to expect correctional systems to shoulder this financial burden without assistance. Guidelines and standards for selecting patients who are to be treated, while providing access to care for HCV-infected individuals regardless of incarceration status, are forthcoming from the CDC.  

Hepatitis C and Cirrhotic Liver Disease in the Nile Delta of Egypt: A Community-Based Study

Our finding are consistent with the hypothesis that past mass parenterel chemotherapy campaigns for schistosomiasis facilitated HCV transmission, and that HCV may be a major cause of the high prevalence of liver cirrhosis in this Nile village

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Hepatitis C diagnoses reach record levels across Lothian

The majority of people who test positive for the disease are thought to have contracted it through injecting drugs, but it is possible to catch it in other ways.


Hepatitis C transmission and injecting drug use

Transmitted through the sharing of needles, syringes and, unlike HIV, other injecting-related equipment, hepatitis C is the most common infectious disease among people who inject drugs.1 On average 60% of injecting drug users (IDUs) are estimated to have hepatitis C in Europe and in several countries the vast majority, over 90%, of people who inject drugs are believed to be living with hepatitis C.2 While the HIV epidemic is stabilizing overall across the EU, hepatitis C is increasingly prevalent and disproportionately affects drug users.

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Hepatitis C Update

From a public health perspective, interruption of transmission of HCV through injection drug use is the biggest challenge in the control of this disease in Canada and in the world. The virus is effectively transmitted through this route. Shortly after initiation of injection drug use, a large proportion become infected with the virus.

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End-stage liver disease is now the cause of death for 45% of HIV-infected patients in this hospital. HCV infection was the cause of the liver disease in nearly three-quarters of the HIV patients who were admitted or died during the course of the study.

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Hepatitis C Virus Infection in United States Correctional Institutions

In the United States, over 6 million people are under correctional supervision and over 2 million are in custody and receiving health care. Prisoners are overrepresented by individuals with high risk for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, including injection drug users, the sexual partners of injection drug users, and people living with HIV or AIDS and mental illness. As such, it is estimated that approximately 30% of all prisoners are infected with HCV. Despite this high prevalence, little has been done to implement effective therapy for treating this potentially curable infection in this setting. Correctional settings, with their structured environment and managed care approach, are ideal settings to screen, evaluate, and provide treatment and promote risk reduction interventions that will contribute to society's improved public health.


Hepatitis C Virus Projections Working Group: Estimates and Projections of the Hepatitis C Virus Epidemic in Australia 2006

The proportion of HCV infections due to injecting drug use was lower in blood donors, probably because people with a history of injecting drug use are asked to exclude themselves from blood donation. Rates of HCV infection due to injecting drug use were also lower in liver clinic patients, between 51% and 75%, although this proportion had increased in one Melbourne liver clinic, from 51% during 1990-1993 (Strasser et al, 1995) to 64% during 1990-1998 (Ostapowicz et al, 2001). In the study by Li et al (1998), of liver clinic patients infected with HCV through routes other than injecting drug use, around half were immigrants to Australia from countries of high HCV prevalence.


Hepatitis C virus transmission in the prison/inmate population

Women are reported to have greater variability than men in the prevalence rate. Studies done in Canada, the United States and Australia, have shown that the prevalence of HCV among females ranges from 25.3% to 67.0%, as compared with 4.0% to 39.4% among men. Butler et al. reported that the higher rate among females was the result of a higher concentration of females in prison for drug-related offences. Overall, the prevalence of HCV in the Canadian correctional population seems less variable, ranging from 19.2% to 39.8%


Hepatitis C: An Epidemic Among Baby Boomers

Over 3 million Americans are chronically infected with HCV, most of them baby boomers. As this population ages and they begin to develop advanced liver disease, it is projected that all payers will bear an increasing cost burden for patients with HCV infection. Medicare will be especially hard-hit.

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HIV Infection Among Women in Prison: Considerations for Care

The prevalence of HCV is much greater among incarcerated populations than the general public. The incidence of HCV in the US general population has been estimated at 1.8%, while the incidence among state and federal facilities in 1999 was 2.1%. Incarcerated females typically have high rates of HCV infection. In 1994, 63.5% of female inmates entering the California correctional system were found to be anti-HCV positive, compared to 39.4% of male inmates


HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C in prisons: the facts

Many of those who are HIV-positive in prison were already living with the virus on the outside. Indeed, the highest rates of HIV infection in prisons can be found in areas where rates of HIV infection are high among injection drug users in the community. By choosing mass imprisonment as the main response to the use of drugs, governments worldwide have created a de facto policy of incarcerating more and more individuals with HIV infection.

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HIV/AIDS Guide for the Mining Sector

The publication of this HIV/AIDS Guide for the mining sector in Southern Africa is most welcome. Not only is it comprehensive in its coverage of all the issues, it is set out in such a way that it is easy to read and, more importantly, to implement in the work situation. The author, Rose Smart, is to be congratulated. Indeed, this Guide can be used by any company in any industry as the elements that form an effective strategy to combat the epidemic are common to all industries.

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HIV/AIDS, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Incarceration Among Women: National and Southern Perspectives

The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between incarceration and emerging increases in HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the rural south, particularly among black women of low socioeconomic status


IFC Against AIDS-Protecting People and Profitability

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Illinois Prisoners Win $8 Million for Failure to Treat Hep C

A federal jury has awarded four Illinois prisoners over $2 million apiece in a civil rights action filed against state prison officials for denying treatment for Hepatitis C (Hep C).


Improving Chronic Care: The “Guided Care” Model

Surveys of the patients who received Guided Care and similar patients who received “usual care” in the practice showed that Guided Care recipients experienced more improvement in the quality of their care than did the usual care group.8 Insurance claims revealed that the costs of health care were lower for the Guided Care patients than for the usual care patients.

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In Medical Care in California State Prisons - a Primer on Deliberate Indifference

the United States Supreme Court held that a gross and extreme departure from the standard of care in provision or denial of basic medical care to prisoners was deliberate indifference, constituting cruel and unusual punishment in violation of the Eighth Amendment of the United States Constitution


Injection Drug Users: The Overlooked Core of the Hepatitis C Epidemic

Injection drug users (IDUs) constitute the core of the hepatitis C epidemic in the developed world. Four times more prevalent than HIV infection, hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been acquired by at least 5 million Americans and an estimated 170 million people worldwide. In developed countries, people who use illegal drugs by injection are the largest group of persons with HCV infection and the group among whom most new infections occur. Viral transmission is uncontrolled among IDUs, with incidence rates ranging from 16%–42% per year, and yet, our efforts to control this pandemic have largely ignored the population in whom its biology and epidemiology are being played out with the most devastating effects.


KERRY & HONDA: Disrupting a deadly disease Hepatitis defense can save thousands of lives a year

The report concludes that the current approach is not working: Americans at risk for hepatitis or living with it do not know it, and health providers are not screening for it. That should come as no surprise because there is no federal funding of core public health services for viral hepatitis. Nor is there any federally funded chronic hepatitis B and C surveillance system.


Latinos and Chronic Hepatitis C: A Singular Population

Latinos are the largest minority in the USA and have high rates of HCV infection as well as other viral infections. The course of CHC in Latinos is more aggressive, with more risk to develop cirrhosis. Emerging evidence suggests that Latinos have decreased efficacy to treatment with Peg IFN and RBV.


Life Sentences: Women, Prison and the Invisible Health Crisis

Prostitution isn’t normally a capital offense, but it was for Lisa Watson. Watson, the pseudonym of an actual prisoner in the Central California Women's Facility, had just begun a four-year sentence for prostitution when she started experiencing debilitating headaches that left her unable to stand or function.


Linking HIV and reproductive health: messaging on sensitive issues for young women’s campaigns

Since the last international AIDS conference in 2008, support has grown worldwide for efforts to link HIV/AIDS programs and services with different aspects of sexual and reproductive health. Young people, particularly young women, are beginning to take a leading advocacy role in such efforts and this session explored what kinds of messages and strategies could be used to address two sensitive issues in the reproductive health field: comprehensive sexuality education and abortion for unwanted pregnancies.

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Managing Hepatitis C in Our Prisons: Promises and Challenges

The current challenge of managing hepatitis C in our prisons is comparable to the problems faced by correctional programs during the early days of the HIV epidemic. Comprehensive guidelines for identifying and treating HCV-infected inmates are still evolving, and expensive antiviral therapy remains a major obstacle. Nonetheless, correctional health care has successfully met the challenges of a chronic, bloodborne infectious disease before, and there is every reason to believe that cost-effective, systematic approaches to the HCV epidemic are attainable.


Many low-income urban areas across the United States have epidemics of HIV, with 2.1 percent of heterosexuals in poverty-stricken urban areas infected with the incurable AIDS virus, U.S. scientists said on Monday

In a study of rates of HIV across the United States, researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that poverty is the single most important factor linked to HIV infection among inner-city heterosexuals.


Medication Assisted Therapy (MAT) in New Mexico

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Neglected Infections Of Poverty' In United States Disable Hundreds Of Thousands Of Americans Annually

While most Americans have never heard of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), the analysis estimates that these infections occur in hundreds of thousands of poor Americans concentrated primarily in the Mississippi Delta (including post-Katrina Louisiana), Appalachia, the Mexican borderlands, and inner cities. These diseases represent a major cause of chronic disability, impaired child development, and adverse pregnancy outcomes, yet many of them are preventable.


New drug-resistant superbugs found in 3 states

Scientists have long feared this — a very adaptable gene that hitches onto many types of common germs and confers broad drug resistance.


Prevalence and Incidence of HIV, Hepatitis B Virus, and Hepatitis C Virus Infections Among Males in Rhode Island Prisons

HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus prevalences were 1.8%, 20.2%, and 23.1%, respectively. Infections were significantly associated with injection drug use (odds ratio = 10.1, 7.9, and 32.4). Incidence per 100 person-years was 0 for HIV, 2.7 for HBV, and 0.4 for HCV.

Conclusions. High infection prevalence among inmates represents a significant community health issue. General disease prevention efforts must include prevention within correctional facilities. The high observed intraprison incidence of HBV underscores the need to vaccinate prison populations.



The objectives of this project were: 1) to estimate the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) among a representative sample of male and female inmates upon entry into six reception centers of the California Department of Corrections (CDC); and 2) to assess risk behaviors associated with HIV seropositivity in the study population.

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Prevention and Control of Infections with Hepatitis Viruses in Correctional Settings

Persons incarcerated in correctional systems comprise approximately 0.7% of the U.S. population and have a disproportionately greater burden of infectious diseases, including infections with hepatitis viruses and other infections of public health importance (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], sexually transmitted disease [STD], and tuberculosis [TB] infections) (1). In 2000, >8 million inmates of prisons and jails were released and returned to the community (A. Beck, Ph.D., Bureau of Justice Statistics, personal communication, 2002). Recent estimates indicate 12%--39% of all Americans with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections were releasees during the previous year (1)


Previously eradicated diseases reemerge in US

From January 1 to December 31 in 2010, the CDC reported 8,383 confirmed cases of pertussis in California, which once enjoyed a living standard among the highest in the world. More than 1,100 adults and children have been diagnosed with the illness in San Diego County alone, and across the state at least 10 babies died. California has not suffered this great an outbreak since 1947.


Prison Healthcare Costs Skyrocket In California

California is virtually living a hand-to-mouth existence, all the time bailed out by the federal government. But it is spending hundreds of millions of dollars a year on the healthcare of those convicted for violent crimes.


Prison Rape Elimination Act


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This document is the final report of the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) Cost Impact Analysis, an effort to assist the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) in the review of the standards published by the National Prison Rape Elimination Commission (NPREC) on June 23, 2009. This document assesses the costs specific to each standard, assesses variations within the cost estimates, and addresses a comprehensive view of implementation and compliance on a national level. It covers five sectors of correctional operations: state prison systems, state and local juvenile facilities, community corrections, and local/county jails, police lockups.

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Prison Spending Outpaces All but Medicaid

Criminal correction spending is outpacing budget growth in education, transportation and public assistance, based on state and federal data. Only Medicaid spending grew faster than state corrections spending, which quadrupled in the past two decades, according to the report Monday by the Pew Center on the States, the first breakdown of spending in confinement and supervision in the past seven years.


Release from Jail: Moment of Crisis or Window of Opportunity for Female Detainees?

The number of females incarcerated in the United States rose by nearly 50% from 68,468 in 1995 to 101,179 in 2003.1 Since 1995, the average annual growth rate of female imprisonment has grown 5%, exceeding that of 3.4% for males during the same period. Rising rates of incarceration among females have prompted the examination of gender specific factors related to imprisonment. Females are significantly more likely than males to be in jail for non-violent offenses, such as larceny, fraud and theft, and drugs possession and sales. Females are more likely than males to be unemployed at time of arrest4 and to be diagnosed with substance abuse disorders.


Research, Practice, and Guiding Principles for Women Offenders

Numbering more than 1 million in 2001, female offenders make up 17 percent of all offenders under some form of correctional sanction. This report summarizes current knowledge on the characteristics of women in correctional settings, the ways in which gender makes a difference in current criminal justice practice, and multidisciplinary research and theory on women’s lives that have implications for managing women in the criminal justice system. It concludes by offering guiding principles and strategies for improving the system’s response to women offenders.

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Socio-demographic determinants of coinfections by HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses in central Italian prisoners

The prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV seropositivity in jails suggests that information and education programs for inmates could be useful to reduce the spread of such infections.



Spread of bloodborne viruses among Australian prison entrants.

Hepatitis B and C are spreading rapidly through some populations of injecting drug users in Victoria, particularly among men aged less than 30 years at risk of imprisonment in whom rates of spread are extreme; this group constitutes a sizeable at risk population for spread of HIV.



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Stigmatisation of problem-drug users

The vote-catching rhetoric of “war on drugs” or “tough on drugs” means politicians and policy makers are simply paying lip service to the compassionate “road to recovery” as a goal for society, says the Commission, which wants politicians and policy makers to think more carefully about such rhetoric. As a start, the Commission also calls for the public, health professionals, and particularly the media to be educated about the eff ects of stigmatising drug users. A good example was set by California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger in his support of Recovery Month.

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Study: Poverty, More than Race, Linked to HIV

The study, released Monday, suggests that HIV is epidemic in certain poverty-stricken urban neighborhoods. And, more significantly, poor heterosexuals in those neighborhoods were twice as likely to be infected as heterosexuals who lived in the same community but had more money.



Imprisoned by the State of Colorado and alleging violations of his Eighth and Fourteenth Amendment protections against cruel and unusual punishment, William Erickson, the petitioner in this Court, filed suit against prison officials in the United States District Court for the District of Colorado. He alleged that a liver condition resulting from hepatitis C required a treatment program that officials had commenced but then wrongfully terminated, with life-threatening consequences. Deeming these allegations, and others to be noted, to be “conclusory,”


The Burden of Infectious Disease Among Inmates of and Releasees From US Correctional Facilities, 1997

Correctional facilities are critical settings for the efficient delivery of prevention and treatment interventions for infectious diseases. Such interventions stand to benefit not only inmates, their families, and partners, but also the public health of the communities to which inmates return.



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A consistent and comparative description of the burden of diseases and injuries, and risk factors that cause them, is an important input to health decision- making and planning processes. Information that is available on mortality and health in populations in all regions of the world is fragmentary and sometimes inconsistent. Thus, a framework for integrating, validating, analysing and disseminating such information is needed to assess the comparative importance of diseases and injuries in causing premature death, loss of health and disability in different populations.

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The High Cost of Imprisonment in America

Correctional authorities spent $38.2 billion to maintain the Nation’s State correctional systems in fiscal year 2001, including $29.5 billion specifically for adult correctional facilities. Day-to-day operating expenses totaled $28.4 billion, and capital outlays for land, new building, and renovations, 1.1 billion.


The Prison Boom

The Growth of Prison within the US-image


Too Many Americans are Still at Risk for HIV But the HIV crisis in America is far from over. CDC’s latest estimates suggest that more than 56,000 Americans become infected each year13—one person every 9˝ minutes—and that more than one million people in this country are now living with HIV.14 Far too many Americans remain at risk for HIV, especially African Americans, Latinos, and gay and bisexual men of all races. CDC estimates that roughly 1 in 5 people infected with HIV in the United States is unaware of his or her infection and may be unknowingly transmitting the virus to others  

Treating Hepatitis C in the Prison Population Is Cost-Saving

Cost-effectiveness was determined via a decision analysis model employing Markov simulation. The cohort of prisoners had a distribution of genotypes and stages of fibrosis in accordance with prior studies evaluating inmate populations. The probability of transitioning from one health state to another, reinfection rates, in-prison and out-of-prison mortality rates, sustained viral response rates, costs, and quality of life weights were also obtained from the literature.

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Trends in hepatitis C and HIV infection among inmates entering prisons in California, 1994 versus 1999

The decline in HCV and HIV prevalences demonstrate a possible reduction in injection drug use or an increase in safer injecting practices within California. Whereas total admissions to publicly funded drug and alcohol treatment programs in California increased from 1995 to 1999, the number of injection drug use admissions decreased 13.4% during that time


Tuberculosis and HIV in Ukraine

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Uninsured and Dying Because of It

In 2002, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) estimated that 18,000 Americans died in 2000 because they were uninsured. Since then, the number of uninsured has grown. Based on the IOM’s methodology and subsequent Census Bureau estimates of insurance coverage, 137,000 people died from 2000 through 2006 because they lacked health insurance, including 22,000 people in 2006.

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Use of Enhanced Surveillance for Hepatitis C Virus Infection to Detect a Cluster Among Young Injection-Drug Users

With initial detection of the cluster, an epidemiologic investigation was launched by NYSDOH in collaboration with ECDOH. Patients were interviewed in person by a two-person team at various locales, including correctional facilities, rehabilitation clinics, patient residences, and other locations.


What HIV Criminalization Means to Women in the U.S.

Thirty-six states and territories have laws that criminalize HIV exposure and failure by an HIV positive person to disclose (tell someone about) her/his HIV status. If you have consensual (both people agreed to it) sex with someone, and you used condoms, you can still be arrested under these laws if your partner says later that he/she didn’t know at the time that you were HIV positive.

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Why HIV exposure at hospital may have happened

At issue, reportedly, is that the instruments were hand-washed before being put in a sterilizing machine. But how is that bad?


Youth-Friendly HIV Services

Globally, almost a quarter of people living with HIV are under the age of 25.  Furthermore, 45% of all new HIV infections are among young people aged between 15 and 24

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